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i! 6/. 







(SESSIONS 1898-19L 

^ufclisijetj foe tfje Society bg 




SESSION 1898-1899. 

I. Queensland Termites. — Mr R. G. Grieve 

II. Notes on the Natural History of Lochfynehead. — Mr A. B 
Steele ...... 

III. Geographical Distribution of certain British Birds and their 

Allies. — Col. R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay . 

IV. Our Common Migrants. — Mr C. Campbell 

V. On some Geological Agents. — Mr A. Campbell 
VI. A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. — Mr A. Murray 
VII. A Correct Colour Code.— Mr J. A. Harvie-Brown, F.R.S.E. 

F.Z.S. (With Map) .... 

VIII. Notes on the Bournemouth Cliffs. — Dr T. B. Sprague . 
IX. A Simple Method of obtaining a large Field of View with the 
Compound Microscope. — Mr W. Forgan . 
Report of the Microscopical Section. — Mr J. Russell . 
Report of the Bryological Section of the Microscopical Section 

— Mr W. Williamson ( With Diagram) . 
Exhibits in Natural History .... 
Annual Business Meeting .... 









SESSION 1899-1900. 

I. The Migration of Birds. — Mr W. Eagle Clarke . . 67 

II. Further Notes on Queensland Termites. — Mr R. Grieve . 68 

III. A Second Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. — Mr A. 

Murray ....... 72 

IV. The Birds of Bute and Arran. — Mr A. Craig . . .78 
V. The Botany of a Railway Station. — Mr A. Campbell . . 87 

VI. Splashes, studied by the Aid of Instantaneous Photography. — 

Mr R. S. Cole, M.A. ..... 91 




VII. Natural History Notes on Tenby. — Dr Da vies 
VIII. Notes on the Frog. — Mr A. Murray . 

Notes on the Excursions of 1900. — The Secretary 

Fish-Hatching at Howietoun. — The Secretary 

The Broch of Torwoodlee. — Dr Stevenson Macadam 

Report of the Microscopical Section. — Mr J. Russell 

Honey-Bees in Warm Climates 

Exhibits in Natural History 

Annual Business Meeting 

SESSION 1900-1901. 

I. A Field Naturalist's Holiday at the Paris Exhibition. — The 

President ..... 

II. Badgers. — Mr Tom Speedy .... 

III. The Mole. — Mr Allan A. Pinkerton 

IV. Natural Forests and the Growth of Cones. — Mr S. Archibald 
V. Notes on the Topography and Flora of Strathdearn. — Mr S 

Archibald ..... 

VI. A Geological Trip to Aultnacallagach and Inchnadamff. — Mr 
T. C. Day ..... 

VII. Mushroom-Culture. — Mr J. Paton 
VIII. A Mushroom Disease. — Mr G. T. Malthouse . 
IX. Orthochromatic Photography. — Mr T. C. Day . 
X. Notes on the Flora of the Shores of the Firth of Forth. — Mi 
M. King ...... 

XI. Fern Varieties. — Mr S. Archibald 

XII. Recent Observations in Natural History. — Mr Tom Spkedy 
XIII. Notes of Experiments on the Growth of Yeast. — The President 
and Dr A. E. Davies .... 

Camping in the Haunts of the Venus' Fly-Trap. — Dr J. M 
Macfarlane ..... 

Report of the Microscopical Section. — Mr J. Russell . 
In Memoriam : Mark King. — Mr J. Lindsay . 
Exhibits in Natural History .... 

Nature Study from the Point of View of the Field Naturalist, 
— The President ..... 

Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea 

Annual Business Meeting .... 

SESSION 1901-1902. 

I. Tea: Its Cultivation, and Preparation for the Market. — Mr 

W. Williamson ...... 263 

II. The Teeth of Fishes contrasted with those of other Orders. — 

Mr W. H. Menmuir . . . . .272 


III. The Birds of Ballinluig, Blair Atholl, and Fossoway. — Mr B 

Campbell ..... 

IV. The Squirrel. —Mr T. Speedy . 
V. The Squirrel as a Pet. — Dr W. A. Robertson . 

VI. The Daisy and the Dandelion. — Dr W. Watson 
VII. Notes on the Entomostraca of Mid-Lothian. — Dr T. B. Sprague 

and Miss B. Sprague 
VIII. Fortrose and Rosemarkie. — Mr S. Archibald . 
IX. The Folk-Lore of Natural History. — Mr C. Campbell 
X. Notes on Some Foreign Birds I have kept. — Mr G. M 

Brotherston .... 

XI. A Winter in Cornwall. — Mr A. Craig . 

XII. An Outline of the Geological History of the Coast of Fife 

between Aberdour and Kirkcaldy. — Mr J. G. Goodchild 

Report of the Microscopical Section. — Mr J. Russell . 

Presentation of Prize for Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea . 

A North American Raspberry at West Linton.— Mr J. Lindsay 

Exhibits in Natural History ..... 

Presidential Address. — Mr A. Hewat, F.F.A., F.I. A. . 

Annual Business Meeting ..... 






Index to Volume 

Lists of Members, 1898-1902 

Rules of the Society (Revised 1902), 

. 398 


At end of vol. 



I. Termitaries ..... 

II. Common Mound-builder of South Queensland 

III. Queen and Winged Male Termite . 

IV. Mouth-organs of Worker Termite . 

V. to X. Splashes, by Instantaneous Photography . 

XI. Fig. 1, Tenby Harbour and Castle Hill : Fig. 2, Cave 

2, St Catherine's Rock 
XII. St Catherine's Rock, Tenby 

XIII. Swanston Village, from the South . 

XIV. to XVII. Specimens of Sutherlandshire Rocks 
XVIII. to XXII. Illustrations of a Mushroom Disease 

XXIII., XXIV. Illustrations of Orthochromatic Photography 

XXV. to XXVII. Diagrams illustrating the Growth of Yeast 
XXVIII. Nest of Moor-hen in Reeds ; Nest of Redshank 
XXIX. Nest of Song Thrush ; Nest of Blackbird . 
XXX. Helping himself ; At play .... 
XXX. a. Getting at a Nut ; Rival Attractions 
XXXI., XXXI. a. Illustrations of Mid-Lothian Entomostraca 
XXXII. Boscawen-un Circle, near Penzance 

XXXIII. The Trevethy Stones, near Liskeard 

XXXIV. The Lanyon Quoit, near Penzance . 
XXXV. The Chun Quoit, near Penzance 

XXXVI. The Men-an-Tol or Crickstone, near Penzance 
XXXVII. The Cheesewring, near Liskeard . 


At page. 









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JlBirrosropiral #oripfg 

SESSION 1898-99 




I. Queensland Termites.— Mr R. G. Grieve (with Four Plates), . . 1 

II. Notes on the Natural History of Lochfynehead.— Mr A. B. Steele, . 12 

III. Geographical Distribution of certain British Birds and their Allies. 

—Col. R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay 17 

IV. Our Common Migrants.— Mr C. Campbell, . ... 18 
V. On some Geological Agents— Mr A. Campbell 21 

VI. A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers.— Mr A. Murray, ... 28 
VII. A Correct Colour Code. — Mr J. A. Harvie-Brown, F.R.S.E., F.Z.S. 

(with Map) 41 

VIII. Notes on the Bournemouth Cliffs.— Dr T. B. Sprague 53 

IX. A Simple Method of obtaining a large Field of View with the 

Compound Microscope.— Mr W. Forgan, 55 

Report of the Microscopical Section.— Mr J. Russell, .... 58 
Report of the Bryological Section of the Microscopical Section.— 

Mr W. "Williamson (with Illustrations), 61 

Exhibits in Natural History, . . • 64 

Annual Business Meeting 65 

List of Members, 1898-99, ix 

Publtafjeo far tfte Sactctg 



Price to No7v-Members, Four Shillings. 


SESSION 1898-99. 


By Mr ROBERT GRIEVE, J.P., of Broadwater, Brisbane, Queensland. 

(Communicated by Mr W. C. Crawford, President, Nov. 23, 1898.) 

The following paper was sent to me by Mr Eobert Grieve of 
Brisbane, Queensland, a few weeks ago. Mr Grieve has lived 
in Queensland for a very long time — some thirty-five years. 
He has resided, although not far from the capital of Queens- 
land, in what is virtually the bush. He has therefore been in 
immediate touch with the fauna of that country, and he is an 
excellent observer. He has devoted most attention to insects 
and spiders, chiefly the kinds that destroy fruit-trees and 
crops. He is the very man to make observations on these 
extremely interesting and little - known communities, the 
white ants. I have said " little known," because good au- 
thorities on insects tell us that there are in all probability 
1000 species of termites, of which only about 100 have been 
described, and of these only a very few — perhaps half-a-dozen 
— have been really studied. So some years ago I urged Mr 
Grieve to study termites, and, on account of his intimate 
associations with Edinburgh, to write a paper on them for one 
of the Edinburgh scientific societies. At first he declined, 
saying I had no idea how difficult a task it was — although the 


2 Queensland Termites. [Sess. 

insects were at his very door. They are injured when they 
are disturbed or exposed to light — in fact, they cannot stand 
light at all, as we shall see immediately : then it is believed 
that different kinds of termites occasionally live together in 
the same nest — at least Bates says so — without being of any 
apparent use to each other. Moreover, termites grow very 
slowly compared with other insects : the life of a worker bee 
in summer is about six to eight weeks ; that of a worker 
termite, a couple of years or more. These are some of the 
reasons that make the study of the social life of termites so 
very difficult. 

Following Mr Grieve's suggestion of presenting his paper in 
the way I think best, I shall make a few introductory remarks 
about termites, to let us see where we are, because I daresay 
very few of us have ever seen them alive : I myself never 
have, although I have seen their nests, and huge structures 
they are. 

If we glance at a text-book we shall find that termites are 
insects related to dragonflies, or rather between earwigs and 
dragonfiies — i.e., between the Orthoptera and the Neuroptera, 
Let me refer in a word or two to the literature of termites. 
Considering the extremely interesting biological problems 
(and, I might add, social inferences) which spring out of 
termite life, the literature is extremely small. I think I 
might safely say that I could carry away all that is of real 
value in my greatcoat pocket. The first of real importance, 
what might be called an epoch-making contribution, was made 
about 120 years ago (1781) to the Royal Society by Smeath- 
man. It is a very interesting and readable account of the 
author's observations on the west coast of Africa — -the Guinea 
Coast — on Termcs bellicosus, which is the highest developed 
termite socially. Then for seventy years or more nothing 
was recorded. In the 'Fifties of this century two Frenchmen 
contributed articles on another species, T. lucifugus. In the 
'Seventies Fritz Miiller wrote some articles of value. Hagen 
also wrote what he had observed in America, and Haviland 
has been adding more recently to our knowledge of South 
African forms. I have seen nothing, although I have looked 
up a good deal of the literature, referring specially to the 
termites of Australia — I mean as to their social economy ; 

1898-99.] Queensland Termites. 3 

for though Saville Kent writes a good deal, and publishes 
a number of very beautiful photographs of termites' nests 
he says hardly anything of their life-history. In fact if I 
remember correctly, he does not even give scientific names 
to the termites whose very beautiful dwellings he photo- 
graphs. r 

By far the most scientific and best contribution that has 
been made was published in 1893 and 1894 by a Sicilian 
Professor Grassi, and a pupil of his, Dr Sandias. The articles 
were translated, and appeared in the < Quarterly Journal of 
Microscopical Science ' last year. They are well worth read- 
ing. Two species of termites which live in Sicily are the 
subjects of their studies. 

I shall now allow Mr Grieve to speak for himself. 

Perhaps it would be superfluous for one who looks upon 
Charles Darwin with reverence to seek a teleological reason 
tor the existence of any creature. I shall not do so in the 
case of termites, but content myself by saying that they fill 
their place in nature by chewing wood up into a finely com- 
minuted pulp, which is further elaborated in the metabolism 
of the insect. I regret that I cannot go further, and say that 
this pulp is, or has ever been, of one particle of use to man. 
Unlike the earth-worm, that nowadays shines with li<dit from 
a great name, the termite contributes nothing to ^fertility 
of the land-the late Professor Drummond to the contrary 
notwithstanding. Unlike the earthworm, where fertility is 
the termite is seldom found ; but where arid deserts of hopeless 
sterility face the sun, there is the termite's home, there its 
dismal monuments stand endless in funereal array 

It will be admitted that fertility of soil is owing mainly to 
geological causes, and coincides with the presence and decom- 
position of certain strata. Thus the soil in old or recent 
volcanic districts is almost invariably fertile. The earthworm 
contributes its share to this fertility. Termites, so far as I 
have read their history aright, do not. 

When Queensland termites are talked of, it is one of two 

ZuZTT* T ieS Whlch iS USUa11 ^ ™ant-either the 
mound-builder, whose structures spot the face of every dry and 

sandy landscape, or the somewhat smaller tree termite which 

4 Queensland Termites. [Sess. 

fastens its hanging home, like a swallow's nest, on the side 
of some forest tree. 

The Mound - Builder. — I mean to dedicate most of the 
following remarks to the mound- builder, which is really the 
white ant far excellence. Although no white ant is guiltless, 
yet this is the great destroyer — this is he who outrivals time 
as the edax rerum. He may fairly be taken as the type of 
the family. 

Tree Termites. — Before dismissing these, the habit they 
have of orienting their nests to the northern side — that is, 
to the sunny side — of a tree has been often remarked ; and 
in the absence of sun and compass the nest is a sure guide to 
the belated traveller. These hanging termitaries become 
often in course of time the abode of a family of kingfishers 
— say, either Dacelo, the " laughing jackass " of the colonists, 
or that much smaller streak of bright blue, Alcyone azurea. 
It would probably be a safe guess that these birds have 
acquired, with their apartments, a well- stocked larder to boot. 
It would be a mistake to suppose that all kingfishers live 
on fish. 

Other Termites. — Besides the two above alluded to, there 
are several other Queensland species : some with visible ter- 
mitaries ; large ones, as in the lofty conical nests on the Cape 
York Peninsula referred to by Saville Kent and many less 
observant travellers ; small ones, inconspicuous as a molehill, 
of peculiar masonry ; and unseen ones, the homes of termites 
which lead an obscure, unprolific, and only half social life, and 
whose habits have not yet been put down in books. There is 
also an imported species in Brisbane, which as yet confines its 
depredations to some of the principal streets. 

The Termitary. — As I am about to describe a termitary, I 
may say at once that I have never seen in Queensland the 
complicated, composite, and classic architecture figured by 
Houssay, and reproduced in Chambers's Encyclopaedia, as an 
illustration of the interior of a termitary. That figure, how- 
ever, represents the dwelling-place of the famous West African 
termite (Termes hellicosus), and the Queensland species have 
much simpler dwellings. 

I have examined hundreds of termitaries. In the instance 
of the nest I have drawn to accompany this paper (Plate I.), 

1S98-99O Queensland Termites. 5 

I made use of a cross-cut saw of large size which bisected the 
structure and displayed the interior to advantage. Turning to 
my illustration, it may be noted that it has no external opening. 
It is all solid masonry that refuses to yield to any pressure 
less than the single steel tooth of the pick-axe. The tunnels 
may extend underground laterally for hundreds of yards from 
the central fortress ; these also have no permanent openings 
to the light. Openings are made and closed up quickly 
at need, and generally at night. Openings are never made in 
the main building except to enlarge it. This also is night 
work, but the morning-dawn sometimes shows a large area 
still a skeleton, like a sponge, that sinks like pie-crust under 
the pressure of a finger, and exposes the workers to the un- 
congenial light. 

Temperature.. — The internal heat of the structure does not 
exceed that of the outside air by more than 3° or 4° Fahr. 

Workers and Soldiers. — A succession of powerful strokes 
with the pick-axe breaks off a slab as large as a man cares to 
lift. The internal tunnels are exposed, and a quick glance 
shows the workers at their vocations. But only for a 
moment: before 30 seconds have elapsed the workers have 
retired, and an aggressive host of little helmeted soldiers have 
taken their place and are ready to hold the fort. 

Now with regard to these soldiers I come to a very curious 
fact. Observe them well, and it will be seen that they are 
strikingly different from the workers — so much so, that it is 
difficult to trace any homology between their anterior end and 
that of the other inhabitants of the termitary. The soldiers 
are helmeted like a medieval knight. These curiously hel- 
meted soldiers belong only, so far as I know, to the species 
I am speaking of (Plate II., c and c'). Other species have 
soldiers ever ready to show fight — e.g. , the tree termites. 
Their soldiers, however, are not helmeted like those of the 
mound-builders, but appear to be only workers with exag- 
gerated mandibles and a cephalic shield, more developed and 
chitinised than the other workers. In any case, whatever 
may be the shape of the soldier's head, its chief weapon of 
offence is a drop of gummy fluid, which is bestowed upon the 
enemy, to whom both the soldier's jaws and the gum adheres. 
The juice, harmless to man, causes a small, or even large, 

6 Queensland Termites. [Sess. 

insect to succumb. The fluid does its work by rapidly co- 
agulating and thus clogging the enemy's motions. Whether 
it be otherwise injurious I cannot say. It may probably be 
only the cement which is so largely used in building all 
termite structures, and with which the workers are also 

Structure of Termitary. — If we penetrate still farther into 
the termitary, and as we approach the ground-line, the tunnels 
become more numerous and the material more like paper. 
In fact, it has become papier-mache of the lightest and 
thinnest texture, instead of the sandy cement or " concrete " 
which lines the outside. The outer tunnels are often thinly 
populated, and are much filled up with chopped grass. 
There are no other stores, such as dead wood or seeds, to be 
seen. The uses to which the grass is put are difficult to con- 
jecture in view of the fact that rotting timber forms the 
usual food of termites. 

The Queen. — It is in the central and more delicate tunnels 
that the queen is usually found. Her presence may be 
suspected by the more intense life ; by the crowds of 
sexually immature individuals ; by the myriads of young of 
all ages which fill the galleries ; and even more certainly by 
masses of eggs, adherent together like a moist white sugar of 
fine grain (Plate II., a and a'). I must again ask it to be 
remembered that I am speaking of the termitaries which I 
have seen : others, say African ones, may be quite different. 

Royal Chamber. — I dismiss the idea of a royal chamber 
dedicated to the queen : it does not exist in nests I have ex- 
amined. I have found the queen in any part of the interior, 
and she possesses a power of locomotion quite belied by her 

Provisional Queens. — The queen, though ever well guarded, 
is, like other royalties, liable to accident. In the case of death, 
a plurality of princesses perform her functions provisionally, 
and are egg-bearers. I have found eight in one nest. The 
princesses — so to call them — are not queens, and they differ 
in this wise: (1) They have not lost the normal form of the 
insect; (2) their abdomen can carry only, say, a tenth part of 
the usual number of eggs ; (3) they have the rudimentary 
wings common to an early stage of winged insects, instead 

1898-99-] Queensland Termites. 7 

of the scars which mark the discarded wings of the true 

I have said that the princesses are egg-bearing, and yet it 
is obvious that they have not made the nuptial flight. This 
would favour the idea that males are functional inside the 
termitary. They may well be so, as in the summer season, 
and previous to swarming — the nuptial flight — the winged 
males are there by thousands. This leads to the further con- 
clusion that a winged virgin queen may be fecundated during 
flight, or soon after. This does not exclude the probability of 
winged males being functional in the nest, perhaps as in the 
case of the immature princesses, and perhaps also in the case 
of the mature wingless queen. 

Queen's Consort. — As to a single and honoured wingless 
male, a permanent king, existing in the nest, the negative evi- 
dence — from my own observations — is so strong that I cannot 
help doubting his existence, at least in Queensland. 

The Nwptial Flight. — On a summer day towards the even- 
ing, and when the air is moist — it usually happens just before 
the beginning of the rainy season — the air may be found full 
of winged termites. They are omnipresent inside and outside 
a house. They enter by every cranny, they explore every 
nook. The swarms are always mature males, or, it may be, 
females — developed from nymphs. In my experience they 
are almost, if not altogether, males. I have examined very 
many microscopically, and they were only of the male sex. I 
therefore lean to the opinion that I have missed the winged 
females, and that their proportional number — as in the case 
of some Diptera and Hymenoptera — must be very small. 

I have said that there is never egress direct from a ter- 
mitary. The point from which the winged crowd issues may 
be discovered by following the swarm to its source, a spot 
some yards in extent. This spot is not near the termitary ; 
it is the last place you might suspect white ants to come 
from. Observing these temporary openings carefully, a 
curious fact presents itself, which almost needs a hand lens 
to verify. Thus observed, the active little heads of soldiers 
will be seen bobbing up and down at each opening, and we 
shall see that each point of departure is sentinelled, and that 
the sentinels regulate, and probably compel, the exit of the 

Queensland Termites. 


Temporary Tower. 

winged stream. In the species under consideration, instead 

of the flight being from 
the level ground, temporary- 
towers are erected to form 
a better starting-point. 

Not long after their first 
and last flight, perhaps half 
an hour, these creatures — 
shorter lived than Ephem- 
eras — begin to drop their 
wings, which they cast aside 
with what seems a volun- 
tary wrench. Death quickly 
overtakes most of them, and 
they fall helpless victims to 
gathering crowds of black 
ants, occasional spiders (At- 
ticlce), and birds. Some in- 
dividuals, perhaps with a 
happier fate, manage to conceal themselves in a hole in the 
ground, and survive to found a new colony, but such a chance 
is rare indeed. Such is the honeymoon of the termite, another 
instance of the prodigality of nature. 

Are Termites purely Vegetarian ? — It may well be asked, 
Are any animals purely vegetarian, or purely carnivorous ? I 
doubt it. In Australia cows eat bones in no small quantities, 
and horses are sometimes fed on salt flesh. In Norway, I am 
told, cattle are fed on fish. Again, both cats and dogs eat grass. 
I look round for evidence of the carnivorous tastes of the 
termites ; it may be scanty, but it is conclusive. Outside their 
nest, almost the worst against them is that they eat leather, but 
inside the case is much worse — they eat each other. I may 
give a curious proof of this. It is a common practice to 
poison a termitary by giving the termites something good to eat 
steeped in arsenic. The tit-bit may be very small, only sufficient 
to be eaten by a few. Yet ere long they all die — the living eat 
up the dead, and so a very little arsenic goes a long way. 

Termites can communicate with each other by Sound. — 
Termites can be heard when not seen. The sound is like the 
ticking of a watch — more strident, perhaps rather more rasp- 

1898-99-] Queensland Termites. 9 

ing, and somewhat slower. It can be heard some yards away, 
and their line of communication across a building can even be 
followed by this means. We might think that this was the 
action of the workers' mandibles upon the wood. It is not so. 
The sound does not coincide with the working, but has been 
thought to be an indication of invitation on the part of the 
soldiers — just as a dog barks when he hears a noise which he 
does not understand. A few taps with the finger in the 
neighbourhood of the termites will set the sound agoing. 

Destructive Habits. — Undoubtedly the favourite food of 
termites is decaying wood. Why they should prefer this to 
grass seed or to things of a richer nature is their secret. I 
have seen them happy with the contents of a bag of flour, but 
upon the whole they are more at home with a rotting fence 
or an old deal board. Fallen timber strews the Australian 
plains, and is the grist for the termite mills, which are like 
the mills spoken of in Longfellow's translation — 

" Though the mills of God grind slowly, 
Yet they grind exceeding small." 

And let me take care not to exaggerate, as is popularly 
done, the speed with which these jaws do their work. 
Indigenous timber, particularly the Eucalyptus, has a tend- 
ency to rot at the heart while still comparatively young. 
The old iron-barks and gums of centuries may present a 
brave front to the storm and a crown of verdure to the breeze, 
although they are mere shells, their insides full of red moist 
paste which has already passed through the " mills " afore- 
said. Termites never prey upon healthy, living vegetation. 
When they attack a building it is with a recognised method 
worthy of description. They may enter at one corner of a 
house and make covered ways to the opposite corners, until 
they find the place which suits them best, and then they 
go to work. Their original point of entry is also their point 
of exit. Houses in Queensland, to defeat these attacks, are 
placed on piles or stumps. And it is a well-recognised fact 
that if termites are in possession of a house, it is only neces- 
sary to cut off their connection with the ground, or, to be 
more exact, with moisture, and they perish. 

For this reason, if for no other, it will be seen how difficult 

io Queensland Termites. [Sess. 

it is to conduct experiments with small colonies in test-tubes 
or the like. If moisture be excluded, it is fatal ; if moisture 
be present, some fungus, probably a rnucor, soon draws a 
white winding-sheet over the whole contents. Under adverse 
or winter conditions this fungus also infests the more distant 
tunnels of the termitary. There are other reasons why ex- 
periments under artificial conditions will not succeed, apart 
from the fact that their way of living does not lend itself to 
observation so easily as that of bees. Termites in the 
aggregate are a social mechanism in which it seems to me 
the individual has — if I may use the expression — no initiative 
whatever. May we not expect this of Socialism — if it ever 
succeed so far as to be an accomplished fact ? 

I shall now draw to a close with a notice of the common 
parasites of the termitary. 

1. An infusorian, a true endo-parasite, is very common in 
the fluid body-contents of these insects, and may be observed 
easily with a comparatively low power. 

2. Two species of acarina are ectoparasitic and rather 
common. One of them, probably a gamarid, also runs free 
about the termitary. Other inhabitants of the termitary are 
commensal rather than parasitic. 

3. A very flat oval bug \ inch across is frequently found 
in pairs traversing the tunnels. 

4. A colourless and eyeless lepismid is sometimes found, 
but is equally at home in similar dark abodes. This insect, 
like campodea, is furnished with abdominal appendages, which 
have been thought to be the homologues of legs. This, how- 
ever, is not so, as scolopendrella has both these appendages 
and also true legs. 

5. Small eyeless podurids are very common. 

6. Microdon. I have several times found the curious 
mollusc-like larva of this fly in the external runs. 

I do not include true ants of many species, which often 
make their social homes in the termitary. They are there as 
active enemies. 

[After reading Mr Grieve's paper, the President made some 
remarks which may be briefly summed up as follows : — 
1. Workers and soldiers are of either sex; they are un- 



Fig. to right. — Mound Termitary, about five feet high. The 
exterior edge is composed of cemented sand ; it is of a sandy 
colour, tinged red or brown according to the colour of the soil. 
The galleries are within half an inch of the surface. They are there 
separated from each other by an inch or less of cemented material. 
In the interior the septa or walls are from -^ to -Jg- of an inch thick, 
rounded at the corners : the interior is darker in colour, generally 
chocolate. This part of the architecture does not go much below 
the ground-level; tunnellings spread far and near. Many of the 
galleries are stored with grass stems cut into pieces about half an 
inch long. 

Fig. to left. — Tree termitary, about 18 inches in diameter, the 
dwelling of a smaller insect than the former, on Iron - bark 
{Eucalyptus siderophloia). 


Termes sp., The Common Mound-Builder of South 

a, Eggs, natural size, having the appearance of medium-grained white 

sugar. They occupy with the Queen the central part of the 
Termitary above the ground-level. 
a', Same, enlarged 7 -J- times. 

b, Very young larva, creamy white. 
b\ Same, enlarged 7-| times. 

c, Soldier, colour darker, and chitinous. 

c, Same, enlarged 7i times. 

d, Worker, colour creamy, sometimes darker, coloured by body 

d', Same, enlarged 7 times. 

e, Prolongation on front of head of soldier. 


a, Head and thorax of Queen, enlarged 7-J- times. 

b, Queen, natural size. (In the few minutes in which this specimen 

was before me alive, she laid 38 eggs : they were deposited 
by twos and threes as she slowly moved, and were enveloped 
in a transparent gummy fluid which dried and fixed them at 

c, Edge of wing of male X 180. 

d, Winged male. 

a, h, e, Mouth-organs of worker, enlarged about 60 times. 






A' ^ 


£y*«T - 




1898-99-] Queensland Termites. n 

developed males or females ; they do not lay eggs. It may 
be remembered that Darwin said that it needed great con- 
fidence in his theory not to renounce it in face of the facts 
that workers and soldiers are quite different from their parents, 
and that they exist without reproducing themselves. 

2. Grassi believes that the difference between the castes, 
like that between worker and queen bees, is brought about by 
feeding. Termites eat up every kind of refuse matter in the 
nest — dead bodies, as pointed out by Mr Grieve, and cast-off 
skins ; . while a favourite food is their own excrement. A 
soldier cannot gnaw dead wood like a worker on account of 
the size of its mandibles, and its food is chiefly its dead or 
ailing fellows. Termites of other species are not eaten. 

3. Like queen bees, royal pairs (at least queens) live much 
longer than workers or soldiers. 

4. Termites keep a number of complementary queens and 
kings, which are immature but can take the place of the true 
royalties, and be stimulated to reproduction should accident or 
occasion require it. When these reserve royalties are too 
numerous they are killed and eaten. Curiously, the nests of 
Termes lucifugits in Sicily have all, or nearly all, substitution 
royalties : the communities have outlived the life of the true 

5. Eeproduction is limited to a single pair or to very few 
pairs in a single nest. This is true of all social insects. 

6. Bees in their social arrangements resemble termites 
much. Bees are a more intelligent community. The two 
communities have had quite different origins, and yet in their 
social systems they are strikingly like. To widen the idea, 
resembling forms (say allied species) may have had quite 
different origins. 

7. Termites have a slow development individually, bees a 
rapid. Termites pass through hardly any metamorphosis ; bees 
have a complete metamorphosis. Metamorphosis enables an 
insect to attain a much higher development in a shorter time. 

These propositions are well worthy of the consideration of 
all Field Naturalists.] 

1 2 Notes on the Natural History of Lochfynehead. [Sess. 


By Mr A. B. STEELE. 
{Read Nov. 23, 1898.) 

The picturesque scenery round the head of Lochfyne fre- 
quently induces the lover of Nature to sojourn at the 
village inn of Cairndow, close to the quaint parish church 
of Kilmorich, and overlooking the loch from its southern 
shore. The general appearance of the country is moun- 
tainous, presenting great diversity of form. Mountains of 
mica-schist and chlorite-schist rise almost perpendicularly 
from each side of the loch upward to a height of 2000 
feet, their sloping sides clothed with heath and verdure. 
Around their base are grouped ridges of naked rock, or 
low and gentle hillocks covered with trees and a rich 
undergrowth of brushwood. The district generally is com- 
posed of mica-schist, intersected by porphyry, traversed by 
basalt dykes, and locally interspersed with limestone, chlorite- 
schist, and diorite. The more quartzose rock forms the hill- 
tops, and the less quartzose and therefore softer rock the 
valleys, and frequently abounds with garnets and felspar. 
Cylindrical rods peuetrate through the whole substance of 
the quartzose rocks, and the present Duke of Argyll, who 
is a well-known geologist, interested himself some } r ears ago 
in trjdng to discover the origin of these rod-like bodies. 
Geologists ascribed them to mineral concretions, such as 
pyrites or clay balls drawn out into ovate and linear forms 
by the effect of shearing or movements of the strata over each 
other. The Duke was not satisfied with this solution, and 
sent specimens to the British Museum, when they were de- 
clared to be the tubes or burrows of worms similar in their 
nature and origin to those which had long been familiar in 
the same rock as it occurred in Eoss and Sutherland. The 
dispute, however, between his Grace and other geologists 
about the origin of mountains in Scotland cannot be so readily 
settled. The latter hold that there are no true mountain- 
ranges in Scotland at all. The so-called ranges, they aver, 

IS98-99-] Notes on the Natural History of LocJifynehead. 13 

are nothing but the remains of great tablelands which were 
originally raised above the water in the shape of a hog's back, 
and the cutting and carving of hills and mountains have been 
due entirely to the " guttering " caused by rains and snows 
over unnumbered ages. The Duke maintains, on the contrary, 
that our mountains are true mountains, and have been pro- 
duced, like the Pyrenees and Alps, by earth movements — 
subsequently, of course, much denuded and carved out by 
atmospheric influences. Our mountains had in the most 
recent geographical times, perhaps just before the introduc- 
tion of man into this part of the globe, been under water to 
the extent of at least 1500 or 2000 feet. His Grace is 
sceptical of those great ice-sheets walking over the tops of 
our hills, but he believes in a glacial age the conditions of 
which were exactly the same as glaciers now. If the Duke's 
theory is correct, that a great submergence of the land and a 
re-emergence out of the ocean have taken place in quite recent 
times, all the theories about the slow erosion of valleys are 
dissipated. The elevation of a submerged land out of the ocean 
would intensify the action of river valleys and water to such 
an extent as to make it impossible to measure how much work 
might have been done, and the time it took under such con- 
ditions. The argument that the antiquity of man upon the 
earth is quite inconceivable, from the fact that human imple- 
ments have been found in valleys which it must have taken 
an enormous time to cut out, has often been proved fallacious. 
Flinders Petrie said the other day in this city that in the 
valley of the river, and also in the limestone plateau out of 
which the Nile had carved the valley, palaeolithic flints had 
been found, showing the existence of man as far back as 5000 
B.C., and probably farther. But not many years ago Chevalier 
Bunsen argued in the same way that Egyptian civilisation was 
many thousand years older than the ordinarily received chron- 
ology, basing his argument upon the depth at which certain 
objects had been found in the alluvial deposit of the Nile 
valley. Some time afterwards, however, a brick bearing the 
name of Mehemet Ali, who died in 1849, was found at a still 
greater depth ! 

The junction of the porphyry with the mica-schist may be 
seen at many points in the district. The porphyry varies in 

i 4 Notes on the Natural History of Lochfynehead. [Sess. 

character, being either composed wholly of felspar with only a 
few crystals of quartz or lighter- coloured felspar, or found 
with hornblende quartz and some portions of mica. Dykes of 
greenstone also traverse the porphyry and mica-schist. The 
chlorite rock occurs in beds of great extent, and masses are 
strewn over the mountains. It sometimes feels soft and 
soapy, when it yields easily to the tool of the carver, whose 
designs may be seen in primitive forms on the copestone of 
the bridge at the head of the loch. It is used as a building- 
stone, the Duke of Argyll's castle being constructed of it; 
and close to the church at Inverary a monument of it is 
erected to commemorate the execution without trial of seven- 
teen gentlemen of the name of Campbell in 1685. 

Bird life is very plentiful throughout the district, and the 
following were seen in August : — 

Golden eagle. I Barn owl 

Common heron. 
Solan goose. 
Black-headed gull. 
Lesser black-backed gull. 
Spotted flycatcher. 
Corn and reed buntings. 


Carrion and hooded crows. 



Blue, cole, and long-tailed tits. 

Ring ouzel. 

Water ouzel. 



The loch abounds in a great variety of excellent fish. There is 
a tradition that there was at one time a regular sturgeon fishery 
in Lochfyne. The herring fishery on the loch is still a thriving 
industry, and affords employment to many. The superiority 
of the Lochfyne herring is well known, and their improved 
condition is said to take place after their entrance to the loch, 
and to consist not so much in size as in flavour. Banks, 
especially near the top of the loch, covered with rocks or 
stones, with an abundant coating of seaweed, are instinctively 
selected by the herring as the best ground for depositing their 
spawn. The fishing generally begins about the end of June, 
and continues till the beginning of January ; and the fleet of 
fishing- boats with their brown sails and yellow hulls is a pic- 
turesque sight on the loch at the height of the season. 

The district is not distinguished for a great variety of 
flowering -plants, nor is it remarkable for many rare alpine 
forms, but it is specially rich in clubmosses and ferns. The 

1898-99-] Notes on the Natural History of ' Lochfynehead. 15 

royal fern still spreads its fronds on the wet ledges of several of 
the rocks, and cryptogams of all kinds abound. The following 
plants were gathered : — 

Lobelia Dortmanna. 
Hypericum Androssemum. 

11 dubium. 

11 elodes. 

n pulchrum. 

Lythrum Salicaria. 
Glaux maritima. 
*Spergularia rubra. 
*Myrrhia odorata. 
*Melampyrum pratense. 
Gentiana campestris. 
Erythrsea Centaurium. 

11 littoralis. 
Menyanthes trifoliata. 
Drosera rotundifolia. 

1 1 anglica. 
Parnassia palustris. 
Sedum anglicum. 
11 Rhodiola. 
Saxifraga nivalis. 
11 aizoides. 

Saxifraga stellaris. 

11 hypnoides. 

11 oppositifolia. 
Epilobium alsinifolium. 

11 alpinum. 

Vaccinium Myrtillus. 

11 Yitis-Idiea. 

11 uliginosnm. 

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi. 
Lycopodium clavatum. 

1 1 Selago. 

Selagiuella selaginoides. 
Osmunda regalis. 
Hymenophyllum Tunbridgense. 

1 1 Wilsoni. 

Polystichum lobatum. 
Ophioglossum vulgatum. 
Asplenium marinum. 

1 1 viride. 

1 1 Ruta-muraria. 

* Not recorded from Argyll iu Watson's ' Topographical Botany.' 

The woodland here forms a conspicuous feature in the land- 
scape, and is extensive and valuable, covering the greater part 
of the sub -alpine district. There is also a good deal of 
enclosed ground, which has either never been planted or has 
ceased to grow trees of any kind, much of it being covered 
with brushwood, where the blaeberry and bog-myrtle flourish. 
Several trees are remarkable for their great size and beauty, 
particularly two silver firs growing in the grounds of Ardkin- 
glas. From the enormous bole of one of them, apparently the 
older, two gigantic branches like trees shoot out at some height 
above the ground. The soil and climate seem well adapted 
for the growth of all kinds of coniferae. For this wealth of 
woodland the country is indebted to the chiefs of the houses of 
Argyll and Ardkinglas. 

A great attraction of this place is the variety of its walks. 
The round from Cuil, over the Brannies to Benbui, where Rob 
Roy received wood and water from the house of Argyll while 
he was in the pay of Montrose, and back through Glenshira by 
way of Loch Dubh and Dunerave Castle, is most varied 
and charming. It is a good day's tramp, and most of it 

1 6 Notes on the Natural History of Lochfynehead. [Sess. 

through heather and peat hogs, but it well repays one for 
all the fatigue undergone. On the way the eye is frequently 
delighted with the sight of some of the rarer saxifrages 
and gentians, cudweeds, and cow-wheats blooming among 
the bogs and by the mountain side. The walk up Glenfyne 
is also charming and interesting. On either side tower lofty 
peaks, with precipitous ravines, and wild and lonely corries, 
where the eagle builds her nest, and which gives to the 
scenery a wildness and beauty difficult to surpass. At 
the shooting - lodge, a few miles up the river Fyne, her 
Majesty rested in 1875, and the chair on which she sat 
is ornamented with a brass plate to commemorate the date 
of the royal visit. Perhaps grander and more interesting is 
the round by Glenkinglas and back by Hell's Glen and 
Tomdubh. From several points on the route the views are 
fine and extensive, but the grandest and most impressive 
is that from " Eest and be Thankful," at the head of Glen 
Crow, which Wordsworth thought worthy of a sonnet, 
beginning with the lines — 

" Doubling and doubling with laborious walk, 
Who that has gained at length the wished-for height, 
This brief, this simple wayside call can slight, 
And rests not thankful ? " 

The ground at many places on the journey is covered 
with an undergrowth of ling and heath, largely interspersed 
with the blaeberry, crowberry, and cowberry plants. Higher 
up the heath - clad hillsides, and sometimes carpeting the 
ground underneath the heather, is the trailing clubmoss, 
whose powdery seeds, from their inflammable nature, have 
been employed on the stage to produce artificial lightning, 
and are used by apothecaries for coating pills. In a tarn 
by the ascending path the pale lilac racemes of the water 
lobelia bloom in great profusion. Among the many walks 
in the neighbourhood, none is more interesting or more 
enjoyable, the beauty of the route being due chiefly to the 
wildness of the surrounding scenery. 

Lochfyne fishermen, who occasionally visit the head of 
the loch during the fishing season, say that it is the dullest 
and quietest part of all Scotland. Still, it has its attractions. 
It is a thorough change from city life. No excursionists 

1898-99-] Geographical Distribution of British Birds. 17 

by rail or boat as yet disturb its calm. The air is strong 
and bracing, and pleasant with the sweet scent of heather 
and honeysuckle and the wholesome odour of pine. As a 
health-resort it may well be recommended. 



(Communicated Dec. 28, 1898) 

Coloxel Wardlaw Eamsay, at the outset, alluded to the 
importance of geographical distribution and the increasing 
interest in the study of it. He regretted, on the other hand, 
the false value attached by many to British-killed specimens, 
and the consequent destruction of our rarer visitors. The 
very wide area of distribution of many of our British birds, or 
their close allies, was shown, and a large number of painted 
slides were exhibited to show varieties due to environment or 
climate. The lecturer gave a brief history of the growth of 
the study of geographical distribution, indicating the six zoo- 
geographical regions of the world which at present are recog- 
nised by naturalists. It was shown that the area of distribu- 
tion of certain families, genera, and species, and their varieties, 
were in some cases world-wide, and in others very restricted 
— the osprey and the barn-owl being instanced as illustrations 
of the former, and the azure-winged magpie of Spain and 
Japan, the sun-bird of the Jordan valley, or our red grouse, of 
the latter. These areas are sometimes continuous, as in the 
brambling, or discontinuous, as in the genus Cyanipcea : some- 
times the areas overlap, as in the case of the long-tailed tits 
and the azure tit. 

The lecturer showed that deep seas, however narrow, had 
more effect in determining areas of distribution than shallow 
seas, however broad ; and explained this phenomenon in the 
light of geology and the opinion of naturalists like Dr Wallace 


1 8 Our Common Migrants. [Sess. 

as to the origin of islands. The islands of Bali and Lombok 
were given in illustration. 

Some of the theories of distribution were then described, 
taking Dr Wallace's illustration of the genus Garrulus. The 
geographical distribution of the various species or local races 
of this genus were shown on a map. The lecturer then dealt 
with the geographical distribution of the Paridce, and especi- 
ally considered the question of insular species, such as in the 
Canary Islands. 

The tree-creepers, nuthatches, chaffinches, bullfinches, king- 
fishers, barn-owls, and grouse were successively dealt with, and 
their distribution illustrated both by painted figures and maps. 



(Bead Jan. 25, 1899.) 

To those whose tastes incline to a study of natural history, 
and who take a delight in watching birds in their native 
haunts, there is nothing more interesting than to note the 
coming and going of our migrants. Even from the earliest 
times this feature of bird life has been remarked, as in 
Jeremiah we read, " The stork in the heaven knoweth her 
appointed times ; and the turtle and the crane and the swallow 
observe the time of their coming." There is something almost 
mysterious in the way in which numbers of small, delicately 
formed birds are found scattered over a district, where a few 
hours previous not one of their kind was to be seen or heard. 
And the manner of their arrival is scarcely more remarkable 
than the regularity with which they make their appearance. 
Nearly all of them reach this country after long and pro- 
tracted flights, crossing the Mediterranean, the Bay of Biscay, 
and the English Channel. Year after year they arrive in the 
same localities almost to a day. 

i8 9 8- 9 9-] 

Our Common Migrants. 


The following table will show the dates of a few of our 
migratory birds for the past seven years : — 

Dates of Arrival of Migratory Birds, 1892-98. 

Name ok Bird. 











April 20 

Mar. 2S 



Mar. 19 

April 1 

Mar. 27 



May 1 

April 6 



May 3 


April 19 

Willow- Wren . 


April 15 



April 23 



Swallow . 








Cuckoo . 







May 1 

Redstart . 






May 2 

April 30 

Whitethroat . 




May 5 


May 4 


May 6 

Wood-Wren . 



April 20 



April 30 





May IS 



April 25 

May 19 




May 16 



May 23 



Although within the last few days it seems as if we were 
just at the beginning of winter, yet the signs of the return of 
spring have not been awanting. The missel-thrush from the 
top of some tall tree has been the first to give voice, and the 
mavis and the blackbird in the mild mornings have already 
been trying their forgotten melodies. It will not be long before 
we are able at say, " The winter is past, . . . the flowers ap- 
pear in the earth ; the time of the singing of birds is come." 

[With the aid of the beautiful slides belonging to the 
Society for the Protection of Birds, the lecturer then gave a 
short account of each species, as it was shown on the screen. 
The following remarks were made in exhibiting the picture of 
the great spotted woodpecker.] 

In the January number of the 'Annals of Scottish Natural 
History ' there is a detailed account of the appearance of the 
great spotted woodpecker in the south-east of Scotland. 
Although breeding and resident in the Midlands and south 
of England, this bird is very rare in Scotland. It has been 
known to nest in Duns Castle woods, where it is protected. 
At irregular intervals it visits our shores in considerable 
numbers, as has recently been the case ; but the appearance 
of the bird is generally the signal for its slaughter. Were it 
unmolested on these occasions, there is no doubt this fine bird 

20 Our Common Migrants. [Sess. 

would be much more common with us than it is. At least 
one pair of them have been frequenting Dalmeny woods since 
November, and it is hoped they may nest this summer. No 
later than yesterday (January 24, 1899), a male bird was seen 
close to Dalmeny mansion-house. It was feeding on an oak 
tree, and was noticed several times to fly up to the small 
branches and break off a gall-nut. This it carried down to a 
cleft in the tree, where it broke the gall-nut open for the sake 
of the grub that was inside. Numbers of gall-nuts, neatly 
split in two, found under oak trees in different parts of the 
estate, showed that this was a favourite food of the bird. 

There is no chance of any of these birds being shot in 
Dalmeny ; and from personal interviews with the tenants or 
proprietors, I have been assured they will be equally well 
guarded if they should happen to stray to the neighbouring 
grounds of Craigiehall, Cammo, or Cramond. The woodpecker 
was also noticed in the Dalkeith district on Sunday, so that 
there is a reasonable chance of this fine bird nesting in the 

[Writing on the 12th of June, Mr Campbell says : — 
" I am sorry that the expectations we formed in the early 
spring of being able to add the great spotted woodpecker to 
our nesting species in West Lothian have not been fulfilled, as 
far as I am aware. Since the first week in May no trace of 
these birds has been seen in Dalmeny Park, and inquiries 
made outside lead to no better results. I am afraid they have 
gone as suddenly as they came."] 

At this meeting Dr Traquair, F.E.S., gave a most interesting- 
lecture, with lime-light illustrations, on "The Bearing of 
Fossil Ichthyology on the Doctrine of Descent." 

1898-99.] On some Geological Agents. 21 


With Illustrations of their Work. 


{Read Feb. 22, 1899.) 

I have here a few specimens of rocks as illustrations of the 
work of some geological agents that are daily changing and 
modifying the surface of the earth. The specimens are by 
no means all that I could wish; but where the material is 
from 2i to 3 times heavier than water, transport and time 
become a matter of consideration. 

And the agents: as the most important and universal 
geological agent, I will take water first. This agent operates 
in various ways— as vapour ; as running water, doing a lar^e 
amount of mechanical work ; chemically, as a solvent of great 
power m combination with carbonic acid or the carbonates 
of sodium or potassium; and, if I may use the term, as an 
explosive force in the form of ice. 

The mechanical action of running water can be easily 
studied, even on the public road, during a heavy shower of 
ram. The mud— it was dust an hour ago, road metal a week 
past, and hard basalt or granite in the quarry before that— 
is now being swept off the surface and carried away by the 
little rills that have collected into two small streams on the 
sides of the road. These in their downward progress will 
join or be joined by other streams, gradually swelling i n 
volume and strength, and in the course of a few miles flow 
into the main stream of the valley, the river which will 
ultimately deposit the mud in the sea. But this loose material 
—mud, sand, gravel— has been doing geological work as it 
travelled along with the stream, abrading the rocks and stones 
over which it passed, making more loose matter to be carried 
seawards in suspension. But a river in flood carries forward 
an enormous amount of matter apart from the finely divided 
mud or clay that discolours its waters. Sand and gravel and 
stones are rolled along the bottom, grinding and reducina 
each other into materials similar to what is carried in sus- 

22 On some Geological Agents. [Sess. 

pension. In mountain torrents we can sometimes hear the 
grinding action of the stones as they are rolled along, and 
we can also hear the dull thud as they are knocked against 
each other by the force of the current. 

The power of water to move heavy bodies depends upon 
its velocity, and the velocity on the volume of water and the 
angle of slope. Hopkins of Cambridge has stated it in this 
way : " The force exerted on a surface given in magnitude 
and position is found to increase with the square of the 
velocity ; and if the force of the current be estimated by 
the weight of the largest block of a given form which it 
is capable of transporting, it is found that the force varies 
as the sixth power of the velocity of the current. Thus a 
current being able to move a cube of a given weight, another 
current of double the velocity would move a cube of 64 times 
the weight of the former ; and if the velocity were trebled, 
that of the first case, the cube moved might be 729 times as 
great, and so on." Prestwich says, supplementary to the 
above : " In this manner a spherical block of 5 tons migbt 
be moved by a current of 1 miles an hour ; a current of 
15 miles per hour would move a block of 56 tons, and a 
current of 20 miles per hour a block of 350 tons and 

In order to make the geological work of rivers — running 
water — more clear and definite, I will take as an instance 
the river Tay, the largest of our Scottish rivers, with the 
view of showing you by figures the mechanical work done 
by water. But in considering this work, we must always 
bear in mind that gravel and stones lose about one-third 
of their weight when immersed in water. The Tay drains 
an area of some 2400 square miles, and the rainfall in 
the western gathering-ground is heavy. It discharges about 
144,000,000,000 cubic feet of water annually, and the esti- 
mated discharge of sediment during the same period is 
49,660,000 cubic feet. Now the upper waters or feeders 
of the Tay have several settling-ponds to keep back the 
sediment brought down by these feeders : Loch Tay holds 
back all that is brought down by the Dochart and the Lochy ; 
Lochs Ericht, Eannoch, and Tummel all that comes from the 
north and west ; and yet, with all these four settling-ponds as 

1898-99-] On some Geological Agents. 23 

I call them, there is an enormous annual amount of geological 
work done by this one river. 

Eivers also hold much matter in solution, such as carbonate 
of lime, sulphate of lime, &c. The Thames — a river flowing 
through and draining a calcareous country — carries an esti- 
mated quantity of 600,000 tons of carbonate of lime past 
Kingston annually ; and as showing the difference in the 
quantity of matter carried by a river in suspension and in 
solution, I will mention the Danube, with nearly 68,000,000 
tons in suspension, and 22,521,000 in solution. What is the 
weight of the material rolled along the bottom of a river 
in the form of gravel and stones cannot be estimated with 
any approach to certainty. 

Now for one or two illustrations of the chemical power of 
water. Bain in falling through the atmosphere absorbs or 
dissolves carbonic acid gas — the carbonic dioxide of the 
chemist. Decaying vegetation supplies this gas too. As 
this rain-water, with its supply of carbonic acid, flows over 
the land or descends into the earth, it dissolves the carbonate 
out of the limestone, leaving only the impure matter, often 
called rotten-stone, which is chiefly composed of silicate of 
alumina, iron, &c. The dissolved carbonate finds its way 
into springs and streams, sometimes deposited as calcareous 
tuff or tufa, as at Starleyburn in Fife, and frequently as 
an incrustation in our kettles and boilers. Where the lime- 
stone is very pure, almost the whole of it is dissolved by rain 
or running water. 

But water charged with carbonic acid, &c, does not confine 
its solvent action to limestone alone. It attacks the lime and 
potash felspars in rocks, and breaks up their chemical union 
with other substances. Here is a specimen of granite, where 
you can see that the felspar has been eaten away, and the 
quartz particles left standing out in relief. Iron is also dis- 
solved out of rocks, as you can see by the red deposits of 
some springs. I have here some specimens of bog-iron ore, 
probably dissolved out of the West Kip, and re-deposited 
some inches below the surface in the moor lying to the north- 
east of that hill. Decayed vegetable matter had something 
to do with the re-deposition. 

I must not omit heated waters and vapours. Their solvent 

24 On some Geological Agents. [Sess. 

powers are much greater than that of cold water. Hence we 
must look to them as principal agents in dissolving and re- 
depositing the metals and ores that fill the mineral veins in 
Cornwall, Devonshire, Wales, and many other localities. 

In concluding my observations on water, I will mention in 
further proof of its solvent powers that springs in many parts 
of the world discharge thousands of tons of carbonate and 
sulphate of lime, silica, sulphur, chloride of sodium, carbonate 
of soda, iron, manganese, cobalt, &c. — none of which are found 
in the atmosphere. 

I have before said that decaying or decayed vegetation 
supplied carbonic acid to running water, and so became an 
important agent in the destruction of various rocks. The thin 
crust of lichen that incrusts the surface of the rock and the 
tiny moss that grows in the crevice are agents of change by 
harbouring moisture, which, as I have pointed out before, 
dissolves the union of the rock-building substances that go to 
make what we call granite, basalt, &c. Trees, by the bursting 
power of their roots, especially on hillsides, are agents of 
change in a small way ; and no doubt the overthrow of a 
forest by the storm has been the beginning of many of our 

But if plants are agents of destruction and dissolution, they 
are also agents of protection and reconstruction. Plants afford 
great protection to the surface of the earth against the action 
of rain and running water. A good covering of grass, heath - 
wood, &c, binds and secures the surface-soil from being carried 
away, except where a stream has cut a channel or bed for 
itself, which is only natural drainage. Plants are builders too ; 
coralline and chara secrete lime, diatoms silica, and almost all 
plants secrete one or more mineral substances ; while the 
sphagnum or bog-moss contributes largely to the formation of 
our peat-beds. So you see plants have a compensating action : 
in destroying the rock, they are only supplying us with fresh 
soil — less what may be carried off by water, and even this 
loss is compensated for by the protection they give against a 
greater loss. 

Water as a Solid, or Ice. — This is a giant that has done mighty 
work in our land in the past. He is still active and powerful, 
working and producing changes every day that the thermometer 

1898-99-] On some Geological Agents. 25 

falls to or below zero. This work is to be seen on the moun- 
tain side in the rock detached and thrown down, in quarries, 
railway cuttings, the steep banks of rivers and streams, and 
in the stones, gravel, &c, carried down stream by surface and 
ground ice. 

Ice loug, long ago had a great deal to do with the con- 
figuration and landscape of our own county. Our rounded 
hills and hillocks, our deep glens and valleys, our beds of 
boulder-clay, and our scratched and scored rocks, all remind 
us of the action of ice. Although its work is so conspicuous 
over all the land, the cause of this Ice Age is still an unsolved 
problem. The boulder-clay or till is another, with its clay- 
beds of sandstones, angular and rounded, small and great, and 
scattered indiscriminately through the moss. Much has been 
written on the subject, but no theory that has been proposed 
gives a satisfactory explanation of this deposit. 

Ice has been credited by some geologists with excavating 
our Scottish lochs and English lakes, with Geneva and Superior 
thrown into the bargain. But it has not yet been proved to 
my mind that the ice, for instance from the surrounding hill, 
excavated Loch Tay, some 15 miles long, from half a mile to 
one mile broad, and from 15 to 100 fathoms deep. If a man 
has to cut a bar of steel, he requires tools — files as hard or 
harder than the bar he is to cut. He also requires food to 
give him the necessary power. After the same manner, if a 
glacier is to excavate Loch Tay or any similar rock basin, it 
must have tools — stones or gravel, at least as hard as the rock 
it is to operate on — and gravity as the equivalent of the man's 
food. Whether the hills surrounding Loch Tay — after having 
been subject to denudation for ages before the Glacial Period 
— could supply the necessary tools and gravitation is what I 
will not affirm. 

I have here a few specimens of undoubted ice-work. One 
is broken from a boulder weighing about five tons, excavated 
out of a clay bank about 20 feet thick. It is as smooth as if 
a planing-machine had passed over it. Another is from the 
Braid Hills, with the characteristic strise ; and a third from a 
bank of boulder-clay in the Pentlands, about 1100 feet above 

Sand is such a common material that we seldom give it a 

26 On some Geological Agents. [Sess. 

moment's consideration unless on a windy day, when we get 
our eyes, mouth, and nostrils filled with it. It forms con- 
siderable areas round our coasts, called links. The golfer 
knows and loves the links, but the ordinary golfer knows 
nothing about the natural history of the sand that forms these 
links over which his ball rolls. All that he knows and cares 
for about sand is its " bunkers." That the sand which forms 
these tracts of land was blown in from the sea - shore is 
certain. In fact, it is land recovered from the sea — the wind 
blowing the sand inland after the tide has retired from the 
shore. On the East Coast we have large stretches of such 
land — one of the largest, called Tentsmuir, extending from the 
mouth of the Eden to the mouth of the Tay. On the north 
side of the Tay we have Barry Links, and on the south of the 
Eden the ever-famous golf-links of St Andrews. Much of the 
sand has been brought by these two rivers. 

It is not very clear how all this sand was accumulated, or 
by what agency the rocks were reduced from the solid to this 
granular condition. The only way we can account for it is 
the dissolving of the softer materials — felspar, &c, — leaving 
the quartz particles to be carried away by running water. 

Sand in motion, by reason of the hardness of the silica, is 
an agent of tear and wear. I have here a few specimens of 
its polishing action on rock, by which you can see that it was 
the origin of the sand-blast so much used nowadays in the 
industrial arts. It is an abrading agent when carried forward 
by running water ; and driven by wind and wave against the 
sea-cliff, it undermines it, bringing down* large masses of rock, 
which will likewise be ground into sand and utilised in the 
same manner and for the same purpose of destruction. 

In some countries — France, for instance — large tracts of 
valuable land have been overwhelmed by the inland move- 
ments of sand. In our own country, in Morayshire, some ten 
square miles of the best arable land in the county were 
covered to a great depth by sand driven in from the sea- 
shore. A partial cause of the disaster was " the bad prac- 
tice of pulling bent and juniper." So said an Act of the 
Scottish Parliament, dated July 16, 1695. 

The sea is a geological agent of the highest importance. It 
is in a state of perpetual war against the land. Its powers of 

1898-99-] On some Geological Agents. 27 

destruction were well illustrated round our coast in October 
last year. Aided by wind and tide, it washed away the land 
and undermined the solid rock of the cliff by pounding it 
with materials torn from its own massive side. In this rude 
and boisterous fashion it eats away the land, forming islands, 
channels, and bays. And by the same means and in the same 
manner Great Britain was made an island — to the disgust of 
our friends on the other side of the Channel, who would fain 
shake hands with us on some occasions. 

And man as the last agent. Man, especially since the time 
that he discovered the use of fire and metals, has been the 
cause of geological changes on the surface of the earth. Read- 
ing the early history of man in the East, we learn that he 
brought the greater part of Western Asia into a condition of 
great fertility, capable of supporting a large population in a 
high state of civilisation. Looking at the same region in the 
present day, we see the desert sand covering what were culti- 
vated fields and vineyards in the past : the trees have been 
cut down, and the water has ceased to flow, — for all which 
the ignorance of man and bad rulers are responsible. 

But if man, through ignorance, idleness, and bad govern- 
ment, has allowed a large area of Asia Minor, Northern 
Africa, and some other countries on the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean to run to waste, he has by industry, perseverance, and 
science changed the physical features of the earth in many 
other quarters of the world. In the cold and rigorous climate 
of Germany, Holland, Great Britain, and North America he 
has converted the impenetrable forest, the swamp, and the 
mountain side into fields of wheat, corn, and grassy pasture, 
producing food and shelter for himself and the useful animals 
that he has brought under his dominion and protection. 

But the cultivation of the soil is an agent of geological 
change, by frequently exposing the loose surface to the 
denuding action of rain. It is only necessary to look at 
a ploughed field on a gentle slope during a heavy shower 
of rain to be convinced that the soil is being rapidly washed 
away towards the river, and by the river to the sea. Who 
can calculate how much the land will be lowered in our own 
Lothians by the works of men during the next thousand 
years ? 

28 A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. [Sess. 



(Bead Feb. 22, 1898.) 

In preparing this paper at the request of our late President, 
Dr Davies, I had to consider at the outset the lines upon 
which I should proceed, in order that it might be interesting 
to the members of the Society. The question was whether I 
should include my personal experiences, or simply confine 
myself to a notice of the plants seen and the localities in which 
they grew. After consulting with the President, I have 
resolved to give also an account of some of the experiences of 
the trip. If, therefore, I am sometimes too " personal," you 
will perhaps pardon me, on the ground that I have erred 
through my desire to interest you. 

For many years I had longed to pay a visit to Ben Lawers, 
to see for myself, and to collect specimens of, the many rare 
plants — alpines, ferns, and mosses — which are recorded as to 
be found there. In my younger days I took a delight in the 
study of mosses, and a few years ago I made a fresh start with 
the fascinating study. Since then Ben Lawers has been more 
in evidence than ever. In every bryological work I referred 
to I saw him the guardian of many of the rarest mosses. My 
desire to become acquainted with him grew stronger and 
stronger, until it culminated in the visit which is the subject 
of this paper. 

One night about the beginning of last year (1898), my 
friend and fellow-member of the Society, Mr Scott, and I were 
looking through some specimens of mosses, when we came 
upon a few from Ben Lawers. Mr Scott remarked jocularly, 
" I must have a day on Ben Lawers this year." I answered, 
" If you will allow me, I'll go with you." The joke became 
a serious undertaking — serious, because of two obstacles, 
time and cash ; or rather, I should say, the want of time 
and cash. To overcome the former, we laboured early and 
late in order to bring our work into such a condition that 
we could leave it for a few days ; and to meet the latter, we 
agreed to put up in the large airy hotels of Mr Glen and Mr 
Mountain. I fear you will think badly of us when I confess 

1898-99-] A Bryological Excursioti to Ben Lazvers. 29 

that we have not paid our hotel bills yet ; but there is this 
much to be said in our favour — they have never been rendered ! 

About 4 p.m. on the 18th June of last year Mr Scott and I, 
having left Killin railway station, were on the road for Ben 
Lawers. The lovely afternoon and charming scenery made us 
almost forget that the packs on our backs contained our camp 
utensils and food for three days. But after proceeding two or 
three miles we began to find out that to carry a provision shop 
on one's back, on a hot summer day, and at the same time 
search carefully for botanical specimens, was no light task. 
It certainly did not suggest a holiday. But to the general 
holiday tourist a better or a prettier road could not be found. 
Even before leaving Killin station, the view is magnificent. 
Here we are at the meeting of three glens, in the very heart of 
lofty mountains. Bichly wooded scenery is around us in the 
foreground ; above tower the bare rugged mountains ; while to 
the north-east is seen the long stretch of Loch Tay — the 
narrow gorge leading to Glen Lochay to the north-west, and 
to Glen Dochart with its river on the south-west. 

Shortly after crossing Lochay bridge the small but romantic 
Finlarig burn is passed. Across the bridge, keeping to the 
right, the road leads to Ben Lawers. At each fresh turn a new 
and charming view appears. On the other side of Loch Tay 
are seen the beautiful mansion and wooded park of Achmore, 
where one of the largest vines in Britain grows. A little 
farther on a splendid view is obtained of Killin pier, with the 
woods and old castle of Finlarig to the right. But what is the 
use of selecting particular views, or endeavouring to describe 
them ? — to realise the beauty of Lochtay-sicle it must be seen. 

The object of Mr Scott and myself was to gather mosses, 
and we began our collecting at the Larig burn. There was no 
necessity for us to leave the main road — every tree, bank, 
dyke, and rock was covered. Many of the plants were, of 
course, of common species, but we also got a number of rare 
and fine specimens. In the crevices of the wall of the bridge 
over the Larig there were quantities of Leersia contorta, Bryum 
capillare, two or three Tortulas, &c. On the trees we gathered 
Weissia Bruchii, Orthotrichum affine, 0. Lyellii, and Hypnum 
cupressiforme, var. filiforme. At the top of a bank at the 
roadside a lovely curtain of Antitrichia curtipendula hung over 
a rock in festoons a foot in length. Farther on many rare 

30 A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. [Sess. 

bryological treasures, as well as the common Hypnums, 
Grimmias, &c, were seen. From an old dyke we took some 
fine specimens of Brachythecium glareosum, B. populum, B. 
plumosum, and B. rutabulum ; Hypnum cupressiforme in vari- 
ety, Amblystegium serpens, and Plagiothecium denticulatum 
— all of which we gathered — and many more which we did 
not touch. Also Neckera complanata, the type and the var. 
tenella, Grimmia pulvinata, G. apocarpa, and Polytrichum 
alpinum. A bank above a retaining wall farther on pro- 
vided fine specimens of Ditrichum flexicaule, as well as 
Pleuridium subulatum, a lovely little moss whose capsules 
resemble tiny rubies set in a crown of narrow pointed leaves. 
Here and all over the course followed were many pretty 
patches of Breutelia arcuata, but generally dwarf and always 
barren. Hypnum squarrosum and Hylocomium loreum were 
also plentiful, and here and there small patches of Leersia 
alpina and Hylocomium splendens. A liverwort, Preissia 
commutata, in fine condition, we gathered from a rock close by ; 
while it may interest lovers of ferns to know that a sunk 
retaining wall which we passed a little later was richly clothed 
with Cystopteris fragilis, C. denticulata, and Asplenium Tri- 
chomanes with fronds nearly a foot long, as well as some very 
distinct-looking forms of Athyrium Filix-fcemina. 

Our route had been sketched solely by the aid of a map, 
and on meeting a native apparently of the district, we took 
the opportunity of confirming it. In the course of conversa- 
tion, after satisfying ourselves as to the best way to ascend the 
mountain, we mentioned that we were looking for mosses. 
" There's no' much moss on the tap o' Ben Lawers," said he ; 
" you'll get bigger anes where ye are ; if ye'll just gae up the 
side o' the burn, in the corrie yonder ye'll get the till o' your 
boxes and baskets in less than ten minutes." " We are going 
to sleep on the mountain, so as to be near the mosses," I added. 
This, apparently, was too much for him : with a curious look at 
us, and an expressive shake of the head, he said, " Good night." 

The glen of the Mhoirneas burn looked so inviting that we 
were sorely tempted to take our friend's advice, and go to fill 
our boxes in it. But, according to our plans, we were to 
ascend the Edramucky burn about a quarter of a mile farther 
on, so we passed it with some reluctance, little dreaming that 
ere the night was over we should revisit it and seek its friendly 

1898-99-] A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. 31 

shelter. Striking off the road to a marshy bit of ground on 
the east side of the burn, we found ourselves in a perfect 
flower-garden of terrestrial orchids. The ground was literally 
covered with them : it was almost impossible to walk without 
treading on a flower. There were five or six varieties, but as 
I did not take any note of them I have only my memory to go 
by. In two other places even finer and larger-flowered orchids 
were met with, but not more plentifully. 

Eesuming our moss - hunting, we got here some good 
specimens of Hedwigia celata and Hypnum scorpioides in 
fine fruit. The latter I have not seen in the neighbourhood 
of Edinburgh. It is uncommon to find it in fruit. Hypnum 
stellatum, Pohlia cruda, Fissidens adiantoides in fruit, and 
Grimmia acicularis were also found. Svvartzia montana was 
at home here : it was in beautiful fruit, but dwarf. 

We were now beginning to realise that the delight of 
gathering mosses was not of itself sufficient to live on. About 
8 p.m. we kindled a fire and made tea. Our last meal had 
been partaken of about 10.30 a.m. I need scarcely say that 
no tea was ever more relished. While the kettle was boiling 
I had a look round. A magnificent view of Loch Tay was 
before us, with many miles of the opposite shore. Away to. 
the west Meall nan Tarmachan reared his head, 3421 feet 
above the sea level; and on the north-east, Beinn Ghlas, 3085 
feet, hid from sight our friend Ben Lawers. 

The vegetation in the Edramucky corrie is neither luxuriant 
nor varied, being limited to a fair covering of short grass mixed 
with plenty of carex, a few ferns, heather, &c. I gathered a 
specimen of Galium sylvestre, and saw some Pinguiculas, 
Parnassias, Polygalas, &c. After tea we continued our way up 
the burn. On the bank Mr Scott gathered a single specimen, 
in fruit, of Oligotrichum incurvum. I have found it on the 
Pentlands, but it fruits only on the higher mountains. By 
nine o'clock we were well up the mountain side, but could see 
no place of shelter where we could camp for the night. We 
were therefore compelled to retrace our steps, until we came to 
some large stones, with which we set to work, and in half an 
hour a fairly good shelter was erected, the sky, however, 
being the only roof. We now thought of a fire, but, alas ! 
there was nothing to burn, not even heather stalks. We hid 
our packs and set out to look for better lodging. About half 

32 A Bryological Excursion to Ben Laivers. [Sess. 

a mile to the south-west we sighted Mhoirneas corrie, with the 
tips of some trees showing above the high ground. I went to 
reconnoitre, and having brought back a favourable account, we 
returned for our goods and chattels, and made our way deep 
down in the glen. With hazel and rowan-tree branches we 
made a roof over a sheltered nook among the rocks, kindled a 
good fire, and a few minutes past eleven we lay down on our 
bed of heather and bracken. But — horrible to relate ! — we 
now discovered that we had made our bed within twenty yards 
of a thundering waterfall ! Waterfalls are very pretty, and the 
noise of falling water pleasant to hear ; but to sleep, or rather 
to attempt to sleep, at the foot of one, is a very unpleasant 
experience. We had lain for about an hour, taking turns at 
grumbling at our stupidity and the existence of the waterfall, 
when, to add to our troubles, the wind changed, and the smoke 
from the fire blew into our bedroom, making our eyes smart so 
badly that we had to get up and put out the fire. Again we 
laid ourselves down to rest, if not to sleep. Then we got up 
about one o'clock, rekindled the fire, had a good wash in the 
burn, and breakfasted at 2 a.m. We had finished when it be- 
gan to rain, but from the broken appearance of the clouds we 
thought it would only be a shower, so we had a look round, 
and picked up a few good things — such as Plagiolryum Zierii, 
Bryum albicans, Hypnum ochraceum, and H. calochroum. 
About half-past three we started to climb the mountain, but 
in half an hour a thick mist and heavy rain set in, enveloping 
us in a dense shroud. Instead of attempting the top of 
the mountain, it was therefore now decided to keep along the 
side until we should come to Allt an tuim Bhric, and if then 
fair to go up that burn. For two or three miles along the 
side of the mountain we tramped, the rain falling in torrents, 
and the mist so dense that from ten to twenty yards was the 
extent of our view ; while our legs from the knee downwards 
were soaked, and the water scpairting out at the lace-holes of 
our boots at every step. No mosses were to be seen : our 
spirits were at zero. When nearing the corrie, a small patch 
of Tetraplodon bryoides and of Funaria obtusa improved 
matters a little. On arriving at Allt an tuim Bhric, there was 
no improvement in the weather, and the ascent of the Ben 
seemed hopeless. We were wet and disappointed, and we 
disagreed as to the next step we should take. Mr Scott wa? 

1898-99-] A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. 33 

determined to attempt the climb, mist and rain notwithstand- 
ing, and we made a start. Mr Scott, however, thinking from 
the distance we had come that we were ascending the Lawers 
bnrn, insisted that Ben Lawers was on our left, whereas I, 
believing it to be the Tuim Bhric, was confident that the Ben 
was on our right. It being impossible to settle the matter in 
the mist, I turned down the burn, and Mr Scott followed. 
We had only descended about half a mile when we walked 
out of the mist and rain into bright sunshine. About this 
spot we gathered Bryum alpinum, which was new to my' 
collection. Before reaching the road we walked through 
another garden of orchids, quantities of Meum Athamanticum 
also filling the air with its peculiar odour, and on past a small 
pond, where I saw one of the prettiest sights I have ever 
witnessed. The pond was almost entirely filled with the 
Buckbean (Mcnyanthes trifoliata), in fine flower, there being 
as many flowers as leaves, with spikes four inches long. These 
flowers were of quite abnormal size and beauty. 

Beaching the turnpike road, we saw from a milestone that 
the Lawers burn was still three miles distant. A brisk walk 
took us to the burn, up which we went about a mile. Our 
first care was to collect sticks and make a large fire, and while 
our boots and socks were drying we set to work to make our 
camp for the night. Having formed a comparatively comfort- 
able shelter, and with plenty of wood for a fire, we were now 
prepared for whatever kind of weather should come. We then 
hid our provisions in case of stragglers, and, with nothing but 
our vasculums to carry, started up the Lawers burn. 

The banks were not very productive of what we wanted. 
In a little pool at the side of the burn I saw a very large 
frog. I tried hard to catch him, but after a hunt of a quarter 
of an hour I had to leave him master of the pool, the water 
having become so muddy that I could no longer see him. 
Mr Scott was now a long way ahead of me : I hurried until 
near to him, and came to what appeared to be a ford across 
the burn. It had been carefully paved, and a zigzag road led 
up the bank from the water-side. Being anxious to see where 
such a road would lead to, I followed it. About half way up 
was a large patch of Oligotrichum incurvum, covered with 
fruit. I called to Mr Scott, who was not slow in coming up 

vol. iv. c 

34 A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. [Sess. 

to it. After gathering what we wanted, I said I was going 
up to see if I could get a look at the Ben. When we got to 
the top of the bank — which was of considerable height — we 
had our first view of Ben Lawers. Clear and temptingly near 
did it seem, although it was between four and five miles off. 
I wanted Mr Scott to climb to the top with me, but he said 
there would not be time to explore it that night. Hearing a 
noise behind, I turned round, and was surprised to see a boy on 
a Highland sheltie. " Hallo, boy, do you know where you are 
going ? " " Ay div I." " "Where are you going ? " " Nae place ; 
I was only bringing ower this horse — it belongs to this side. 
It was on the other side, and I was just bringing it back." 
" Where does this road lead to ? " I asked. " It used to be 
the road to a peat-moss, but it's no' used now: are ye gaun 
to the tap o' the Ben ? " " We are just discussing that," I 
replied. " This is the best way up," he said. " Will we be 
able to reach the top by six o'clock ? — 'it's now twenty minutes 
to four." " Oh yes ; I can go in two hours frae the road." 
He directed us how to go, which was of great service to us. 
Mr Scott consented to accompany me on condition that I 
would again ascend the next day if the weather was fine. 
We did not gather much until we were well up the mountain 
side, when I came upon a patch, about a yard scmare, of that 
rare and pretty moss, Splachnum vasculosum, with fruit nearly 
as large as small black currants and as black. It was the 
prettiest patch of moss I ever saw. The bright green carpet 
of leaves dotted over with the black fruit with their red setse 
was very striking. We knew this moss had been found on 
Ben Lawers, so were keeping an eye on every likely spot. 
I was now perfectly satisfied. These three rare mosses — 
Tetraplodon, Funaria, and this Splachnum — were worth all 
my trouble. A little farther up we came upon another 
marsh below a spring : springs of pure water, cold as ice, 
were plentiful, in which many mosses were growing, including 
two new to us — viz., Bryum Duvalii and Pohlia Ludwigii. 
Grimmias, Polytrichums, &c, were growing higher up, but 
better specimens were obtained next day. 

After a steep climb, we were on a nearly level stretch of 
200 yards, or less, between the conical spur to the north-east 
and the crag up which the path leads' to the summit. While 
crossing this we heard, as if coming up from the glen, on our 

1898-99-] A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. 35 

right, a terrific noise, which appeared to us to resemble the 
mingling of many discordant sounds. "We stood still wonder- 
ing what was going to happen, when there came up out of the 
deep glen and passed in front of us, about twenty yards distant, 
the most terrible whirlwind I ever heard — nay, I may say 
saw, for we seemed to see the wind. It is impossible for me 
to make plain the kind of noise we heard. I could scarcely 
have believed it possible for the wind to make such a noise 
over smooth ground. We did not take time to look for 
specimens while crossing here. It will not, however, be 
surprising that from a hurried survey we found there was 
nothing growing but a few stinted mosses. "We climbed the 
crag, where, from the top, there is a long steep rise to the 
summit, along the crest of a narrow ridge, with an almost 
perpendicular drop of several hundred feet down to Lochan-a- 
Chait glen. Another very rare moss — Conostomum boreale— 
was found in fruit here : though none of the capsules were 
ripe, there was plenty of it in small detached patches. A few 
heath (Calluna vulgaris), a fair covering of Salix herbacea of 
small growth, a few varieties of moss, chiefly Dicranums, with 
some Bryums and Hypnums, were the principal other plants 
to be met with. I can hardly describe how pleased I was 
to reach the summit of Ben Lawers. No words of mine 
could do justice to the view. The air was beautifully clear, 
and standing there almost 4000 feet above sea-level and about 
1000 feet above the surrounding mountains, we commanded a 
prospect of many miles of mountain, loch, moor, and glen, 
stretching away on every side as far as the eye could reach, 
probably unsurpassed in grandeur and beauty by any similar 
view in Britain. To have such a panorama at one's feet is 
truly worth the climb. I was informed that Ben Nevis may 
be seen from Ben Lawers. We thought we could distinguish 
its outline, but were not certain. Of course, one must go to 
the top of the cairn. It stands upon a peak on the north- 
east corner of the craig which runs round three sides of a 
large hollow, having the appearance of a great quarry in which 
there had been a monster blast, by which enormous masses of 
rock had been displaced, to lie where they fell. Near the 
south-east corner is a deep hollow or basin, which had in the 
centre a large wreath of snow. Close to this wreath I gathered 
Polytrichum formosum, P. alpinum, and P. sexangulare, the 

36 A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. [Sess. 

last showing fruit. The plant itself is rare, being only found 
on very high mountains, but to find it in fruit is still more 
rare. Hypnum sulcatum was also found here. We saw, 
besides, Thymus Chama?drys in bloom, a small Veronica, a 
Myosotis, Polygala vulgaris, Campanula rotundifolia, and Sax- 
ifraga cernua. Salix herbacea was growing on the highest 
peak : a plant of it I gathered, which might have been twenty 
or even fifty years of age, was so small that it could be covered 
by a penny piece, and there were male catkins on it. I forgot 
to say that we gathered a small plant of Loiseleuria procum- 
bens, or native azalea, on our way up. These were not all 
the plants on the top of the mountain, but it did not occur to 
me to make a list. 

About 8 p.m., after an hour on the top, we retraced our 
steps. On the way we gathered Tofieldia palustris, but very 
few mosses. We reached our camp about 10 p.m., kindled a 
fire, and made supper. While our kettle was boiling we 
arranged our collection, and in due time lay clown and enjoyed 
a fairly good night's rest. I awoke at five o'clock next morn- 
ing with my back nearly roasted by a large fire which Mr 
Scott had replenished about an hour previously. After break- 
fast we again secured our stores against any stray wanderer, 
and started up the Lawers burn, our destination being the 
glen and small loch (Lochan-a-Chait) at its source, a fine view 
of which we had from the summit the previous evening. We 
thought it a good hunting-ground, and it proved to be so. It 
looked quite near, and we expected to reach it in about an 
hour, or an hour and a half at most. But after getting to 
the loch we found we had been five hours on the way. We 
had not, of course, been idle, and up the burn side we found 
many fine specimens, including Weissia trichoides, Bryum 
elongatum, B. filiforme, Hypnum ochraceum, H. sarmentosum, 
H. fluitans — this in fruit — and many others. About two 
miles up the burn I got what I consider my best find, Bux- 
baumia aphylla — a moss I had never before seen, although I 
had looked long and often for it. But it was not for this I 
was looking when the small and curious capsules caught my 
eye. I thought it a strange-looking fungus, and resolved to 
take a few home to Dr Watson. While taking out a tube to 
carry it in, I stooped down to get a better look at it. The 
next moment I was up, and with hat in hand was cheering at 

1898-99-] A Bryo logical Excursion to Ben Laivers. u 

the top of my voice. There was no one, however, to rejoice 
with me. (It must be understood that although Mr Scott and 
I always set out together, we were seldom within speaking- 
distance of each other when collecting, and such was the case 
here. He took the one side of the burn, while I took the 
other, and for three hours we were not near one another.) 
I collected all I could see of the Buxbaumia, which was ten 
capsules. It would be hard to tell how light and easy I went 
up that burn side after my find ! I hurried on to try and get 
up to Mr Scott, who was by this time more than half a mile 
above me, and it was nearly an hour before I got up opposite 
him. I called to him to come over to my side and see some- 
thing very wonderful. He apparently thought I was joking, 
and replied that he could not get over without wetting his 
feet. On turning a sharp corner of the bank, about half a 
mile farther up, he was on my side of the burn, waiting for 
me. " What great wonder have you to show me ? " he asked. 
I took out the box in which I had the Bauxbaumia, opened it 
slowly, and asked him what he thought that was. His face 
was a study, and nothing would satisfy him but to go back 
and look for more : it was only by promising to take him to 
the place, on our return journey, that I was able to persuade 
him to go on. Probably some may think our conduct, on 
finding an insignificant moss, very silly, or childish ; but I feel 
sure that at that moment, if a five-pound note had been placed 
beside the moss and the choice given to me to take either, the 
moss would have received the preference. This moss is very 
seldom found : being small and inconspicuous, and of a 
scattered habit of growth, it may very readily be overlooked. 
I have never seen it so stated, but I incline to the belief that 
it is a parasite on other mosses. Small sucker-like discs at 
the ends of many of the roots were distinctly visible with 
the microscope. If it is ever my good fortune to gather it 
again, I shall give more particular attention to this point 
before the plant becomes dried up. A little above this place 
we got a fine patch of Tetraplodon bryoides, growing among 
some wool, possibly from a bit of rabbit's skin. Mr Scott 
also found the shoulder-bone of a sheep just under the surface, 
with a thick fringe of Tetraplodon bryoides, far. Brewerii, 
growing round the edges and down the centre. 

We were now on the peat-moss to which the road we saw the 

38 A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. [Sess. 

day before led. I think there was something about this peat- 
moss worthy of notice. It was composed almost entirely of 
one species of moss — namely, Grimmia (Eacomitrium) lanug- 
inosum. Some bits of it we took out of the moss were from 
18 to 24 inches long. Although there is plenty of the same 
moss growing there now, there is none approaching that length, 
showing that long ago it was more luxuriant than at present. 
Certainly, to form such a peat-moss it must have been more 
abundant than it is now. At the top of this moss we reach 
the loch, or rather lochs, for there are two — the first, or lower 
one, small, not more than an acre in extent, the other covering 
several acres. I shall notice these again. Here we found fine 
specimens of Polytrichum strictum in fruit — which is rare 
— Campylopus flexuosus, var. major, and several others. We 
now separated again, each hunting for himself : two hours 
later we met high up on the crags and compared notes. We 
had gathered several rare mosses — Hypnum revolvens, var. 
Cossoni ; H. stellatum, var. protensum ; H. incurvatum, Ortho- 
thecium rufescens, Hylocomium rugosum, Pseudoleskea atrovi- 
rens, Pterogonium gracile, Pterigynandrum filiforme, and many 
rare Grimmias, Bartramias, &c. We saw also a beautiful 
patch of Myosotis alpestris, growing very near the top of the 
crags, 3600 feet or more in height, exposed to every blast, yet 
a perfect cushion of intense blue. Pound about were hundreds 
of circular cushion-like patches of Silene acaulis, shading from 
pure white to very dark red, some nearly crimson. Thalictrum 
alpinum, Ehodiola rosea, Cerastium alpinum, Armeria alpina, 
Lychnis alpina, and Antennaria dioica were also to be seen ; 
and one solitary plant in flower of Saxifraga nivalis was found 
here. Saxifraga oppositifolia, S. aizoides, S. hypnoides, S. 
caaspitosa, and S. stellaris were common. Of ferns, there were 
Polystichum Lonchitis, Asplenium viride, A. Trichomanes, A. 
Adiantum-nigrum, Polypodium Dryopteris, a small patch of 
Hymenophyllum Wilsoni, and a few roots of others which I 
cannot name until they put up their fronds. 

A descent of about 300 feet of almost perpendicular crags 
brought us to the loch again. Our vasculums were by this 
time filled with plants, and our pockets stuffed, while in 
addition Mr Scott had a bundle in his handkerchief. More 
specimens we could not carry, and as the calls of hunger were 
beginning to make themselves felt, we now (about 4 p.m.) 

1898-99-] A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. 39 

started for our camp. But, hunger notwithstanding, we did 
not take the most direct route. We first went round Lochan- 
a-Chait, where some things struck us as being remarkable. 
For example, there was not a single water-plant growing in 
the whole loch. One or two small bits of algae were growing 
on the stones, but, taken altogether, I do not think there was 
as much as would have filled a table-spoon. There was no 
marshy ground around the shores, but between the water and 
the grass — which began with a clear edge, as if it had been 
cut oft' from six inches to a foot in height — there was a 
causeway of stones, varying in width from three to six feet, 
firmly packed together, and as level as if put in by the hand 
of man. Very few of the stones were large, and no loose 
stones lay about. In the smaller loch adjoining aquatic plants 
were in abundance. We suggested various theories to account 
for the remarkable difference in the state of vegetation of the 
two sheets of water, and of the paving of the shores, all of 
which were wide of the mark. But before we reached the end 
of the loch, ^Eolus came and showed us how it was done. All 
day the air had been still, when suddenly a terrific hurricane 
arose among the rocks at the top of the mountain : we could 
hear it approaching, so we turned and waited. Down it came 
into the water, lifting a large sheet, which fell back into the 
loch with a great splash, as if emptied out of a gigantic basin. 
I have no doubt that the effect of these wind-storms upon the 
water is the cause of the absence of vegetation and of the 
paving of the shores. Curiously enough, we felt very little 
wind ; but, as showing the force with which it struck the loch, 
the water rose at our feet, and covered some large stones 
which lay between the two lochs, preventing us from crossing, 
which we were about to do. The water had risen nearly a foot. 
It took us a long time to get down to our camp, and we 
got nothing of special note except a large bed of Hypnum 
stramineum. We looked for the Buxbaumia, but did not find 
any more of it. Arriving at camp about 8 o'clock, we put off 
no time in preparing and eating supper, which was very 
acceptable, after thirteen hours of fasting and mountain- 
climbing. After supper we arranged our specimens, but 
before we had finished it began to rain, and we retired to 
bed. It continued to rain all night, but we were quite dry, 
and had a fairly comfortable rest. Next morning, after break- 

40 A Bryological Excursion to Ben Lowers. [Sess. 

fast, we packed up and started for Killin, amid heavy rain. 
Twenty minutes after we started the rain ceased, and the sun 
shone out so bright and warm that we were nearly melted. 
The journey from the Lawers burn to Killin took rather 
longer than we had anticipated. Bryum alpinum is rarely 
found in fruit, but on the way we were so fortunate as 
to gather it in fine fruit. According to our original pro- 
gramme, we should have climbed to the top of Creag-na- 
Caillich to-day ; but after bearing a load of Ben Lawers' 
mosses, &c, on our backs for ten miles, under a broiling sun, 
we were disinclined to attempt the long ascent of the moun- 
tain, with its peak rising 2990 feet. We, however, turned 
up the Finlarig burn at the foot of the mountain, and picked 
up a few good specimens, but got nothing new. 

I do not know whether I shall ever get back to Ben Lawers 
again ; but if I do, I shall manage differently, and get through 
more work in the time. To one prepared and willing to rough 
it for a few days, such a trip would be enjoyable, healthful, 
and, from a botanical point of view, very profitable. 

Just a word, before closing, regarding the fauna of Ben 
Lawers. I was surprised at the scarcity of it. During the 
two days we were upon the mountain we saw one common 
hare, two coveys of grouse — i.e., two hen grouse with young — 
a very few of the common stone-chuck, and two large hawks, 
though they were too high up for us to make them out ; and 
up at Lochan-a-Chait we noticed a pair of ring-ousels. Mr 
Scott found the nest of these birds, high up on the crags, with 
four eggs in it. These were all the wild creatures we saw on 
the Ben. 

We reached home in due course, a little fatigued, no doubt, 
but none the worse for our exposure and wetting. Our outing- 
was very enjoyable, and I should have been exceedingly sorry 
to have missed it. 

At the meeting of 22nd March 1899, Mr Crawford, Presi- 
dent, referred to the recent death of Sir John Struthers, M.D., 
LLJ)., and dwelt specially on the loss to science in general 
which had thus been incurred, while speaking also of the great 
blank which had been made in the membership of this Society 
by his lamented death. 

1898-99-] A Correct Colour Code. 41 


For International Adoption for mapping the Zoo- 
geographical Eealms, Eegions, and Sub-Eegions of 
the World ; and for an Eye- Index to Librarians. 1 

(Read April 26, 1809.) 

The object of this paper is to promulgate a Colour Code which, 
it is hoped, may be found worthy of universal adoption. But 
before entering upon it, I shall first proceed to consider what 
ought to be adopted for its basis as regards the zoological 
regions. On reading and comparing the work of Heilprin 2 
with Wallace's writings on the same subject, with Huxley's 
and Professor Newton's remarks thereon, and with Sclater's 
well - known papers, and then turning to Beddard's ' Zoo- 
geography ' and his very partial analysis of the whole subject, 
and also after taking into consideration Allen's proposed modi- 
fications, I am inclined to consider that Allen's " Arctic Eealm " 
should stand as circumpolar and definite. But if we go farther 
south and take in Heilprin's " Holarctic," then, while it may 
claim a value as a Eealm, it ought not to be considered quite 
as definite and stable as Alien's Arctic Eealm, and must — or 
ought to — be divided into Pahearctic and Nearctic Eegions, as 
advocated by Sclater. In the same way, I think we ought to 
accept an Antarctic Eealm ; because, if we were to accept only 
Heilprin's Holarctic, without conceding Old World and New 
World subdivisions, as Paleearctic and Nearctic Eegions, then 
we may also accept a " Transition Eealm " instead of Heil- 
prin's mere " tracts." With the exception of the smaller, but 
not the less prominent, Transition Tract about Wallace's line, 

1 This paper is the full paper presented to the Fourth International Congress 
of Zoology, Cambridge, August 22-27, 1898, of which only a short abstract was 
printed by the Committee of Publication, and which abstract is given in ' The 
Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Zoology, 1898,' published by 
C. J. Clay & Sous, Cambridge University Press, 1899. 

'-' The Geographical and Geological Distribution of Animals (International 
Scientific Series). 

42 A Correct Colour Code. [Sess. 

the whole " Transition Tracts " of the Old and New "Worlds, 
lying much along the same lines of the parallels of latitude, 
appear to me, with as much justice, to be as definite as the 

But as we advance farther south beyond these so-called 
Transition Tracts, the remaining Eegional Areas become more 
difficult to define, breaking away from all attempts at amal- 
gamation as a Eealm or series of Realms, running out into 
insular and peninsular patches, and their faunas differing 
inter se far more determinedly. Therefore I cannot consider 
that we can for a moment claim any such value as a Eealm 
to include South America and South Africa, the Indian Penin- 
sula, or the Australian Continent and its satellites. Leaving 
now Oceana outside our present purpose, we having given 
South America (Neotropical), South Africa (i.e., south of the 
Transition Tract, or Ethiopia), India, and Oriental and Austral- 
asian, and others, only regional values : having done this, we 
come to the Circumpolar Antarctic Eealm, and I think it 
deserves such a value, so far as our present restricted know- 
ledge of it carries us. And none of the other circumpolar 
divisions should be considered truly deserving of anything 
greater than regional values except the Arctic and the Ant- 

It is evident that differentiation occurs to a greater extent 
towards the far eastern extension of the Holarctic Eealm of 
Heilprin, and south thereof into the Oriental and Australasian 
islands and peninsulas, — and still more and more complicated 
and broken up after Wallace's line is passed, than occurs south 
of the same Eealm in the central portions or in the west. 
In other words, far greater stability is found throughout all 
the Northern Hemisphere than after the Transition Tracts are 
crossed, and still less stability is found in the far east than 
in the west, until the Antarctic Eealm is reached. 

For these reasons we desire to advocate the following 
Eealms, Eegions, and Sub-regions, introductory to the more 
immediate purposes of this paper : — 

An Arctic Realm. 
A Palasarctic Region. 
A Nearctic Region. 
A Neotropical Region. 

An Ethiopian Region. 
An Oriental Region. 
An Australasian Region. 
An Antarctic Realm. 

1898-99-] -^ Correct Colour Code. 43 

The full title of this paper indicates a desire upon my part 
to endeavour to obtain an internationally accepted Colour Code 
with combinations for zoo-geographical purposes, and for facil- 
itating references to the shelves of a library by an eye- index. 
Before advocating my own, I would wish to glance at other 
suggestions which have been made for assisting zoologists in 
such matters, and which have already been referred to and 
illustrated by Beddard in his 'Zoo-geography' (p. 118). 1 

All previous Colour Codes with which I am acquainted 
— excepting one, of which I speak later — have been used 
for descriptive purposes by zoologists, — i.e., for purposes of 
describing species. Thus Werner's " Nomenclature of Colours," 
excellent as it was, involved many and various tints, washes, 
or shades, useful for the purposes intended, but quite too 
confusing and subtle for those which I have in view. In 
a similar way, Biclgeway's " Nomenclature of Colours " was 
similarly intended for descriptive purposes in zoology. Sac- 
cardo's ' Chromotaxia seu Nomenclator Colorum ' is also useful 
principally for zoological purposes, apart from zoo-geographical 
ones. But as Saccardo's true colours are descriptive and 
convenient, I purpose using them as descriptive of my own — 
his being in Latin and mine in English. 

For zoo-geographical delineation and for eye-index purpose, 
I find it only desirable to bring into use the three primary 
colours, the three secondary colours, and two tertiary colours, 
besides white, grey, and black. Thus : — 


Correct Code Col( 



1. White. 



2. Grey. 



3. Black. 



4. Red. 



5. Yellow. 



6. Blue. 



7. Green. 



8. Orange. 



9. Russet. 



10. Brown. 


Purpureus or Atro-purpureus. 

11. Purple. 

Saccardo's " Tabellse Colorum " proves useful in many 
directions ; and the whole paper is a most excellent work 
of reference. 

1 Zoo-geography (Cambridge Nat. Science Manuals), 1895. 

44 -A Correct Colour Code. [Sess. 

Of Keillor's work we need not speak here, as its aims and 
objects are, like most of the others, distinctly for descriptive 
purposes. But Professor Camerano's paper, referred to by 
Beddard in bis ' Zoo-geography ' (1895, p. 118), which, un- 
fortunately, I have not seen in its entirety, first, I believe, 
makes the attempt of applying suitable standards of colours 
for zoo-geographical purposes. Not having seen this treatise, 
I cannot say whether his applications of his colours are more 
suitable, more natural, from topographical standpoints, than 
the one I am about to propose. Nor can I, therefore, place 
his and mine in parallel columns for purposes of comparison. 
So far I take what I can gather from Beddard's analysis {he. 
cit., p. 118): "Graphic Methods of representing the facts of 
Distribution." " Tbe colour might even be made to some 
extent appropriate " (loc. cit.) Then he quotes Camerano : — 

Yellow, prevailing colour in Africa. 
Grey, m n Asia. 

— and so forth. " And," continues Beddard, " Mobius colours 
the ' Transitional Tracts ' (Heilprin's) with a paler tint applied 
to the region which they most resemble." Heilprin prefers to 
shade the transitional areas, and then Beddard destroys this 

Now, the colours I have selected are, as I have said, the 
primary, secondary, and tertiary colours of Hay's nomen- 
clature, with the addition of white, grey, and black. These 
last mentioned are added by me because of a convenience 
which will become apparent as I proceed. To recapitulate, 
my Code Colours are — 

1. White. 

2. Grey. 

3. Black. 

4. Red. 

5. Yellow. 

6. Blue. 

10. Russet, or Brown, or both. 

7. Green. 

8. Purple. 

9. Orange. 

The above colours I offer as an Eye - Index, by which 
attention may be directed to the books or pamphlet-cases 
upon the shelves of any library ; so that these applied to 
Bealms, Begions, and Sub-regions, may at once indicate the 
items in the library devoted to each. 

But, it may be argued, such an eye-index cannot now be 
applied to past accumulations of books, or at least to already 

1898-99-] -^ Correct Colour Code. 45 

bound-up volumes. In reply to this, I say, if not applicable 
to the volumes on the shelf, there need be no difficulty in 
applying the code to the shelves on which past accumulations 
have been placed — to label-plates or to the whole length of the 

There is, I believe, in existence an appointed committee 
presently engaged in a most important piece of work — " The 
Committee of the Eoyal Society upon International Biblio- 
graphy." I do not know whether I record the title correctly, 
and with the scope of that committee I am not fully ac- 
quainted, but it seems to me this question of eye-index is one 
which should claim a portion of their consideration. 

And now let me show the application of my colours to the 
Eealms and Eegions ; after which I propose to assign the 
fixed combinations of these colours to the Sub-regions of Dr 
and Mr W. L. Sclater, and to state the reasons for the beliefs 
that are within me : — 

1. Arctic Realm . . . colour White. 

2. Antarctic Realm . . 11 Grey. 

3. Ethiopian Rt'jion . . . n Black. 

These three may be held as representative for 

Day, Dawn, Night. 

Light, Twilight, Darkness. 

Knowledge, Doubt, Ignorance. 

Civilisation, Transition, 

— or other fancies or associations in the mind. My Mind- 
associations are zoo-geographical. Then — 

4. Palsarctic . 

5. Neotropical . 

6. Australasian 

7. Oriental 

8. Nearctic 
Malagasy, Lemurian ( 
Madagascar \ 

colour Red. 
11 Blue. 



Russet or Brown, 


Purple may be used either as Eegional or grafted as a Sub- 
regional upon Ethiopian. 1 

1 At the time this paper was read at the Zoological Congress at Cambridge it 
was intended to exhibit these colours on papers, buckrams, cloths, art linens, and 
canvases for the purposes of bindings ; and also to show rough specimens of 
index volumes for each Realm or Region — if not perfectly matched, yet 
sufficiently so for illustration. 

46 A Correct Colour Code. [Sess. 

Now let me give my reasons for the above assignations of 
the colours to the Regions : — 

Arctic, white, is in most men's minds associated with snow, 

purity, and a certain amount of knoivledge (scientia). 
Grey for Antarctic is associated with ice ; bluish, with a 

glacier-fringed coast, and a medial position between our 

knowledge of arctic matters and Ethiopia (Aithiops). 
Ethiopian, black, for ignorance, darkness. 
Palsearctic, red, because it has been adopted in Heilprin's 

map for that portion. 
Neotropical, blue, for the same reason. 
Australasian, yellow, for gold — natural mind association 

with that colour. 
Oriental, green. 

Malagasy, purple — " purple isles of the sea." 
Orange, colour not appropriated. 
Nearctic, brown, because, curiously enough, our cousins 

show a very predominant partiality to binding their 

scientific societies' memoirs in this colour (though some 

are black). 
[Note. — Black, I take it, may here be associated with 
History — African History — Ethiopia, Nigger ! ] 

Russet is not appropriated, but might be used for mono- 
graphic publications, or other purposes. 

There is, I am aware, room for discussion upon the appro- 
priateness of the above assignations. Now let me show the 
applications of my code to Sub-regions : — 

I. Pal ,e arctic Region. 

SuSons. Re S i0 »- Sub-region. 

European .... colours Red, with White label. 

Siberian . . . . n 11 Grey 11 

Trans-Mediterranean . . 11 11 Black m 

Manchurian . . . 11 11 Yellow m 

Japanese . . . . n 11 Green h 

m , . ( Russet or 

Tartarian .... n u < t> 

( Brown n 

Persian .... 11 11 Blue n 

But Arctic Realm, Circumpolar, and including Panarctic — 

Old World . . . colours White, with Red label. 

New World . . . n n Brown 11 


A Correct Colour Code. 


The Eegional Colours to occupy the main bulk of the back 
of a book- or pamphlet - case, and the Sub - regional the 
differently coloured label on which the book-title and date 
is lettered (large !) ; and lower £ in. or £ in. to be white in all, 
for the purpose of a minor division — such as the name of a 
country, county, or even parish. 

II. Nearctic Region. 

Canadian — Sub- Arctic . colours Brown, with Red 
Humid . . . . 11 11 Green 

Arid . . . . 11 11 Yellow 

But Arctic Circumpolar White with Brown. 


III. Ethiopian Region. 

S. African . 
W. African 
S.W. African 
S.E. African 
N.E. African 

colours Black, with Orange label. 

IV. Oriental Region. 

India and Ceylon 
Burma and Malay 
Sunda Isles to Wallace's 


colours Green, with Red label. 
,, M White „ 

11 11 Purple 11 

11 11 Yellow 11 

11 11 Brown n 

Antillean . 




S. Brazilian 


V. Neotropical. 

colours Blue 

with Red 


The designations of these Sub-regional divisions have 
been altered in later treatments (see Mr W. L. Sclater's Article 
and Maps). 1 

1 The latest " to date " exposition of Dr Sclater's and Mr Wm. Sclater's views 
are exhibited in a volume recently issued — ' The Geography of Mammals,' by 
W. L. Sclater and P. L. Sclater. Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner, & Co., 1899. 

48 A Correct Colour Code. [Sess. 

VI. Australasian. 

Hawaiian . 

colours Yellow, with White label. 

n ti Red n 

m ii Purple ii 

n n Green n 

ii ii Brown n 

{VII. Lemurian. 

This takes Purple, or, if only considered to be a Sub-region of the 
Ethiopian Region, then — 

Purple, label grafted on Black. 

Then we have the Arctic Eealm, which is circuinpolar : — 

Paltearctic, W. . . . colours White, with Red label. 

Palsearctic, E. . . . n 11 Grey m 

Nearctic . . . . n n Brown n 

The various countries within the Arctic Eealrn can have 
their literature collected and position shown by their names 
in black block letters stamped upon the lower white — thus, 
Greenland ; or for Old World countries in red, and New 
World countries in brown, &c. 

The Antarctic Eealm will include all the islands of the 
Southern oceans within the Antarctic circle, also South 
Georgia (but not Falkland Isles), Bouvet, Kerguelen, Crosets, 
thus : On the grey label or on the white lower fourth — thus, 

Having assigned my Code Colours each to its own Eegion, 
and their combinations to the Sub-regions, I desire now to 
show the applications of my scheme in practice. For that 
purpose I brought with me most of the materials I used from 
the beginning. These were : — 

1. A copy of ' Hay's Nomenclature of Colours,' which I have taken as 
my text, as the most suitable for my code. 

2. A copy of Saccardo's paper, to which I have referred. 

3. A series of my Code Colours on manilla papers. 1 

4. The same in white buckram, Winterbottom's " Colour," " Buckram 

1 Should pamphlet-cases be obtained in white manilla paper backs, Aspinall's 
enamel can be painted on equally as well as it can be done upon Winterbottom's 
" Buckram White No. 1." 

1898-99-] A Correct Colour Code. 49 

No. 1 Colour," which is coloured for purposes of the Code by Aspinall's 

5. Aspinall's Enamels, matching niy Code, to order, and which colours the 
Aspinall Company keep in stock. 

6. A complete set of the colours used for Regions, and with all the com- 
binations used for the Sub-regions, and named on the backs of each slip of 
paper and of buckram. 

7. The Code Colours, matched by Winterbottoni in buckrams, art linens, 
art canvases, for binding according to directions, each coloured cloth being 
numbered with Winterbottom's colour numbers, a list of which I also give 
(infra) to facilitate orders. 

8. A bound series of volumes, with ABC thumb-indexes, in full colours 
of the Regions as assigned by my Code. (Wilson, binder, Castle Hill, 

9. Aspinall's Enamels to Code. — I did not exhibit the cases of these 
colours supplied. But the colours were shown under 5 antea, as painted 
upon Winterbottom's white buckram colour, No. 1. This can be used 
upon pamphlet-case backs — obliterated when the possessor comes to bind 
off sets in Winterbottom's cloths, and repainted again in enamels. 

10. Winterbottom's thinner cloths, "Cloth Extra" — Matched to Code 
for use, in laying on the Sub-regional Colours upon the stronger and more 
durable canvases and buckrams (No. 6) by bookbinders' paste or Le Page's 

11. A Parcel showing application of my Code Colours to use of 
"Library Bureau" or Zurich -Strasse Guide- Cards to Regions and Sub- 
regions. 1 

12. A specimen volume bound, showing — Buckram No. 1, with Aspinall's 
enamel, label-fourth, meaning " Nearctic- Arctic." 

13. A specimen volume, roughly bound, showing — Buckrams No. 1, 
with thinner Winterbottom's cloth (matched) laid on as Sub-regional label- 
fourth of back. 

14. An L. B. case (oak) which contains the Zurich-Strasse Card-Cata- 
logue of the papers on Vertebrata for 1896, having applied in it (roughly) 
my Colour Code Guide-Cards. 

15. A map by Mr Bartholomew, who adopts my Code in his next Zoo- 
geographical Atlas on Mercator's Projection for colouring the six Regions 

1 The Eegional Guide-Cards have the guide-top-edges fall length of the Cards. 
(L. B. Card.) The Sub-regional Cards have projections <: thrown upon" the 
longer cards in 7ths and 3rds. (L. B. Cards come in between.) It would be 
very desirable that Zurich-Strasse cards be cut by regular machinery according 
to this Code. The Library Bureau up to this time has declined to adopt this 
Code and arrangement for Guide-Cards — no doubt upon the ground of trouble, 
the expense of new uniform cutters, and the present uncertainty of any demand 
which would warrant such outlay. Should countries be desired for direct refer- 
ences, an alphabetical code can be easily applied, and letters stamped (or printed) 
on the L. B. cards between, or by using a greater quantity of the 7th and 3rd 
projections under each colour, and an alphabetical arrangement of the books 
or pamphlet-cases could be utilised upon the shelves. 


50 A Correct Colour Code. [Sess. 

of Sclater, and two Realms — Arctic and Antarctic — showing the applica- 
tion of my Code and of the method of engrafting the Sub-regional Colours 
on the map. 

A map on Mercator's Projection by Mr Bartholomew, iu black and white 
only, for use in colouring the geographical distribution of any genus or 
species, for object-lessons in a school or museum show-case — as already 
utilised in the Museums of London, Leeds, Edinburgh, and elsewhere — or 
for general purposes of illustration. 1 

16. And lastly, a pamphlet-case made to my order by Hugh Stevenson & 
Sons, box-makers, &c, Ardwick, Manchester, which more than any other 
in the market combines strength, utility, and endurance with its moderate 
cost — about 4d. each — backed in buckram (Winterbottom white buckram 
No. 1), with rings, and patent hinging, and metal-protected edges. 

And now let me say that the great trouble I have ex- 
perienced in preparing this paper and suggested Code has 
arisen from my endeavours to amalgamate all the trades men- 
tioned. This part has occupied much time, attention, and 
correspondence, for nearly twelve months. Should my Code 
find favour in the eyes and minds of those who are devoting 
attention to bibliographical matters, to be reported to the 
British Association and the Eoyal Society, I think it is only 
on my part due to the tradesmen who have assisted me to 
give here a list of their names and addresses. I am sure they 
had as much trouble practically as I had theoretically, and 
from me they have derived little monetary reward : — 

Col. Logan, Stoneywood Paper Works, Denny (John Collins & Co.), for 
papers matched to Code in Manillas. 

Messrs Winterbottom, book-cloth manufacturers, Manchester, for two 
sets of superior buckrams, art linens, canvases, &c, and thinner 
cloths, &c, for " laying on " in bindings to order. 

Aspinall Enamel Co., for enamels to match Code Colours, and much 
trouble taken to do so, which colours they now keep in stock as 
"CCC Colours." 

Messrs Hunter & Sons, bookbinders, 28 Queen Street, Edinburgh, who 
wull bind to Code. 

Mr Wilson, bookbinder, Castle Hill, Edinburgh, for much trouble taken, 
and for set of thumb-index volumes for regions in Code Colours. 

The Zurich-Strasse " Concilium Bibliographicum, &c," for the L. B. card- 
catalogue of vertebrata, 1896. 

Mr E. Bidwell, for helping me in the matter of cutting guide-cards to 
patterns of Code Colours exhibited. 

To Mr J. Bartholomew, who saw all my Code materials, and has adopted 

1 These maps might be made of various useful sizes, such as octavo, quarto, 
and folio, or even of smaller sizes for book-illustration purposes. 


A Correct Colour Code. 


the colours for cartographical work in his next Zoo-geographical 

Atlas (in preparation). 
To Hugh Stevenson & Sons, box-makers, &c, Bridge Street, Ardwick, 

Manchester, for manufacturing strong cheap pamphlet-cases, backed 

with Winterbottom's white buckram No. 1, and supplied to orders. 
To Van Houten Manufacturing Co., 33a Fore Street, London, for " Solid 

Rubber Type," as used upon the backs of pamphlet- cases. 1 
To Messrs Stewart & Co., 92 George Street, Edinburgh, for sample 

pamphlet-case, stamped, " Correct Colour Code by J. A. H.-B." 


My Code in some details cannot be considered perfect. 
For instance, " Fixed Colours " — I understand there is no 
colour which holds ingredients of coal-tar products which is 
not susceptible to some degree of change from sunlight or 
damp. Certain purples fade. Red (Ruber) is perhaps the 
most stable. To fix such few colours is only a matter, we 
believe, of time and attention and chemical progress. 


Mr Winterbottom's buckrams, cloths, art linens, and can- 
vases, which match my Code, may be used for binding in 
Regional Colours. 2 



Art Vellum 

Art Linen . 
Art Canvas 
Art Vellum 
Art Linen . 
Art Canvas 
Art Vellum 
Art Canvas 
Art Linen . 
Art Canvas 
(?) • 

jckkams, Etc. 

Colour. Winterbottom's Nos 



Black . 

. 72 

Grey . 


Dark Grey . 


Red . 


Do. (Code) 


Dark Red . 


Deep Red . 


Blue . 






Orange (not good) 






Do. ... 




1 We have used these stamps also upon Aspinall's Enamel perfectly success- 
fully, and an advantage is— the ink can be washed off, and cases be used again 
and again. 

2 The thinner cloths (see second list) can be used as "laid on" upon the 
stronger ones, for Sub-Regional indications, by the use of Le Page's fish-glue or 
bookbinders' best strong pastes. 


A Correct Colour Code. 


Lighter (Thinner) Cloths, 

which match my Code Colours as nearly as possible, and 
as at present kept in stock by Mr Wiuterbottom : — 

Cloth (extra) 


Art Linen 
Cloth (extra) 

Cloth (common) 
Cloth (common and weak 
Cloth (extra) . 
Art Linen 
Cloth (extra) . 
Patent lined Art Linen 
Cloth (extra) . 



terbottoni's Nos 

. White . 


. Black . 






. Red 


. Do. 


. Blue . 


Yellow . 


Do. . 


c) Purple . 




Dark Purple 

(too dark) 


Orange . 


Brown . 


Do. . 


Messrs W. inform me that " if a demand arises " they will 
match and supply any materials to my CCC Colours (in 
lit., Feb. 1898) in the stronger series. 

By adopting the Salvin f in. principle of divisions for book- 
shelves, these pamphlet-cases and book-publishers' sizes placed 
upon the shelves lose only the minimum of space. The 
Library Bureau " Adjustable Book-Crates " can also be simi- 
larly utilised. I have tested both of these. The Salvin 
principle is so well known that I need not describe it. But 
bookshelves, drawers of most suitable depths or any depths 
which are multiples of f in., can fit in same cases or shelves 
— | in. for flat architects' plans, maps, coins, &c, up to any 
multiple for innumerable purposes of collections or books. 

Another development of my Code Colours may occur — viz., 
the use of post-cards in these colours for Begions, &c. Thus, 
if a specialist residing in any Faunal Area — say " Paleearctic, 
European, England " — used special cards in colours for all 
connected with his area, recipients who may, for instance, be 
generalising upon a work on Begion, Sub-Begion, or Country 
can at once file the colour under its own index. But black 
and purple are a little troublesome, though not really difficult 
to use : simply print the top of the " guide edge " in black, and 
write the communication on white beneath. Post-cards to be 



1898-99-] Notes 011 the Bournemouth Cliffs. 53 

same size as L. B. Cards and Guides. I have not put this in 
practice — it is a mere suggestion. 

The Colour Code can be amalgamated with a running No., 
or with the Dewey system under each colour or guide-card, 
and the figures stamped, written, or printed upon the guide 
projections or upon the top right-hand corner of the ordinary 
L. B. Cards. 



(Read April 26, 1899.) 

Last autumn I spent six weeks for the benefit of my health at 
Bournemouth, which is a well known watering-place on the 
south coast of England, nearly opposite the Isle of Wight. 
The town itself stands in a valley, which has been excavated 
by the small stream called the Bourne. Proceeding away 
from this, the ground gradually becomes higher on each side 
until, as far as I can make out from the ordnance map, it is 
rather more than one hundred feet above the sea-level. The 
sea has, as usual, worn away the land and formed cliffs of 
about one hundred feet in height. These present some peculi- 
arities which I do not remember to have seen elsewhere ; and 
they are so different from what we are accustomed to in Scot- 
land, that I think the members of the Society will be glad to 
have a short account of them. 

The sea does not now reach the foot of the cliffs, except 
perhaps in very high tides. The first impression that the 
cliffs leave on the mind is that they are perpendicular, or even 
overhanging, so that it seemed as if it would be easy to 
measure their height by letting down a string with a weight 
attached. On examination, however, it was found that the 
appearance was deceptive : it is true that certain parts are 
very perpendicular, but these parts never extend the whole 
height of the cliff, and there is always a considerable talus 
at the base. The cliffs are composed partly of sand, partly of 

54 Notes on the Bournemouth Cliffs. [Sess. 

a very compact gravel, and partly of clay, and exhibit some 
good specimens of false bedding. The soil on the top is very 
thin, and the whole country for some miles inland appears to 
be very barren. 

The great feature of the neighbourhood is the extensive 
pine forests, which consist to a small extent of the Scotch fir 
(Pinics sylvestris), but to a much greater extent of a pine which 
bears a much larger cone. The town itself has extended very 
greatly during the last thirty years for which I have known 
it, and is still increasing very fast. A large number of new 
roads have lately been cut through the woods, with a view to 
building operations ; and in many cases these have exposed 
sections, which enable the nature of the strata to be very 
easily seen. One effect of this laying out of new roads, 
which are cut principally through the gravel, has been to 
discolour the water of some artificial lakes, through which a 
small stream flows to the sea. 

As will be readily understood, the cliffs are very easily 
acted upon by running water. Whenever there is a heavy 
shower of rain, the water running down the cliffs cuts numer- 
ous small channels in them, which often unite and form larger 
ones ; and every shower brings down, and deposits at the base 
of each channel, a delta of greater or less size. In many cases 
the deltas do not exhibit a uniform slope downwards, but are 
composed of a series of layers, each of which falls short of the 
preceding one, as is often the case when such a substance as 
melted lead is poured out into a pan. When the channels have 
reached a certain size, the portion of the cliff they have under- 
mined will fall down bodily ; and there are places where such 
landslips are observed half-way down the cliff, with the trees 
still growing on them. 

As already mentioned, the Bourne has excavated for itself 
a valley of considerable size ; and wherever there is a stream, 
either temporary or permanent, it has excavated a small valley, 
generally with nearly perpendicular sides, some of which 
extend inland for a considerable distance, occasionally for 
nearly a mile. These valleys are called chines, and there are 
at least a dozen of them, of different sizes, in the four or five 
miles to which the cliffs extend. The same word, " chine ", is 
used in the Isle of Wight to denote similar small valleys. 

1898-99-] On Obtaining a Large Field 0/ View, &c. 55 

Extract from 'New English Dictionary,' p. 352, col. 3, re the word "chine." 

Chine. I. An open fissure or crack in a surface, a cleft, crack, chink, 
leak (obs.) 

II. (a) A fissure in the surface of the earth, a crevice, charm (obs.) (b) 
On the Isle of Wight and Hampshire coast, a deep and narrow ravine cut 
in soft rock strata by a stream descending steeply to the sea. 

Exs.— 1830, Lyell, ' Princ. Geol.', i. 281 : "One of these chines near 
Boscomb has been deepened twenty feet within a few years." 1837, Marryat, 
' Dog Fiend ', xv. : " A certain point close to the Black Gang chine." 1879, 
Jenkinson, ' I. of Wight ', 69 : " The Shanklin chine is the most beautiful 
of any on the island." 

These chines seem to have been formed in several places 
where there is no regular stream. It seems, in fact, that when 
once a breach has been made in the line of the cliff it is 
rapidly increased both in depth and length by the rain. From 
what I have said I have little doubt that the members will 
agree with me that these cliffs form an admirable specimen of 
sub-aerial denudation. 



(Bead April 26, 1899.) 

With a tube length of 160 mm., or about 6 \ inches, the 
field of view of a 3 -inch object-glass is a circle half an inch 
in diameter; with a 2 -inch object-glass the field is a circle of 
slightly over three-eighths of an inch in diameter ; while with 
a 1^-inch object-glass it is rather more than one-fourth of an 
inch in diameter. Hitherto there have been only two means 
used for increasing the size of the field of view. One of these 
was devised by Mr Joseph Jackson Lister. It was chiefly 
intended for the purpose of erecting the image in the ordinary 
compound microscope, and enabling it to be used as a dissect- 
ing one. This was effected by screwing the erecting portion 
of an ordinary terrestrial eyepiece into the lower end of the 

56 On Obtaining a Large Field of View, &c. [Sess. 

draw-tube of a microscope. This arrangement caused a con- 
siderable loss of light. It was devised long before photog- 
raphy was used in connection with the microscope. The only 
other method of increasing the field of view was by means of 
a specially constructed object-glass, first introduced by Zeiss, of 
Jena. This consisted of an achromatic negative lens similar 
to a Barlow at one end of the objective mount, while at the 
other end there was a positive achromatic lens. These two 
separate lenses were so mounted that the distance between 
them could be made variable, and thus get different powers 
according to the position in which they were placed. One 
by Wray gives powers equivalent to a lens of from 4 to 6 
inches focus. It is constructed to be used on a 10 -inch 
tube. It is a very excellent objective. 

Some time ago, when constructing a small microscope with 
a Jackson arm, the draw-tube was made out of a short piece 
of tube which had been used for a different purpose. It was 
only 4| inches long. The Jackson arm was too short to 
admit of its carrying a 3 -inch objective in the ordinary way, 
and this objective was accordingly screwed into the lower end 
of the draw-tube. On pulling out this tube it was in this 
way easy to get the necessary distance to focus the objective. 
It was found that with the low power eyepiece used a very 
large field of view was obtained. A crown piece, 1| inch in 
diameter, was easily seen in the field, while the definition was 
everything the most fastidious could desire. The eyepiece used 
in combination with the 3-inch objective was a No. 0, by Leitz 
of Wetzlar. It is built on the same principle as the Kellner 
orthoscopic — that is to say, the focus of the eye lens reaches 
to the field lens. The eyepiece tube has no diaphragm, as the 
cell in which the field lens is mounted forms the diaphragm. 
The only difference between this eyepiece and an orthoscopic 
is this — the Leitz eyepiece has a plano-convex eye lens, while 
the orthoscopic has a concavo-convex one. The Leitz No. 
has an extremely flat field and low power, its equivalent focus 
being about 2 inches. No other eyepiece is so well adapted 
for obtaining the large field in the way indicated. With the 
above combination' of 3 -inch object-glass and No. eyepiece, 
smaller fields of view may be obtained by simply pulling out 
the eyepiece a short distance, say from half an inch to an inch, 

1898-99-] On Obtaining a Large Field of View, &c. 57 

and thus slightly lengthening the draw-tube. In this way the 
field of view may be anything between five-eighths of an inch 
and 1£ inch. As the object-glass referred to is constructed 
for a 10-inch tube, it may be objected to its use in the above 
way that the definition would be affected by reducing the 
length of tube ; but it lias to be kept in view that by shorten- 
ing the tube the magnification is very much reduced, and the 
objection may be held in this view to be out of court. It will 
be seen from the above that no adventitious aid is required to 

Photo-micrograph of crown piece. 

obtain the object in view— just the ordinary object-glass and 
eyepiece. It has been shown to the Society to be capable of 
being used in photography, as the photograph of the crown 
piece handed to the members demonstrated. It is necessary, 
when using the microscope in this way, to use the very best 
object-glasses ; no second-rate ones will do. The low powers 
made by Mr Wray have been found among all others to possess 
the very highest qualities. They have the largest possible 
lenses, and thus admit much light, coupled with extremely fine 
definition. Great stress is laid upon the use of the low-power 

58 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

eyepiece referred to. No one trying to get the large field and 
fine definition need expect success unless by using the materi- 
als indicated or some equally good and of equally low power, 
especially the same low-power eyepiece. 

[A reproduction of a photo-micrograph of a crown piece, 
which is \\ inch diameter, is given on the previous page. 
This was taken by means of the 3 -inch Wray microscope 
object - glass and Leitz No. eyepiece above referred to. 
Neither of these lenses is corrected for the chemical focus, 
nor was the silver of the crown piece dimmed in any way 
to obviate the difference of the reflection of the light from 
its surface.] 

At this meeting, Mr Crawford, President, described a vege- 
table hybrid which he had raised, the parents being a turnip 
and a borecole or Scotch kail. The hybrid seeded thrice, but 
the last seeds had unfortunately been lost. The character- 
istics of the hybrid — resembling the kail in leaves and the 
turnip in roots, and the finger-and-toe disease to which it 
was more liable than the kail — were shown on the screen. 


By Mr JAMES RUSSELL, Convener. 

This section had fortnightly meetings during the winter and 
spring months for practical work. The attendance of members 
was fairly regular, the average number present being about 
ten. The object of these meetings is to stimulate to work 
with the microscope in its bearings upon histological research, 
and in carrying out this object to give mutual assistance, each 
member communicating of his best for the information of the 
others, and all learning from each other. Each member is 
allowed to choose the field of study which is most congenial 
to his tastes, to work it according to his own methods, and 
then to communicate the result of his labours for the benefit 
of his fellows. 

1898-99-] Report of the Microscopical Section. 59 

In pursuance of this course the following work was done at 
the various meetings, somewhat in the order here given : — ■ 

The various stages in the cleaning and mounting of diatoms, 
from the crude gathering as taken from the stones in the burn 
to the finished microscopic slide. At the following meeting 
was shown the process of taking photographic negatives of 
microscopic objects. 

Three very interesting meetings were spent in watching the 
various processes in the staining and mounting of sections. 
The plant chosen for the purpose by the operator was the 
liverwort. Specimens had been embedded in paraffin and 
then cut into sections. The sections so cut were brought to 
the meetings, when the process of putting them on the glass 
slide so as to get them to adhere, of freeing them from the 
surrounding paraffin, the staining of them, and finally the 
mounting in balsam so as to be fit objects for examination 
under the microscope, were fully shown. 

At following meetings the life-history of mosses was de- 
monstrated by diagrams, by specimens shown under the micro- 
scope, and by prints from photographic negatives. The life- 
history of ferns and their allies was in like manner intended 
to have been taken up, but from want of time this subject 
had to be left over. 

It will be seen that the work of the Section during the 
session has been confined to the vegetable kingdom. Such 
work was not only profitable in affording a little knowledge 
of some of the lowly organisms of nature, but in the highest 
degree interesting. The only regret is that more of the 
members of the Society did not join in it. I cannot think 
that in a Society whose members number upwards of two 
hundred there are not more than a dozen who take an interest 
in the microscope. To all who do take such an interest I 
would appeal to assist : to the skilful and experienced to place 
some of their rich stores of knowledge at the disposal of their 
less favoured brethren, and to the unskilled and inexperienced 
to come that they may share in these stores of knowledge, 
assured of ' a kindly welcome. 

The field of microscopy is large enough to admit all 
workers. I would wish, however, not to be misunderstood in 
my use of the term " field of microscopy." I do not use it in 

60 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

the sense of being a science apart, but in the sense of the field 
of natural science — animal, vegetable, and mineral — studied 
by means of the microscope. The microscope and its capa- 
bilities are not to be studied as an end, but merely as a means 
to an end. The instrument should be used as a means of 
investigation into the secrets of nature. At every step in our 
researches we come upon objects too minute for investigation 
by the unaided eye, but science has placed at our disposal 
this instrument, which increases our power of vision many 
hundreds of times, and thus enables us to elucidate many 
complicated problems in the life-history of animals and plants. 

You will thus see that the " field of microscopy " to which 
I call you is practically limitless. Let each one, according to 
tastes and inclination, choose a corner for his or her own 
special work, and try to make himself or herself master or 
mistress of the same. In this domain, as in every other, if 
anything of importance is to be achieved there must be a 
definite aim. The worker must set a goal before him and 
brace his energies to reach the same. This necessarily limits 
the area of investigation, but what is lost in breadth of research 
is gained in depth of insight. As thus the field broadens out 
there is more and more a call for specialised workers. 

It is here that the importance comes in of meetings such 
as the Microscopical Section has. They act as a stimulating 
power to the individual worker, are a means of comparing 
notes of progress, and of giving assistance in the interpretation 
of things obscure. 

There is another class of workers, and perhaps in this 
country the more numerous, who use the microscope as a 
means of relaxation and refined enjoyment, who do not confine 
themselves to any one field of examination, but touch lightly 
upon many, examining now the beautiful mathematical figure 
of a diatom, then the varied forms of the desmids ; now the 
glowing colours of the scales of a butterfly's wing, and then 
the pseudo-spirals of the tongue of the blow-fly. Rich fields 
of examination for such lie on every hand. It would, however, 
add additional zest to their pleasure if, instead of getting their 
objects ready prepared and mounted, they would themselves do 
the preparation and mounting. It may be true that such 
microscopic slides prepared by themselves would not look so 

1898-99-] Report of the Bryological Section. 61 

well in the cabinet, but in their preparation the workers would 
sain a knowledge of the structure which no amount of ex- 
animation of the object prepared by another would ever give. 
Such workers I would also invite to our fortnightly meetings, 
where I have no doubt they would pick up some hints which 
would be useful to them. We would impose upon them no 
conditions of study, ask them to undertake no field of research 
which did not fall in with their own liking. For of every field 
of investigation it may be said, in the words of my late 
lamented friend, M. Julius Dehy, in the close of his introduc- 
tion to ' Pelletan's Diatoms ' — 

" II y a pres de quarante ans que je m'occupe, pendant mes 
loisirs, hulas ! trop peu nombreux, de l'etude des Diatomees. 
J'y ai trouve, pendant cette longue partie de mon existence, 
un delassement bienfaisant, une recreation saine et de bon aloi, 
un plaisir continu, qui m'ont maintes fois fait oublier monien- 
tanement les petites et les grandes miseres d'une vie fort 
accidentee. Je souhaite a tons ceux qui suivront mes conseils 
de trouver dans l'etude de ces admirables petits organismes 
autant de satisfaction que j'en ai trouve moi-meme. 

" Un vaste champ reste ouvert pour completer l'histoire des 
Diatomees ; il y a done gloire et profit a retirer de leur etude 
pour celui qui voudra serieusement l'entreprendre." 



In submitting the first report of this section, I may state that 
it is the outcome of an arrangement made at the beginning of 
the winter session that the work of the Microscopical Section 
should be carried out by different groups, each selecting some 
special subject for study. Four or five of the members 
associated themselves to learn something of the life-history of 
the moss plant, and it was concluded that the most concise 
report of the progress made would be to review briefly the 

62 Report of the Bryological Section. [Sess. 

different stages in the life-history of a moss, illustrating the 
same by means of lantern slides and diagrams of preparations 
which the members had made. 

Taking the spore as the beginning of each independent 
plant, it is found to consist of protoplasm, containing numer- 
ous chloroplasts, with two distinct coverings ; the inner cover 
is thin, and is known as the endospore ; the outer is tough 
and of a brown colour, and is known as the exospore. When 
seen under a magnification of about 750 diameters, the exo- 
spore of Hypnum rutabulum appears to be covered with very 
fine dots. An essential to the growth of the spore is moisture, 
which is absorbed till the spore expands and ruptures the 
exospore. The protoplasm, surrounded by the endospore, 
begins to protrude and grows outward in the form of a fila- 
ment. Before growth has proceeded very far, however, cell 
walls are formed in the filament, dividing it into cells (fig. 1). 
We observe that cell formation takes place outside of the spore. 
This is true of all the mosses with the exception of one small 
group, where cell division takes place within the spore, and 
before it is ruptured. 

This filament, or protonema as we may now call it, marks 
the second stage of the plant life. It has unlimited power of 
elongation by apical growth, and is divided into cells by oblique 
transverse septa lying in different planes (fig. 2). These septa 
are formed only in the apical cell, as growth by cell division 
does not take place. These cells, however, have the power of 
putting out, just behind the anterior principal septum, little 
protuberances, which are separated by a cell wall from the 
principal filament (fig. 3). Another cell wall may be formed 
which divides the protuberance into two cells. One of these 
cells may grow into a filament penetrating into the soil and 
becoming a rhizoid. These always become brown by absorp- 
tion of mineral matter. The other cell may grow out into a 
secondary filament, lying on the surface of the ground. This 
becomes green owing to the formation of chlorophyll. 

It is generally from these secondary filaments that the 
young moss plant is developed. The cell that is destined to 
give rise to a new plant puts out, behind its anterior septum, 
a protuberance. This is formed into a cell by a cell wall. 
A change in development now appears. Instead of elongating, 

1898-99-] Report of tlie Bryological Section. 63 

the cell becomes pear-shaped, and three cell walls are then 
formed (fig. 4), intersecting one another at such an angle that 
they enclose a mass shaped like an inverted pyramid (fig. 5). 
This stage brings us to the foundation of the stem with its 
lateral appendages. 

The development of the stem proceeds as follows : A cell 
wall is formed parallel to one of the three faces of the 
pyramidal mass, or apical cell, and cuts off a segment (fig. 6). 
The apical cell is of course reduced in size by this, but begins 
to grow again till it regains its former size (fig. 7), when a 
segment is cut off from the second face (fig. 8). Growth 
again proceeds till the former size is regained, and a segment 
is cut off from the third face of the apical cell. Growth 
and segmentation alternate regularly, and it will be observed 
that the fourth segment is above the first, the fifth above the 
second, the sixth above the third, the seventh above the first 
and fourth, and so on — in short, it will be seen that the 
segments are ranged in a spiral. When once this is grasped, 
the spiral arrangement of the leaves, which are developments 
of the segments, will be clearly seen. 

Leaving the main stem and observing the segments, we find 
changes have been taking place, but as this is uniform in 
all, we will take one segment and follow it out. A wall is 
formed dividing the segment into an inner and an outer half 
(fig. 9). The inner half goes towards forming the meristem. 
The outer half is divided into a lower and an upper cell (fig. 
10). The lower cell goes to form the cortex. The upper cell 
is divided into two cells by a cell wall (fig. 11). The upper of 
these, by further growth and cell division, develops into a leaf 
(figs. 12 and 13), while the lower may form a branch, and 
this explains why branches are never axillary to the leaves. 

The development of the leaf from the leaf cell takes place 
by segmentation arising from the formation of cell walls 
perpendicular to the surface, and inclined to the right and left 
(tig. 14). The growth is at first apical, but it is limited, and 
when that ceases the leaf grows from the base till it is fully 
developed. The young leaves grow rapidly, and are closely 
imbricated over the growing point, but the elongation of the 
stem eventually separates them. They are always sessile, with 
a broad base inserted into the stem. 

64 Exhibits in Natural History. [Sess. 

The first young leaves are always imperfect, but the older 
leaves of many mosses possess a midrib which always proceeds 
from the base. In the row of cells in the middle of the young 
leaf a wall arises parallel to the surface, dividing these cells 
into two. By further divisions and growth of the lower of 
these cells the midrib is formed. The inner cells form the 
conducting tissue, while the outer become thickened and serve 
to strengthen the leaf. The structure of the midrib, like the 
outline of the leaves, varies with the different genera. 

It has already been said that the inner half of the segments 
cut off from the apical cell formed the meristem of the stem. 
This is brought about by repeated longitudinal and transverse 
segmentation. Generally speaking, there is very little differ- 
entiation of tissue, and the absence of a well-developed vascular 
system is accounted for by the ability of mosses to absorb 
nutriment at any point of their surface. 

While special prominence was given to the history of the 
moss plant from the spore to the formation of the antheridia 
and archegonia, attention was also directed to the capsule, but 
a detailed study of it has been left over for another season, 
and may form the subject of a future communication. 


At the winter evening meetings during the Session a number 
of interesting objects in Natural History were exhibited by 
members. Amongst these, the Secretary (Mr A. B. Steele) 
showed a specimen of the Jew's-ear fungus (Himeola auricula- 
Judce), found in Niddrie grounds. The President (Mr W. C. 
Crawford) submitted a microscopic section of wood from the 
supposed " crannog " at Dumbuck, near Dumbarton. Mr C. 
Campbell exhibited the nest of the long-tailed titmouse. Mr 
A. Murray displayed a very interesting collection of mosses 
gathered by him on Ben Lawers, during the excursion 
described in his paper read to the Society on February 22 
(see pp. 28-40). A large number of microscopic objects 
were also exhibited throughout the Session, including living- 
specimens, and slides prepared by members. 

ZVINR; FIELD ■.. NAT. \ tyCRO: Soa- 

Fio S 


F/ i 


Fig* 'X>3&llt Ff<ON\ FMOTOO^ftr-HS 
AND PJ8^TO 13 F/?Ol*| D(fl&nftl»)« 

P^tp«f^6D ay fl(?Y°'-oGi&^L 6WT|oy. 

F '?' + 

w, 6.5?. 

ID IN ft-. FIELD -NhT. \ WW SOC- 

fio i 

F 'l* 

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Fig' I t3 pi, FKO«\ pb.tojuhhs 
Mi) cijj^-io 13 fiion] ornmnins 

W. &3? 

1898-99-] Annual Business Meeting. 65 


The Annual Business Meeting of the Society was held at 20 
George Street on the evening of October 23 — the President 
in the Chair. The following report was given in by the 
Secretary : — 

During the past Session 22 meetings (exclusive of the meetings of the 
Microscopical Section) have been held — viz., 6 indoor and 16 field meetings. 
There was a slight falling off in the attendance at the indoor meetings, and 
an increase in that of the field meetings. The aggregate number present 
at the latter was 390, or an average of 25 at each meeting. Mr Russell, 
the Convener of the Microscopical Section, has issued a syllabus of the 
work to be taken up this Session. He has again kindly offered the use of 
his laboratory for the meetings, and invites members to join the Section. 
There have been 13 names withdrawn from the roll and 21 names added 
this year, giving at the close of Session 1898-99 a total roll of ordinary 
members of 210. During the Session death has deprived the Society of 
a number of its oldest and most valued members — Mr Malcolm Dunn, 
Mr John Henderson, Mrs Sprague, Sir John Struthers, and Mr William 
Penman — leaving only 8 members who resigned, and four of these were 
reluctantly compelled to withdraw their names. The fact of so few resigna- 
tions from such a large and increasing membership, and of its flourishing 
financial condition, speaks more for the prosperity of the Society than 
anything I could say about it. 

The Treasurer drew attention to the Statement of Income 
and Expenditure for the past year, printed and in the hands 
of members. The Society, he remarked, had passed through 
a very prosperous year, financially, and the balance in hand 
— £48, 7s. 2d. — was the largest which had ever stood at the 
credit of the Society. 

The election of Office-bearers was next proceeded with. 
The names recommended by the Council to the Society were 
placed in the ballot-box, and afterwards examined by two 
scrutineers chosen at the meeting, when it was found that all 
those proposed by the Council had been unanimously elected. 
The following is the complete list of Office-bearers for Session 
1899-1900, the names of the new Office-bearers elected at 
the meeting being printed in italics : President — W. C. Craw- 
ford, F.RS.E. ; Vice-Presidents — W. Eanken, A. Hewat, F.F.A., 
and A. B. Steele ; Secretary — W. Williamson ; Treasurer — 


66 Annual Business Meeting. [Sess. 1898-99. 

G. Cleland ; Editor of ' Transactions ' — J. Lindsay ; Auditors 
— E. C. Millar, C.A., and J. T. Mack ; Councillors — Lieut -Col. 
Pennefather, E. Denson, Mrs Deuchar, Miss Sprague, T. Laidlaw, 
C. Campbell, Jas. Eussell, Miss Oxley, Br Watson, Br Bavies, 
Wm. Forgan, and A. Murray. 

Dr Davies proposed a vote of thanks to Mr A. B. Steele, 
who had retired from the secretaryship, after having held 
that office for five years. Dr Davies said that for the greater 
part of the period during which Mr Steele had been Secretary, 
he himself had held the office of President, and had thus 
been brought into close relationship with Mr Steele as regards 
the conducting of the affairs of the Society. He could 
therefore speak with knowledge of Mr Steele's scientific 
attainments, and of his thorough business qualities. The 
remarks of Dr Davies having been endorsed by the Chair- 
man, Mr Steele briefly replied ; and the newly appointed 
Secretary, Mr Williamson, assumed the duties, after having 
thanked the members for the honour done him in calling 
him to this office. 

The Meeting next considered a proposed alteration of the 
Eules, submitted by Messrs Forgan and Steele — viz., " The 
President shall not hold office for more than two years, and 
the Secretary for more than five years each in succession, 
and they shall not be eligible for re-election for a year." 
This motion was duly proposed and seconded, as also an 
amendment that no change be made on the Eules, when, 
on a show of hands, the amendment was carried by a 
large majority. 

The President proposed a vote of thanks to Mr Eussell 
for his kindness in again granting the use of his laboratory 
for the meetings of the Microscopical Section, and for his 
labours as Convener of that Section : also to Mr Peck, the 
City Astronomer, for his generously presenting the Society 
with 100 tickets of admission to the Observatory. The 
Meeting then adjourned. 

22 NOV. 1902 



Dr Robt. Buown 

Mr R. Scot Skirving, 1869-1874. 

Mr Wit Gokeie [ 1874 _ 187? 

(deceased), ) 

Rev R. P Colvin ) 1S77 _ 1879 _ 

(deceased), ) 

Mr John Walcot, 1879-1882. 

Mr A. B. Herbert, 1882-1885. 

Mr Symington Grieve, 1885-1888. 

Dr William Watson, 1888-1891. 

Dr Sprague, 1891-1895. 

Dr Da vies, 1895-1898. 


W. C. Crawford, F.RS.E. 


T. C. Day, F.C.S. \ W. Ranken. | A. Hewat, F.F.A. 



R. Smith. 

Col. Sconce. 

Dr Sprague. 

Lieut.-Col. Pennefather. 

E. Denson. 

Mrs Deuchar. 
Miss Sprague. 
T. Laidlaw. 
C. Campbell. 
Jas. Russell. 
W. Williamson. 

(Sbitor of ' Cransattions.' 
John Lindsay. 


A. B. Steele. 

George Cleland. 

H. C. Millar, C,A. ; J. T. Mack. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. 1898-99. 

fjonorarg $St.embm. 

Henderson, Prof. John R, M.B., CM., The College, Madras. 
Herbert, A. B., Sunnyside, Mitchara, London. 
King, M., 120 Pitt Street, Bonnington. 
Macfarlane, Prof. J. M., Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Walcot, John, Craiglockhart Hydropathic, Slateford. 

Correspond htg Ptmtrcrs. 

Archibald, Stewart, Carroch, Kirriemuir. 
Cruickshank, T. M., South Ronaldshay. 
Hobkirk, Charles P., Huddersfield. 
Hossack, B. H., Craigie Field, Kirkwall. 

List of Members ; 1898-99. 

©rbinsrg iglnnlms. 

(As at October 15, 1899.) 

Adam, James, Comely Park, Dun- 
Anderson, James, 55 York Place. 
Anderson, R. , 67 Princes Street. 
Armstrong, J. Muirhead, Polwarth 

Banks, William, 2 Kilmaurs Road. 
Betts, Robert, 14 Argyle Crescent, 

Bird, George, 31 Inverleith Row. 
Blacklock, William, 19 Bruntsfield 

Bonnar, William, 8 Spence Street. 
10 Braid, Mrs, 12 Wilton Road, Craig- 
Braid, W. W., 4a St Andrew Sq. 
Brewis, Dr, 23 Rutland Street. 
Brotherston, George M., 18 St John 

Broun, Miss, 108 George Street. 
Brown, J. C, 2 Eden Terrace. 
Bryce, George F. , 2 Albyn Place. 
Bryden, Miss, Linksfield, Aberlady. 
Bryden, Mrs, Linksfield, Aberlady. 
Buncle, James, 21 Maitland Street. 
20 Burnett, Robert, 10 Brighton Ter., 
Butchard, J. B., 10 Montagu Ter. 
Cairns, Miss Mina, 27 Dick Place. 
Calder, A. , 2 James St. , Portobello. 
Campbell, Alexander, 62 Marchmont 

Campbell, Bruce, British Linen Com- 
pany Bank, St Andrew Square. 
Campbell, Charles, North British 
and Mercantile Insurance Com- 
pany, 64 Princes Street. 
Carey, Walter T., 12 Comely Bank 

Garment, Samuel, 3 Woodburn Ter. 
Carter, Albert, Selville Cottage, 
30 Chapman, M., Torbrex Nursery, St 
Niuians, Stirling. 
Clapperton, Miss Mary E., 10 Green- 
hill Terrace. 
Clapperton, Mrs W. , Stamford Hall, 

Clarke, William Eagle, 35 Braid 

Cleland, George, Bank of Scotland, 
61 Leith Walk — Treasurer. 

Coats, William, 10 Duddingston 
Crescent, Portobello. 

Cockburn, A. Myrtle, M.A., 10 
Braidburn Crescent. 

Cowan, Alex., Woodslee, Penicuik. 

Cowan, Charles Wm., Valleyfield, 

Craig, Archibald, 38 Fountainhall 
40 Crawford, Francis Chalmers, 19 
Royal Terrace. 

Crawford, Miss Jane C. , 1 Lockharton 
Gardens, Slateford. 

Crawford, Mrs, 1 Lockharton Gar- 
dens, Slateford. 

Crawford, W. C, 1 Lockharton Gar- 
dens, Slateford — President. 

Davidson, Miss M. E., Dairy House, 
Orwell Place. 

Davies, Dr, Tweedbank, West Savile 

Day, T. C, 36 Hillside Crescent. 

Denson, E. , 83 Comiston Road. 

Deuchar, Mrs, Harlaw, Hope Ter- 

Dewar, John F., Hamilton Lodge, 
50 Dickie, James, 40 Princes Street. 

Dowell, Miss, 13 Palmerston Place. 

Do well, Mrs, 13 Palmerston Place. 

Duncan, James Patrick, 3 Cobden 

Durham, Frederick W., Seaforth 
House, Portobello. 

Elliot, Miss, 1 Merchiston Bank 

Elliot, Miss I., 1 Merchiston Bank 

Ewart, James, 1 Dundas Street. 

Farquharson, John K., 100 Thirle- 
stane Road. 

Ferguson, Rev. A. W., The Manse, 
60 Ferguson, John, 15 Brighton Place, 

Forgan, John, S.S.C., 20 George St. 

Forgan, William, 3 Warriston Cresc- 

List of Members, 1898-99. 

Forrest, John L. , 8 Glengyle Ter- 
Foulis, Thos. N., 27 Cluny Gardens. 
Fraser, Hugh, 223 Leith Walk. 
Fraser, James, 5 Park PL, Leith. 
Gartshore, Miss Murray, Ravelston 

Gloag, David, 9 Barnton Terrace. 
Goodchild, J. G., 2 Dalhousie Ter. 
70 Grahame, Major G., 16 Carlton 

Street, Stockbridge. 
Gray, J. R. Leslie, 34 Chalmers 

Grieve, Sommerville, 21 Queen's 

Grieve, Symington, 1 1 Lauder Road. 
Grieve, Mrs Symington, 1 1 Lauder 

Hamilton, G. R., 14 Caledonian 

Harris, • Charles Kerr, 13 Argyle 

Crescent, Portobello. 
Harrison, H. J., 10 Cluny Place. 
Har vie - Brown, J. A., Dunipace, 

Heggie, John, 149 Warrender Park 

80 Hetherton, Miss M., 13 Sciennes 

Hewat, Archibald, 13 Eton Terrace. 
Huie, Miss Lily, Hollywood, Colin- 
ton Road. 
Humphries, John, Easter Dudding- 

ston Lodge. 
Humphries, William, Easter Dud- 

dingston Lodge. 
Hunter, John, Waverley Cottage, 

Regent Street, Portobello. 
Hunter, Robt., 8 Abercromby Place. 
Hutton, Mrs, 27 Gardner's Cres. 
Jamieson, Miss, 9 Fergus Place, 

Johnson, W. H., Tweed Villa, 

Relugas Road. 
90 Johnston, J. A. , 7 Annandale St. 
Keith, Sydney, Fairlight, VVhitton, 

Kerr, Thomas, 15 Gilmour Road. 
Kilgour, Thos. W., 22 Nile Grove. 
Laidlaw, Thomas J., 6 Oxford St. 
Laing, Rev. G., 17 Buckingham Ter. 
Lamb, D. B., 33 Argyle Crescent, 

Law, Mrs, 41 Heriot Row. 
Lawrie, Rev. James H. , Sydney, 

New South Wales. 
Lewis, David, Roselea Villa, Grange. 

100 Lindsay, John, 43 James St., Pilrig 

— Editor of ' Tixtiisactioiia.' 
Lindsay, William, 18 South St 

Andrew Street. 
Lonie, Peter, 6 Carlton Street. 
Macadam, Prof. W. Ivison, Slioch, 

Lady Road, Craigmillar Park. 
Macdonald, Dr Alex., 11 Ardmillan 

Macdonald, J. J., Commercial Bank, 

M'Donald, J., 76 Marchmont Cres- 
MacDougall, R. Stewart, M.A., 

D.Sc. , Royal Botanic Garden. 
M'Gillivray, Wm, 4 Rothesay PI. 
M'Intosh, James, 42 Queen Street. 
1 10 Macintyre, John, 9 Woodburn Ter. 
Mack, J. T., 101 George Street. 
M'Kean, Miss Minnie, 7 Montagu 

Terrace, Golden Acre. 
MacLauchlan, J. J., S Merchiston 

Bank Terrace. 
Macvicar, Miss K., 34 Morningside 

Mason, J. Gordon, S.S.C., 51 Han- 
over Street. 
Master ton, J. L., Dannebrog, 45 

Cluny Gardens. 
Maxwell, John, 125 George Street. 
Maxwell, Mrs, 61 Braid Road. 
Millar, R. C. , 8 Broughton Place. 
120 Millar, T. J., 8 Broughton Place. 
Millar, W. F., 22 Howard Place. 
Miller, R. Pairman, 12 East Preston 

Milne, James, Muirend, Colinton. 
Morison, Peter, 24 Great King St. 
Morrison, Hew, Librarian, Public 

Library, George IV. Bridge. 
Mossman, Robert C, 10 Blacket PI. 
Muir, John, 60 Haymarket Terrace. 
Murray, Alister, Blind Asylum, 

Craigmillar Park. 
Murray, Joseph D., 36 Polwarth 

130 Nesbit, John, 162 High Street, 

Nisbet, Alex., 2 Bruce Street. 
Norie, Mrs, The Hall, Murrayfield. 
Normand, J. Hill, of Whitehill, 

Oliphant, J. C. , 23 Charlotte Square. 
Oliver, John S., 12 Greenhill Park. 
Osier, Alexander, 7 Tanfield. 
Oxley, Miss M. E., Dairy House, 

Orwell Place. 

List of Members, 1898-99. 

Paton, John, Scotland Street Tun- 

Paul, Rev. D., LL. D., Carrielee, 
Fountainhall Road. 
140 Paulin, George Alex., 6 Forres St. 

Pennefather, Lieut. -Col., 21 Dal- 
rymple Crescent. 

Pentland, Miss, 73 Inverleith Row. 

Philip, James, 5 Argyle Place. 

Pierce, W. J., 16 Forrest Road. 

Pillans, Hugh H., 12 Dry den Place. 

Pinkerton, Allan A., 13 Bruntsfield 

Pittendrigh, T. M., 29 Comely Bank 

Pyatt, W., M.A., Fettes College. 

Raeburn, Miss Florence, 49 Manor PL 
150 Raeburn, Harold, 32 Castle Terrace. 

Ranken, William, 1 1 Spence Street. 

Reid, Andrew, 1 Laverockbank Ter- 
race, Trinity Road. 

Rendall, James C, 8 Spey Street. 

Richardson, A. D. , Royal Botanic 

Richardson, Mrs Ralph, 10 Magdala 

Ritchie, William, 75 Morningside Rd. 

Robertson, Dr W. Aitchison, 26 
Minto Street. 

Romanes, John W. , Craigknowe, 

Roriston, James G., 8 Dalziel Place. 
160 Rose, Miss, 3 Hillside Crescent. 

Russell, James, 16 Blacket Place. 

Sconce, Colonel, 18 Belgrave Cres. 

Scott, Charles, Millbank Cottage, 
Canaan Lane. 

Scott, Thomas, F.L.S., 3 Menzies 
Road, Torry, Aberdeen. 

Semplej Dr Andrew, Caledonian 
United Service Club, 14 Queen 

Sime, David, 27 Dundas Street. 

Smith, David, 12 Belgrave Place. 

Smith, Harry W., 21a Duke Street. 

Smith, Dr James, 4 Brunton Place. 
170 Smith, Rupert, 51 Minto Street. 

Smith, Thomas J., 21 Warrender 
Park Terrace. 

Smith, Miss W., 5 Greenhill Ter. 

Smith, W. A., Falcon Lodge, Mur- 

Smith, Sheriff W. C, 57 Northum- 
berland Street. 

Speedie, M. H, 2 Alford PL, May- 
field Terrace. 

Speedy, Tom, The Inch, Liberton. 

Speedy, William Hogg, Braeside, 

Sprague, Dr T. B., 29 Buckingham 

Sprague, Thomas Archibald, 29 
Buckingham Terrace. 
180 Sprague, Miss, 29 Buckingham Ter. 

Steele, A. B., 5 Brighton Terrace, 
Joppa — Secretary. 

Steele, Mrs, 5 Brighton Terrace, 

Stevens, Dr John, 2 Shandon Street. 

Stevenson, Miss, 2 Albert Place. 

Stewart, Robert, S.S.C., 7 East 
Claremont Street. 

Stewart, Wm. A., 6 Rosslyn Terrace, 

Tait, John Scott, C.A., 67 George 

Terras, James, B.Sc, 40 Findhorn 

Thacker, T. Lindsay, Ramsay Lodge. 
190 Thomson, Lockhart, Derreen, Mur- 

Townsend, Miss E. A, 20 St Cath- 
erine's Place, Grange. 

Traquair, Dr, 8 Dean Park Crescent. 

Twamley, Miss H., 95 Shandwick 

Wanless, Miss, 12 Wilton Road, 

Wardlaw, George, 14 St John's 

Watson, John, B.A.,Comiston Drive. 

Watson, Robert, M.A., 12 Chal- 
mers Street. 

Watson, Dr Wm., Waverley House, 

Watson, Mrs, Waverley House, 
200 Weir, James Mullo, S.S.C., 5 W. 
Brighton Crescent, Portobello. 

Welsh, Mrs, Ericstane, Moffat. 

White, Alexander Espie, 153 May- 
field Road. 

Wilkie, W. F. Rollo, 122 George St. 

Williamson, Wm., 4 Meadowbank 

Wood, J. B., Viewforth, Brunstane 
Road, Joppa. 

Wood, T. A. D., Viewforth, Brun- 
stane Road, Joppa. 

Wright, J. P., 6 Grosvenor Cres. 

Wright, Miss E., Aberarder, Pol- 
warth Ten-ace. 

Wright, Thomas, 12 Brunton Ter. 
210 Young, David E., 131 Mayfield Rd. 


^ VOL. IV. 

PART II. rffj 


H>§? ^5infeupg| jnplb Jttafupalisfs* nnb 

SESSION 1899-1900 




I. The Migration of Birds.— Mr W. Eagle Clarke, 67 

II. Further Notes on Queensland Termites.— Mr R. Grieve, ... 68 

III. A Second Bryological Excursion to Ben Lasers.— Mr A. Murray, . 72 

IV. The Birds of Bute and Arran.— Mr A. Craig, 78 

V. The Botany of a Railway Station.— Mr A. Campbell 87 

VI. Splashes, studied by the Aid of Instantaneous Photography.— Mr R. 

S. Cole, M.A. {with Six Plates) 91 

VII. Natural History Notes on Tenby.— Dr Davies {with Two Plates), . 94 

VIII. Notes on the Frog.— Mr A. Murray 98 

Notes on the Excursions of 1900.— The Secretary {with One Plate), . 105 

Fish- Hatching at Howietoun.— The Secretary 114 

The Broch of Torwoodlee— Dr Stevenson Macadam, .... 117 

Report of the Microscopical Section.— Mr J. Russell, .... 122 

Honey-Bees in Warm Climates, 129 

Exhibits in Natural History, 130 

Annual Business Meeting 130 

List of Members, 1899-1900, . . . . . . . . . xiii 


$ublts}je& for tfje <Surietg 



Price to Non-Members, Four Shillings. 

SESSION 1899-1900. 



(Read Nov. 22, 1899.) 

Mr Clarke remarked, at the beginning of his paper, that the 
British Isles were eminently suited to observe bird migration 
in all its aspects, the majority of British birds being purely 
migratory, while the geographical position of the islands and 
the climatic changes experienced also afforded the naturalist 
opportunity to study those species which made this country 
a temporary home in their passage to other climes. Illus- 
trations were then thrown on the screen of the different 
species met with in Great Britain, and the migrational routes 
that were followed — it being observed by Mr Clarke that 
migration, instead of being exceptional, was almost universal. 
Explaining why birds went northwards in spring and south- 
wards in autumn, he asked what would become of the birds 
if they attempted to winter in the north ? The answer was 
that they would certainly perish, not from cold, as was popu- 
larly supposed, but from want of food, migratory birds being 
largely dependent on special food, chiefly insects. Some doubt 
might be felt whether, in the return movement in spring, 
scarcity of food was again the cause. It might be urged that, 
while fitted for a winter resort, the tropical regions were not 
suited as a nursery. On the other hand, summer in the 
temperate northern region afforded an abundant food-supply, 


68 Further Notes on Queensland Termites. [Sess. 

while places of solitude were also found. Again, in the 
tenacity with which birds were known to return to their 
breeding-place perhaps lay the whole stimulus for them to 
undertake the long journeys. Next, discussing how birds 
were guided in their migrations, he said they were there face 
to face with the greatest of mysteries. The birds travelled 
mostly at night, and at a very great height, when the organ 
of sight would not be of very much use, while the younger 
birds migrated apart from the parents. Mr Clarke further 
gave as an explanation of why the migrations took place at 
night, that most of the daytime was taken up with the search 
for food, and that by flying at night no single hour was lost. 


By Mr ROBERT GRIEVE, J. P., of Broadwater, Brisbane, 

{Communicated by Mr W. C. Crawford, President, Dec. 27, 1899.) 

The thoroughness with which Grassi and his pupil Sandias 
take up the Sicilian termites is very praiseworthy. I may 
again say that I think his book a treat. He has drawn their 
bad habits (speaking from a human point of view) with a 
graphic pen, from which I for one have learned much. As to 
his pencil, it is perhaps rather too diagrammatic. I am at 
least hardly prepared to believe that the two Sicilian genera 
have heads quite so bald, quite so round, or quite so free of 
visible organs, as represented in two of his plates. One of the 
facts the book helps me to realise is, that only the fringe of 
termite history is touched as yet, apparently, by anybody ; and 
just as termes differs from calotermes in important details of 
habit and economy, so over the face of the tropic earth, in- 
cluding Africa and Australia, there must be hundreds of 
species differing still more widely from them. Each different 
form of termitary is probably constructed by a different species 

i899- I 9°°-] Further Notes on Queensland Termites. 69 

of termite, differing in important points from other termites, 
and from the other clans in the same localities inhabiting less 
conspicuous dwellings. 

Calotermes and termes in Sicily are little communities 
fighting for a slender existence at the outside bourn of their 
race. 1 The European termites bear a like relation to their 
Australian kin that the people of St Kilda do to those of 
London. The comparative numbers are about the same. 
Taking the cubic contents of a termitary at 50 cubic feet, I 
arrived at a rough estimate of the individuals in one of our 
average nests thus : — 

Thickly populated part . . =20 cubic feet. 

More thinly populated part . =20 „ 

Nearly empty (a quantity which 

may be neglected) . . = 10 „ 

Individuals absent on foraging and distant expeditions were 
too numerous to be counted in, but these may be reckoned as 
equal to a thickly populated part of 30 cubic feet. I counted 
the dwellers in a thickly populated block of 592 inches, and 
found them to be 90 per cubic inch. We thus arrive at the 
following calculation : 90 x 1728 x 30 = 4,665,600 termites 
in an average termitary. 

Grassi gives the number 500 as a high average of in- 
dividuals for calotermes : termes' dwellings have a consider- 
ably larger population. It is only to be expected that a 
community of mound-builders in South Queensland such as 
I am using for comparison in these remarks should have an 
organisation more complex than calotermes. Without specu- 
lating on the secret by which order is maintained and work 
distributed in these large communities, it is certain that the 
one queen is the motive, and represents authority there. 
When she dies the community perishes. This is to be 
inferred from numerous experiments. There are other 
Australian species which create complementary or substitute 
queens, as calotermes does, but not this one. Taking this 
species, the one I know best, I find its economy differs at 

1 Mr Grieve means that in Europe there are very few places where termites are 
found. Sicily is their principal home, although they are also found at Genoa, 
and have been imported to Bordeaux. — W. C. C. 

yo Further Notes on Queensland Termites. [Sess. 

important points from the species which dwell around it, 
and a fortiori from those described by Grassi. It alone, so 
far as I know, has the soldier caste armed with the peculiarly 
modified head. Compare it with the more typical head. 
Is the strange proboscis formed by the fusion of the labrum 
and mandibles ? The maxillae, labium, and palps remain 
normal. It will occur to you that Diptera and Hemiptera 
show analogous but quite different fusion. It may be sus- 
pected that in the other large termitaries soldiers will have 
this speciality, and many other specific and generic characters 
of their own. 

Among other differences between Australian and Sicilian 
species, the following are prominent : — 

1. The Australian species are mound-builders ; the Sicilian 
are not, and, as I gather, use no earth as building material. 
Calotermes makes no tubes at all. Termes lucifugus uses a 
compound of faecal and disgorged matter to make gutters, the 
tubes being always less than two inches long. The two 
species often share together the same vegetable host without 
any partition, and have no interests external to their dwelling. 
The mound-builders, on the contrary, annex and penetrate all 
the surrounding country. 

2. Calotermes lays only 12 eggs a - day. The mound- 
builder queen, swollen and gravid, probably lays a thousand 
or more. Such numbers may be seen lying on a heap, 
evidently the result of one effort. I find by a rough calcu- 
lation that the queen is capable of containing 20,000 eggs in 
a nearly ripe condition. Even this large number is insufficient 
to provide for the needs of the community, and hints at re- 
newed intercourse with the male during her long life. I take 
this opportunity of saying that functional males are only to 
be seen in the termitary shortly before swarming : very differ- 
ent is this from the Sicilian arrangements. 

3. In the Sicilians, sexes swarm at different times. I 
have seen nothing to distinguish two sexes in Australian 
swarms. I interpret this to mean that those which I have 
observed are males, and that winged females in the swarm 
are very rare, and so escape observation. 

4. Grassi refers in calotermes to what he calls genital 
appendices, which he regards as a link between the Corro- 

1 899-1 900.] Further Notes on Queensland Termites. 71 

dentia and the Thysanura (Poduridae ?). He says these organs 
are the homologue of those on the ninth abdominal sternite, 
and he guards us from confounding these organs with the 
anal appendices. I can only say that I have observed no 
traces of such an organ in Australian species. 

5. The total absence of workers in calotermes, according 
to G-rassi, is very remarkable, and even the soldiers are as 
1 to 20. In Termes lucifugus the soldiers also are said to 
be very scarce. Probably the proportion of soldiers depends 
upon seasonal, climatic, and accidental influences. It is so 
in Australia. I have frequently seen soldiers in greatly pre- 
dominating numbers, and at other times relatively scarce. 

6. Grassi says that the winged forms 'of Termes lucifugus 
do not form colonies. I am not inclined to say this of 
Australian species. I have no direct evidence. It is diffi- 
cult to determine the fate of the last survivors of the myriads 
that are seen in flight. It is certain that nature, with her 
usual liberality, disposes of most of them as a food-supply. 
But new colonies under suitable conditions spring up like 
mushrooms. It is easy to account for this as the settling in 
life of winged queens, but very difficult otherwise. 

I made another attempt at tube culture, which was rather 
more successful than my earlier experiments. When I used 
a quart jar I secured for them life and considerable activity, 
but even so very little progress. Grassi's experiments were 
made with calotermes, but he also failed with termes. The 
quart jar contains from 200 to 300 individuals of several 
grades — from the undifferentiated little larvre, so white, so 
tender, and so weak, to the thick-skinned and highly chitinised 
mature workers and soldiers. As a basis of operations, I 
included with them a piece of old material, and as food a 
supply of pine sawdust — i.e., Araucaria and Damara. Euca- 
lyptus is only consumed by termites when it is in a state of 
decay. I do not see much building going on in the jar, but 
a good deal of marching to and fro, palp drill, and the char- 
acteristic crepitation. 

The cultural difficulties which have to be contended with 
are the following : — 

1. The adjustment of temperature and moisture. When 

72 Second Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. [Sess. 

too dry, animals shrivel ; when too moist, mould becomes 

2. The habit of the insects is to work in the dark, and to 
obscure every transparency with clay. Calotermes does not 
do this, as it is only an excavator, and not a tube -builder. 

3. The limitation of area. Australian termites are ac- 
customed to work with unlimited material in unbounded 

4. The want of the stimulus of the queen's presence. 

I shall try to introduce a queen, and watch the results. 


(Read Dec. 27, 1899.) 

I should like to say a few words about a second excursion I 
had among the mosses of Ben Lawers last summer, as I know 
there are several members of the Society who are interested in 
these beautiful little gems of the plant world. About the 
middle of June last two fellow-members of the Society — Mr 
Harrison and Mr Paissell — encamped with me near the top of 
Lochan-a-Cbait. It was dark before we arrived there, so after 
a cup of tea we crawled under some large pieces of rock, and 
rested fairly well. I awoke about 2 a.m., and lay for an hour 
listening to the monotonous " yelp " of some young hawks on 
the crags above. Then I got up, had a cup of tea and a 
sandwicb, and at once started on my botanical hunt among 
the rocks and crags on the north-west side of Lochan-a-Chait 
glen. I went a different way from that of last year, when we 
visited the same crags. Here I got some very fine specimens : 
many of them I had already gathered, but some I had not yet 
got. A few of those now found can only be gathered on 
Ben Lawers. 

About 6 a.m. Mr Harrison joined me, and directed my 

i899- I 9°°-] Second Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. 73 

attention to one of the finest cloud scenes any one could 
witness. Here we were above the clouds, about 3700 feet 
above sea-level, and, looking south-east, the glen and Loch 
Tay for miles — in fact, as far as the eye could reach — were 
completely covered by a stratum of clouds, practically level, 
but with a broken, rolling surface, while three or four 
mountain-tops stood up through the clouds, like islands in 
a sea. If we had not known where we were, it would have 
been hard to believe that it was not a sea dotted with islands 
that we beheld. In about an hour the clouds began to dis- 
appear, when we could get glimpses of Loch Tay and the glen 
through them. 

Here, on the crags, there was a perfect flower-garden. I 
had never before seen the globe-flower (Trollius eumpceus) in 
its native habitat, and did not expect to find it so high 
up and on rocky crags, yet here it was by the thousand, and 
with flowers very much resembling mandarin oranges in shape 
and size, though not in colour, as the globe-flower is a bright 
lemon. The stalks were from eighteen to twenty-four inches 
in height, with flowers in all stages, from the bud to the full 
bloom. Mixed with the globe-flower were large patches of 
the bright pink Silene acaulis, with here and there a little 
tuft of intense blue Myosotis alpestris, and numerous beds 
of Cerastium alpinum with its pure white flowers ; so that 
with blue, pink, white, and yellow, the effect was very fine. 
On the crags here I gathered good pieces of Myurella julacea 
and Pylaisia polyantha : the latter is not common. Hylo- 
comium pyrenaicum is a very rare moss, only found on two 
or three of the highest Scottish mountains. Here also were 
got Ancectangium Mougeotii and A. Lapponicum, besides a very 
large variety of the former. A. Lapponicum is a pretty little 
moss when in fruit, but does not show well when mounted. 

Coming down a little after 8 A.M., we had breakfast, and at 
9.30 started for the summit of Ben Lawers. I went up the 
north-east side of the mountain this time, as I wished to visit 
the snow-wreaths on that side. On the way I got two or 
three good Hypnums. After reaching the first snow-wreath 
I was rather disappointed in my finds. Owing to the drought 
and heat the wreath was much reduced, and for a width of 
several yards around it there was not a vestige of living 

74 Second Bryological Excursion to Ben Lowers. [Sess. 

vegetation, showing that the snow was seldom off that part ; 
and where mosses were present, the great heat had caused 
them to grow so tall and straggling, after their long rest under 
the snow, that they were quite unrecognisable. Between this 
and the summit I got some extra fine bits of Polytrichum 
sexangulare and Conostomum boreale, both of which I gathered 
last year, but in small bits : in fact, P. sexangulare was very 
small, but those now shown are as fine as a specimen I possess 
which was gathered in Norway. It is only found on Ben 
Nevis and Ben Lawers, and is said to fruit only on the former, 
but I now got it in fruit on Ben Lawers. 

It was 1.30 p.m. before I got to the summit of the 
mountain, where I found everything dried up by the three 
weeks' drought. Here I got Hypnum sulcatum. Beturning 
by the usual path down the east side, I gathered fine 
specimens of Hypnum trifarium, Tetraplodon bryoides, and 
Gymnocybe palustre, the last in fine fruit. Getting down 
to Lochan-a-Chait, I explored the upper portion of the 
glen, but did not get anything new. 

Next morning we started for the west glen, — Allt an tuim 
Bhric. To visit this glen was the principal reason for my 
going at this time, as I was informed that there are some 
very fine mosses to be found in it, and also that here 
Gentiana nivalis grows. So I was counting upon some good 
finds ; but the well-known couplet — 

" The best-laid schemes o' mice and men 
Gang aft a-gley " — 

was verified in my case, as I have not yet explored the west 
glen. After a long tramp we reached it. I left Mr Harrison 
and Mr Bussell to do some cooking, and made a start, but had 
not gone more than half a mile when a thick mist set in, and 
in a very short time a heavy rain, so that I could see nothing, 
and therefore returned, to the amazement of my friends, as I 
was to be away for five or six hours. Although still fair 
here, it soon began to rain, and as there was no shelter we 
started for Finlarig, a walk of about seven miles, in a regular 
downpour of rain. It faired just as we reached Finlarig 
wood, where we kindled a large fire and dried our clothes. 
Next morning was fine, so I started for Creag-na-Caillich, and, 

1899 1 9°°-] Second Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. 75 

after a long weary tramp through rough heather, reached the 
top, when rain came on again, and T had to beat a retreat. 
Eeaching camp, it began to thunder, and rain fell in torrents, 
so instead of waiting till night, we took the mid-day train 
home, which we reached in a rather moist condition. My 
moss collecting was not such a success as I expected it to be, 
but nevertheless I got some good things. Altogether, in my 
three days at Ben Lawers I gathered over 250 species and 
varieties of mosses and hepatics. 

I append a classified list of all the mosses I have collected 
on Ben Lawers and neighbourhood, which may prove a guide 
to others as regards what to look for. Of course I have not 
got all the mosses that grow there. 

List of Mosses collected on Ben Lawers and 
neighbourhood, june 1898 and june 1899. 

acrocarpous mosses. 

Sect. I. Schistocarpi. 
Fam. Andre<vaceo j . 
Andresea petrophila. 

var. acuminata, 

var. compacta. 

— flavicans. 

var. frigida. 

— hamata. 

Sect. II. Stegocarpi. 
Fam. Buxbaurniacece. 
Buxbaumia aphylla. 

Fam. Georgiacere, 
Georgia pellucida. 

Fam. Polytrichacea: 

Catharinea undulata. 
Oligotrichum incurvum. 
Polytrichum aloides. 




Polytrichum gracile. 
commune, with two or three vars. 

Fam. Fissidentacece. 

Fissidens osmundoides. 

Fam. Leiicobryacea\ 

Leucobryum glaucum. 

Fam. Dicranacece. 

Pleuridium subulatum. 
Ditrichum homomallum. 

var. zonatum. 


var. densum. 
Swartzia montana. 
Dicranella heteromalla. 


oris pa. 
Anisothecium squarrosum. 

Brachydontium trichodes. 

7 6 

Second Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. [Sess. 

Blindia caespiticia. 

Grimmia patens. 



Campylopus pyriformis. 

var. gracilescens. 

flexuosus, var. paludosus. 






Dicranoweissia crispula. 

Glyphomitrium polyphyllum 


Ancectangium Lapponicum. 

Dicranum scoparium. 


var. paludosum. 

Pleurozygodon aestivus. 

— turfosum. 

Orthotrichum affine. 




Weissia Bruchii. 





Fam. Splachnacece. 

Bonjeani, var. juniperifolium. 





Splachnum vasculosum. 

Tetraplodon bryoides. 

Tayloria tenuis. 

Dichodontium pellucidum. 

Fam. Funariacuv. 

Oncophorus Bruntoni. 

Ceratodon purpureus. 

Funaria obtusa. 

Fam. Tortulacea>. 


Pottia Heimii. 

Fam. Bryacece. 

Tortula lasvipila. 

Pohlia cruda. 

Mollia tortuosa. 




Barbula curvirostis. 




var. gracilis. 


Plagiobryum Zierii. 


Bryum filiforme. 

Leersia alpina. 


Webera sessilis. 

pallescens, var. contextum 
var. viride. 

Fam. Grimmiacea. 


Grimmia conferta. 

var. speciosum. 

var. pruinosa. 




var. alpicola. 

var. obconicum. 

— rivularis. 


— gracilis. 

— pumila. 

Fam. Bart7-amiacece. 



Conostomum boreale. 


Bartramia Oederi. 








Philonotis fontana. 


var. capillaris. 


Breutelia chrysocoma. 

i^q- 1 !? 00 -] Second Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers. "]"J 

Fam. Meeseacece. 

Meesea trichodes. 

var. alpina. 
Gymnocybe palustris. 

Fam. Mniacece. 

Mnium hornum. 

Mnium roBtratum. 


Hedwigia ciliata. 




Fam. NecJceracece. 

Neckera crispa. 
var. tenella. 

Fam. Leucodentacece. 

Pterogonium gracile. 
Antitrichia curtipendula. 
Porotrichum alopecurum. 

Fam. Leskeacece. 

Myurella julacea. 
Anomodon attenuatus. 

Pterigynandrum filiforme. 
Pseudoleskea atrovirens. 
Thuidium tamariscinum. 

Fam. Hypnacea. 

Climacium dendroides. 
Cylindrothecium concinnum. 
Pylaisia polyantha. 
Orthothecium rufescens. 
Brachythecium plicatum. 



var. palustre. 


Eurhynchium cirrosum. 





Plagiotbecium depressum. 



Amblystegium serpens. 

Hypnum stellatum. 

var. protensum. 

var. plumulosum. 
vernicosum. • 


var. Cossoni. 

var. gracilescens. 

var. resupinatum. 

— filiforme. 

— ericetorum. 

— tectorum. 

Hylocomium splendens. 


78 The Birds of Bute and Arran. [Sess. 


{Bead Jan. 24, 1900.) 

It is no part of my present purpose to give anything like a 
lengthened description of the scenery or topography of those 
well-known islands, Bute and Arran ; in all likelihood most of 
you are familiar with them already. In general appearance, 
contour, &c, there is a marked contrast between the two : 
Bute, save at the north end, where the mountains rise steeply 
from the shores of the narrow and beautiful strait known as 
the Kyles, is, compared with the sister island, lowland in its 
aspect. The bulk of the country is undulating, none of the 
hills being of great height, and almost all the available ground 
is under cultivation or pasture. The production of milk and 
butter is the staple industry, and, in a word, one might almost 
characterise the island as a huge dairy farm. Some parts are 
well, even richly, wooded, and give shelter to a considerable 
variety of small birds, but of those more anon. To the anti- 
quarian Bute will always be a place of interest, for its ancient 
chapels, stone circles, and other relics of the past. 

Arran, again, is totally different, being a typical Highland 
district, with, particularly in the north, a magnificent chain of 
rugged and precipitous mountains, intersected with wild and 
lonely glens without a trace of human habitation. It would 
hardly be possible to conceive of a more desolate and weird- 
like locality than the head of Glen Bosa or the upper parts of 
Glen Sannox ; even the feathered tribe seem to shun the spot, 
as, with the exception of an odd raven now and then and a 
few meadow pipits, hardly any bird life is to be observed. 

Save about Brodick, where there is a wealth of fine wood, the 
other parts of Arran, more especially the southern end, are, com- 
paratively speaking, bare, and the scenery of the latter district 
is not nearly so fine nor romantic. One marked feature of 
difference between Arran and many other Highland districts is 
the almost total absence in the former of lochs, such as do exist 
being mere tarns. In Bute, again.sthere are several sheets of 
water — Loch Fad, for example, behind the town of Bothesay, 

iSqq- 1 !? 00 -] The Birds of Bute and Arran. 79 

being very pretty, and its shores well wooded. This want of 
water of course accounts for the absence of many aquatic 
species, which might otherwise haunt the place if their favourite 
breeding-grounds were more plentiful. The climate of both 
islands is, on the whole, very mild, hence the fact of Bute being 
such a resort of invalids ; but as an offset to that advantage, it 
must be confessed that in some seasons the quantity of rain 
that falls is sufficient to more than satisfy the needs of the 
most ardent hydropathist or rabid teetotaller. This very 
cursory sketch of the islands must suffice, so let us turn to 
the bird life. 

It will be within the memory of most of you that May 
1899 was a most inclement, cold, and backward month, just 
about the very worst possible for observing the feathered 
fauna, and to this I attribute the circumstance that my list is 
so meagre, and nothing like so full as many other stations in 
Scotland can show under more favourable climatic conditions. 
It would take up too much time to separately describe all the 
species observed in both islands, as many of them are dupli- 
cated ; so to avoid this, I purpose appending to the paper two 
lists showing the species noted in Bute during May, and in 
Arran during June, 1899. 

Of the Falconidse or Strigidae (that is to say, the hawks and 
owls) I never happened to identify one solitary specimen, 
although no doubt several exist. They cannot be plentiful, 
however; probably their numbers are well kept down for the 
benefit of the almighty game, but upon that vexed and con- 
troversial subject it may be as well to draw the veil. The 
Corvidae, or crows, were fairly well represented. Chief among 
them is the raven, which was identified several times in 
Arran, at the head of Glen Cloy, also in Glen Sannox, where 
two pairs were observed about a mile apart. No ground 
could be more suitable for rearing their young, as the cliffs in 
many places are perfectly inaccessible ; and there*are so many 
solitary spots admirably adapted for nesting purposes, that it 
is not likely they will become extinct in our day, although 
persecuted with unyielding rigour. The carrion crow also 
frequents this island, although I found no trace of the grey 
or hooded species at the time of year indicated. Naturally, 
the rook was, as elsewhere, in evidence, and our cunning and 

80 The Birds of Bute and Arran. [Sess. 

somewhat impudent friend the jackdaw winds up the list. 
In some parts great colonies of these last-named noisy birds 
were to he seen, evidently nesting in the rocks above the 

Apropos of crows, as is well known partial albinism is not 
uncommon among the genus, and one of the most curious 
instances of it that ever came under my own observation 
occurred some years ago at Temple, near Gorebridge, when a 
rook with its wings almost white flew across the road a few 
yards in front of our party. Eooks also with white feathers 
scattered here and there amidst the plumage are by no 
means rare. 

Taking now the species that more or less haunt the sea- 
shore, we find the following. The cormorant is very common, 
and numbers may be noticed off the steamers swimming and 
diving in the Firth of Clyde, and in all the numerous arms of 
the sea that add so much to the beauty of the west coast. 
Favourite resting-places are the tops of those miniature light- 
houses that are dotted up and down the Clyde to warn ship- 
masters to avoid sandbanks, sunken rocks, &c, and they are 
also fond of sitting on the floating buoys. I have not included 
in my list the shag or green cormorant, as I am not absolutely 
certain of its occurrence, although it is more than probable 
that it exists. As is matter of history, cormorants used to be 
trained to catch fish in rivers and ponds, a thong being tied 
round the lower part of the neck to prevent the fish being 
completely swallowed. This practice is not much in vogue 
nowadays, although it was revived several years ago on the 
Eddleston Water near Portmore. Of the Gull tribe only four 
species were noted — viz., the common, black-headed, lesser 
black-backed, and herring gulls, the latter the least plentiful. 
Gannets do not breed on Arran ; but these birds are frequently 
seen flying in the vicinity, having wandered north from Ailsa 
Craig. The oyster- catcher was far from uncommon. This bird 
is a great ornament to a sea-beach, its beautifully contrasted 
plumage of pure white and black, along with its orange-red 
mandibles and reddish -purple legs, having a pleasing effect on 
the eye. Where this species frequents one is almost certain 
to find redshanks and ringed plovers. The last mentioned are 
most lively and interesting little creatures, and it is a pretty 

iSqq- 1 !? 00 -] The Birds of Bute and Arran. 8 1 

sight to watch them running along the shore in small flocks, 
keeping, as a rule, near the water's edge, and sounding the 
while their melancholy notes. In the Kyles of Bute one 
evening I counted sixteen, all clustered on the top of a small 
boulder, not in the least shy, as they permitted me to approach 
within a few yards, — so much so that it would have been 
possible to knock several of them over with a stone, if one had 
been cruelly-minded enough to make the attempt. This little 
bird lays its eggs in a small hollow either on the grass or 
among the shingle, and, in common with the peewit, has the 
knack of pretending to have a broken wing or leg, so that one 
is induced to follow it up, which is just what it wants, in order 
to draw the trespasser away from its eggs or young, as the case 
may be. Herons, although not nearly so plentiful as in some 
other west-coast localities, are to be seen pretty well all along 
the shores ; and among other seafaring and seashore haunting 
species may be noted the common guillemot, the common 
sandpiper, or, as it is called in some parts of Scotland, the 
sandy laverock (also found in large numbers by the sides of 
burns and rivers), and that ever-watchful species, the curlew 
or whaup. As you are aware, this last bird retires to the 
muirs to nest ; but in small islands such as are being treated of, 
it does a good deal of its feeding among the tangle, mud, and 
sand left bare by the receding tide. Peewits are fairly dis- 
tributed ; but in my opinion this species is decreasing, save 
perhaps in very outlying and unfrequented districts. The 
cause of this diminution in numbers can, no doubt, to a certain 
extent be traced to the ever-increasing demand for what are 
known as " plovers' eggs," and it is perfectly amazing the 
quantities that find their way to the markets of large cities, 
not excluding our own town of Edinburgh. This habit of 
collecting eggs is much to be deplored, as it would be hard 
to find a prettier or more useful bird than what we are wont 
to designate in this country the " pease weep." 

Before taking up the smaller fauna, there are a few odd 
species that may be briefly commented upon. 

Of birds that come under the heading of game might be 
instanced black and red grouse, pheasant, and partridge, and 
under this section can be included woodcock and snipe. The 
only duck noted was the mallard or common wild duck, 

82 The Birds of Bute and Arran. [Sess. 

although another species was seen, but at such a great distance 
over the water that it could not be accurately identified with 
the naked eye. Corncrakes or landrails made their presence 
known in all suitable quarters by their most grating and 
unmelodious cry. This sound, as is matter of notoriety, is 
very puzzling at times to locate, as at one moment it seems to 
be quite close at hand and the next to be some distance off, 
giving rise to the idea that the bird is a ventriloquist. This 
theory is, however, not accepted by most of our well-known 
ornithological authors, who account for this peculiarity by the 
swiftness with which the bird moves about from place to place. 
I have myself seen it hastening rapidly amidst the short 
herbage, not yet long enough to hide it completely, and noticed 
its head and neck were quite erect while the harsh sound was 
being emitted. There is one thing, however, that I do not feel 
competent to decide upon, and that is — if the disagreeable note 
is sounded while the bird is running, or if it always stops still 
while calling, or if it is made under both conditions. 

That parasitical species the cuckoo was abundant in Bute, 
and, for the matter of that, in Arran as well. The fact of this 
bird making no nest of its own, but utilising that of other 
species in which to deposit its egg, is so well known as to 
necessitate no further remark. It certainly is a most curious 
and instructive sight to watch the foster-parents feeding the 
young cuckoo. The latter is usually four or five times larger 
than the others, and when it opens its big gape to receive the 
food, one would think it had serious intentions of swallowing 
the smaller creature in tolo. In muirland districts the titlark, 
or moss-cheeper to give it its Scottish cognomen, seems to be 
the bird that, in the majority of cases, has given to it the task 
of rearing this intruder. In passing, the existence of the wood- 
pigeon may be mentioned, as also that of the coot and water- 
hen — the two latter chiefly in Bute, as the scarcity of sheets 
of water in Arran prevents them frequenting the island in any 
great numbers. 

I have now to call your attention, and that shortly, to the 
smaller fauna. The swallow, house and sand martins, as well 
as the swift, were common in Bute, but not so numerous in 
the other island. The night-jar is not included in the list, as 
it was not observed, from the fact that I never happened to 

iSqq- 1 !? 00 -] The Birds of Bute and Arr an. 83 

be in suitable localities during the evening when it conies out 
to feed ; but that it occurs is certain. While glancing lately 
at a very old ornithological work, I came across a curious 
description of how swallows were reputed to be an unfailing 
specific for various disorders that afflict humanity. The 
writer, whose name was Schroder (a German, most likely), 
goes on to indicate how, if swallows were eaten whole, or if 
their ashes were mixed with honey and taken as physic, that 
a certain cure for the falling sickness, dimness of sight, and 
blear eyes would take place. He does not explain, however, 
whether " blear eyes " are the product of excessive indulgence 
in alcohol or attributable to other causes — he leaves that to 
our imagination. Among other complaints that various parts 
and preparations of the swallow are supposed to mitigate, if 
not to cure finally, is the squinancy or quinsy : but not to 
prolong this matter, I will only mention other two maladies 
that fly before this sovereign balm — viz., the biting of a 
mad dog and the colic — a fairly representative list of 
diseases. All three species of pipits — the meadow, tree, 
and rock varieties — were found, the latter, of course, fre- 
quenting the sea-beach ; and that lovely songster, the sky- 
lark, occurred, but, as far as my observation went, it was rather 
sparsely distributed. 

Glancing rapidly over some of the others, we have to record 
the starling (on the increase, as elsewhere) ; and the thrush 
family consisted of missel-thrush, mavis, and blackbird : but it 
was a disappointment not to be able to include the ring-ouzel, 
as many parts seemed likely to suit its wants. Chaffinches, 
greenfinches, redbreasts, hedge-accentors, all were plentiful ; 
and it goes without saying that house-sparrows were as 
numerous and as impertinent as in other places. These last- 
named birds are increasing in far too great a ratio as compared 
with many much more interesting and less destructive species : 
in fact, in the suburbs of our large cities it is a rare thing 
now to see a house -martin's nest in the corners of the 
buildings or windows, the sparrows waging constant war- 
fare against the more delicate race. The titmice identified 
were only three in number — the great, cole, and blue tits. 
Common wrens abounded, and there were also a goodly 


84 The Birds of Bute and Arran. [Sess. 

number of goldcrests, creepers, and redpoles, also corn and 
yellow buntings. 

Leaving the warblers to the last for a reason, it only falls 
to run over the following to exhaust the list. Wagtails con- 
sisted of the pied and grey species ; the spotted flycatcher was 
the sole representative of his genus ; and, so far as the chats 
are concerned, three species were common in Arran — namely, 
the wheatear, whinchat, and stonechat. The last-named birds, 
although by no means rare, seem to be irregularly distributed 
in Scotland, as many apparently suitable habitats are without 
them altogether. In Arran they were to be seen in a great 
many different places, chiefly up the wild glens, but there 
were also several pairs on the roadside between Brodick and 
Lamlash. A most sprightly and taking species is this same 
stonechat, and one always interesting to an ornithologist for 
its smart movements and fearlessness when its nesting-ground 
is intruded upon. 

The saying that a lady's mind is best expressed in her 
postscript is a trite one and familiar to us all, but, in a 
measure, is applicable to the present case, for the simple 
reason that I have held over to the end of this otherwise 
unimportant paper the only item worth recording. The 
warblers are now the last of the category. The commoner 
and better-known species, such as the willow wren, wood 
warbler, and whitethroat, haunted the woodlands and hedge- 
rows, and may be dismissed without further comment. The 
chiffchaff, although not what one would call abundant, was 
not uncommon, its monotonous double note, from which its 
name seems to be derived, being heard in the woods about 
Eothesay, and also in the policy surrounding Brodick Castle. 
This species is much more numerous in England than in Scot- 
land ; in Warwickshire especially the numbers are so great 
that it is positively tiresome to listen to the constantly re- 
curring song, if such a sound can be dignified by that epithet. 
In Scotland its distribution might almost be called erratic, as 
its presence has been chronicled in localities that do not seem 
to be so suitable to its habits as others where it is unknown. 
The farthest northerly point where I have personally identified 
it is the Pass of Inverfarigaig, on Loch Ness side, although 
it has been found much farther north. The similarity in 

i899- I 9°°-J The Birds of Bute and Arran. 85 

general appearance and plumage to that of the willow wren 
makes it a matter of considerable difficulty to distinguish 
between dead specimens of both. There is a difference, 
as the size of the chiffchaff is a trifle less, and its legs 
and feet are darker than those of the willow wren ; but it 
appears to me that if a dozen dead bodies of each were 
mixed up, it would take an expert naturalist indeed to divide 
them properly. 

The last species to be notified, and, as already indicated, 
the most important, is the grasshopper warbler. I must at 
once confess that, beyond what was gleaned from standard 
ornithological works, the bird was hitherto quite unknown to 
me, and I hesitated at first to place its occurrence on record 
entirely on my own responsibility ; but from subsequent in- 
quiries made, I think I am justified in saying that the bird 
was none other than Salicaria locustclla. Passing one morning 
along the shore of Loch Fad near Rothesay, where it was 
skirted by a very thick young larch wood, my attention was 
attracted by a sound resembling that of a grasshopper. It 
struck me, considering the very cold weather and the early 
time of year, that it was rather peculiar to hear this noise ; 
so I waited a little in the hope that it might be repeated, and 
was soon rewarded. The note, although bearing a marked 
resemblance to the noise made by the insect, was louder ; and 
occasionally there intervened a sharp note such as is emitted 
by some of the Sylviidre, which made me conclude that I was 
listening for the first time to the cricket-bird, as it is called 
in some parts of England. Owing to its shy and skulking 
nature this species is at all times difficult to see, and in this 
particular instance the undergrowth was so dense that it was 
quite impossible to get a view of it. All I could trace was a 
slight movement of the herbage, showing that the bird was on 
the move. I returned on various occasions to the same neigh- 
bourhood, but never heard its note again — which was not to be 
wondered at, as there was such a stretch of wood that, unless 
one stumbled accidentally on the nesting spot, it would only 
be by the merest chance that it could be located. Many in- 
stances are quoted of this species being identified in different 
parts of Scotland, but I cannot find its presence marked in 
Bute in any natural history work consulted. As it has been 


The Birds of Bute and A rran. 


heard in Argyleshire, close at hand, more than likely this is 
not the first time it has visited Bute ; but apparently 
those visits have been overlooked, or not made public. 
In any case, it is safe to say that, take it all round, it 
must be classed as a vara avis so far as our country of 
Scotland is concerned. 

I must now bring these remarks to a close by again ex- 
pressing disappointment at the scanty numbers of the feathered 
fauna brought under your notice ; but without devoting one's 
time specially to the subject, and making careful observations 
at all periods of the year, so as to include both summer and 
winter migrants, also chance stragglers, it would be foolish, 
not to say unjust, to jump to the conclusion that those two 
islands, taking into account their general characteristics, are 
more devoid of variety in bird life than other parts of our 
native land. 

Birds noted m Bite during May 1899. 



Common gull. 

Black-headed gull. 

Oyster- catcher. 


Ringed plover. 






Common sandpiper. 



Red grouse. 











Yellow bunting. 








Willow warbler. 

Wood warbler. 

Chiffchaff warbler. 

Grasshopper warbler. 








Pied wagtail. 

Grey wagtail. 


Great tit. 

Cole tit. 

Blue tit. 





1S9919 00 ] The Botany of a Railway Station. 


Birds noted in Arran during June 1899. 


Carrion crow. 



Common gull. 

Herring gull. 

Black-headed gull. 

Lesser black -backed gull. 







Common sandpiper. 


Red grouse. 

Black grouse. 









Spotted flycatcher. 






Yellow bunting. 





Willow warbler. 

Wood warbler. 

Chiffchaff warbler. 

Whitethroat warbler. 











Great tit. 

Blue tit. 

Cole tit. 

Pied wagtail. 

Grey wagtail. 


(Read Feb. 28, 1000.) 

When residing at Burntisland a good many years ago, I 
became interested in the number of plants that grew on the 
railway lines connected with the station. And at the out- 
set it will be as well to define what I mean by " railway 
station." To the ordinary passenger it means the booking 
office, platform, waiting-rooms — and to some, that important 
modern institution, the refreshment-room. To the man in 
charge it means the main line from distant signal -posts and 
all the sidings connected therewith — west to the seashore 

88 The Botany of a Railway Station. [Sess. 

below Eossend Castle, with all the engines, carriages, and 
waggons required for working railway traffic. The length of 
the line, exclusive of sidings, would be fully a mile. 

Bordering the main line from the signal there is a narrow 
stripe of permanent grass on each side for about 500 yards. 
On these borders many flowering-plants and grasses are per- 
manently established, subject to being cut down once a-year 
for the sake of appearance. But it is quite different with 
the plants that grow, or attempt to grow, on the line or in 
the sidings, subject twice a-year to the surfaceman's shovel, — 
and the wielder thereof regards every vestige of vegetation 
as a. weed, in the full sense and meaning of the word, and 
as such to be destroyed olf the face of the earth. 

The soil, an important factor at all times and in all places 
for the growth of plants, consisted here almost entirely of 
travelled material, gradually covered over with a coating of 
engine-ashes, cinders, and small coal dropping from waggons in 
shunting operations extending over many years. Of course the 
material selected by railway engineers for ballasting purposes 
is not intended for the growth of plants, and some of what 
was laid down here came from some of the kames or eskars 
in the north of Fife ; while the old Oakley iron- works 
supplied broken slag, with a strong pungent smell of sulphur. 
No plants grew on this part of the line for some years. But 
"Time changes a' thing" — like Bonnie Bessie Lee. The 
slag got gradually broken down and covered over, and vege- 
tation began to take root and find nourishment. The rocks 
at the east end of the passenger station retained soil on ledges 
and in crevices : various plants grew here free and safe from 
shovel and hoe. The western portion of the station was 
formed of soil — mainly ballast deposited there from ships. 
When this material was left undisturbed, even for a short 
time, a luxurious vegetation sprang up in the summer months. 
With the exception of the rocks referred to above, all the 
ground is only a few feet above high-water mark. 

The distribution of seeds in the case of plants growing on 
the line is effected in the usual way, the wind being perhaps 
the most active agent. But the seeds of many plants from 
distant parts are scattered along railway lines by passing 
trains Almost all railway waggons used in the conveyance 

i899-i9°°-] The Botany of a Raihvay Station. 89 

of general merchandise are bedded with straw, grass, reeds, 
&c, grown at home or abroad — on the banks of the Tay 
(reeds) or the banks of the Elbe (meadow-hay, &c.), as the 
case may be — and seeds foreign to the locality drop out 
on the line through the bottom or sides of the waggons. In 
this way one may pick up a south of England plant growing 
on the railway in the Howe of Fife or the valley of the Spey. 
Garden escapes are also common near towns and villages. 

And here I may mention that I was partly induced to 
make the following list of plants by the late Mr Sadler, whc 
was at that time Curator of the Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 
He told me that there was a proposal to publish a Flora 
of the Firth of Forth from Dunbar to Bo'ness on the south 
side, and from Crail to Crombie Point on the north side — 
points given in M'Laren's ' Geology of Fife and the Lothians.' 
The list — if my memory serves me — was to include all plants 
from high-water mark up to the 100-foot beach. So far as 
I know, it came to nothing except the dry list of names, which 
I will now give. The Cryptogams I have left severely alone. 


Ranunculus acris, R. repens, and R. hirsutus. 

Papaver Argemone, P. Rhoeas, P. somniferum, and Glaucium luteum. 

Fumaria officinalis. 

Coronopus didyma and C. Ruellii, Thlaspi arvense, Capsella Bursa- 
pastoris, Lepidium latifolium, L. draba, L. ruderale, Draba verna, 
Camelina sativa, Alyssum calycinum, Arabis hirsuta, Barbarea vul- 
garis, Sisymbrium officinale, S. Irio, Cheiranthus Cheiri, Sinapis 
arvensis, Raphanus Raphanistrum, Diplotaxis tenuifolia and D. 

Reseda lutea and R. Luteola. 

Viola canina. 

Saponaria officinalis, Silene inflata, S. maritima, S. anglica, Lychnis 
diurna, L. vespertina, L. Githago, Sagina procumbens, Spergula 
arvensis, Honckenya peploides, Stellaria media, Cerastium glomera- 
tum and C. arvense. 

Linum usitatissimum. 

Malva sylvestris, M. rotundifolia, and Lavatera arborea. A single plant 
of the Lavatera grew on the rocks, but it was destroyed by some tame 
rabbits. It is found on the Bass Rock. 

90 The Botany of a Railway Station. [Sess. 


Hypericum perforatum. 

Acer pseudo-platanus. 

Geranium rotundifolium, G. molle, G. Robertianum, G. sanguineum, and 
Erodium cicutarium. 

Sarothamnus scoparius, Ulex europaaus, Ononis arvensis, Anthyllis 
vulneraria, Medicago lupulina, Melilotus officinalis, M. arvensis, 
M. alba, Trifolium repens, T. tomentosa, Lotus corniculatus, As- 
traglus glycyphyllos, and A. hypoglottis. 

Prunus communis on rocks, Potentilla anserina, Rosa canina, R. 
spinosissima, Rubus fruticosus, Alchemilla vulgaris, Crataegus Oxy- 

Epilobium montanum, Oenothera biennis. 

Ribes nigrum. 
Sedum acre. 

Hedera Helix. 

Conium maculatum, Fetrosilenum sativum, iEgopodium Podagraria, Pim- 
pinella Saxifraga, Bupleurum rotundifolium, ..Fthusa Cynapium, 
Fceniculum vulgare, Heracleum Spondylium, Daucus carota, Torilis 
nodosa, and Scandix Pecten- Veneris. 

Galium aparine, Sherardia arvensis. 

Centranthus ruber, Valerianella olitoria and V. dentata. 

Dipsacus sylvestris, Knautia arvensis. 

Tragopogon pratensis, Sonchus oleraceus, Hieracium Pilosella, H. murorum, 
Taraxacum officinale, Lapsana communis, Arctium Lappa, Cichorium 
Intybus (only one plant seen), Carduus nutans, C. crispus, C. Mari- 
anus, C. arvensis, Centaurea nigra, C. Cyanus, Artemisia vulgaris, 
Tussilago Farfara, Solidago Virgaurea, Senecio vulgaris, S. Jacobasa, 
Bellis perennis, Chrysanthemum segetum, C. Leucanthemum, Matri- 
caria Parthenium, M. inodora, Achillea Millefolium. 

Campanula rotundifolia, C. glomerata. 
Vinca major. 

Convolvulus arvensis. 

Hyoscyamus niger. (This plant would grow in some places for a year or 
two in profusion, then suddenly disappear for a season. After taking 
a twelvemonth's rest, it would reappear in greater profusion than 
ever.) Solanum nigrum. 

Verbascum Thapsus, Veronica serpyllifolia, V. Chamajdrys, Linaria 

i899-i9°°-] Splashes. 91 


Salvia Verbenaca, Mentha arvensis, Teucrium Scorodonia, Lamium 
amplexicaule, Galeopsis Tetrahit, Stachys arvensis. 

Myosotis arvensis, Lithospermum officinale, L. arvense, Lycopsis arvensis, 
Echinospermum Lappula (one single plant once found on ballast). 

Anagallis arvensis, A. ca?rulea (one single plant once found on line), 
Primula veris. 

Plantago major, P. lanceolata, P. Coronopus. 

Chenopodium olidum, C. rubrum, C. glaucum (ballast). 

Polygonum Persicaria, P. aviculare, P. Convolvulus, Rumex obtusifolius, 
R. maritimus, R. crispus. 

Euphorbia Peplus, E. Helioscopia. 

Urtica urens, U. dioica. 

Setaria viridis, Phalaris canariensis, Apera Spica-ventis, Agrostis alba, 
Avena pratensis, A. pubesceus, Arrhenatherum avenaceum, Schlero- 
chloa maritima, S. rigida, Poa annua, P. pratensis, P. trivialis, 
Cynosurufr cristatus, Dactylis glomerata, Bromus sterilis, B. erectus, 
Triticum repens, T. junceum, Hordeum murinum, Lolium perenne, 
Elymus arenarius, .Egilops ovata (once found growing on ballast). 



By Mr R. S. COLE, M.A. Cantab. 

(Communicated Feb. SS, 1900.) 

[Professor Worthington and Mr E. S. Cole lately made a 
large number of most interesting experiments regarding the 
"splashes" produced by liquid falling into liquid and by 
solid falling into liquid. These splashes were carefully and 
successfully photographed by the experimenters, and the 
pictures thus secured were in some cases rather startling. 
At the request of the Council, Mr Cole very kindly showed 
these photographs on the screen at an evening meeting of 
the Society, and explained at the same time how the results 
had been obtained. By the courtesy of the editor of 

92 Splashes. [Sess. 

' Pearson's Magazine,' — where two articles by Professor 
Worthington on the subject appeared in July and August 
1898, — a number of illustrations prepared from the photo- 
graphs are here reproduced. (See Plates V.-X.) The follow- 
ing are Mr Cole's explanations of the different stages of the 
splashes, and of the mode by which the photographs were 

The photographs were taken by Professor Worthington, F.R.S., 
and the lecturer, with a view to studying the phenomena of 
the splashes produced by drops of liquid and solid bodies 
falling into liquid. The splashes were made in a dark room, 
and illuminated by an electric spark from Leyden jars outside 
the room : previously a camera had been placed in position 
and focussed, and the sensitive plate exposed so that when 
the flash occurred the image was thrown on the plate. 
Electrically controlled arrangements were made, whereby the 
drops of liquid or the solid were released inside the dark room, 
and at the same time a metal ball was also released outside, 
which in falling discharged the Leyden jars and produced the 
required illumination of the splash. The heights of fall in 
both cases could be varied, thus enabling the height of fall 
of the liquid drop or of the metal ball to be varied, which 
permitted, on the one hand, the nature of the splash to be 
varied, and on the other hand the flash to be produced at any 
stage of the phenomenon required. From the photograph of 
a disc whirling so that its edge, which was graduated, travelled 
at the rate of 78 miles an hour, it was estimated that the 
duration of the flash did not exceed three millionths of a 

Several series of photographs were shown : — 
I. A drop of liquid falling 40 centimetres into water 
rendered visible by the addition of milk. The series of 
events are as follows : 1, A crater-like hollow of liquid is 
formed, with arms shooting out, and segmenting into drops. 
2, The crater subsides, and the arms die away. 3, The floor 
of the crater rises and shoots up in the centre, forming a 
thick column of liquid. 4, The column subsides, and a hole 
is formed ; meanwhile the liquid forming the column spreads 
out to form a plate whose edge constitutes the first outrushing 
ripple. 5, The column again rises and subsides; a second 

PLATE V., Series 1. 


PLATE VI., Series \— continued. 




PLATE VII., Series 1- continued. 

Series 2. 


PLATE VIII., Series 3. 

PLATE IX., Series 4. 

PLATE X., Series 5. 

• ' 

^t^ 1 *) 00 -] Splashes. 93 

plate and ripple are formed. 6, The column again emerges, 
and behaves as before. The series terminates at this point. 
(See Plates V.-VIL, Series 1.) 

II. A liquid drop fcdling 100 centimetres into liquid. — 
The initial stage of the phenomenon is the same as in I., 
but the crater here tends to contract and close in to form 
a bubble. Sometimes the bubble bursts in time to allow the 
column to emerge, and at others the column becomes en- 
tangled with the bubble, producing a confused mass of liquid. 
(See Plate VII, Series 2, and Plate VIII, Series 3.) 

Solid spheres falling into liquid. — In this case considerable 
difference was observed between the phenomena when the 
sphere was smooth and when it was rough. 

III. Rough sphere falling 15 centimetres into liquid. — When 
the sphere enters the surface the liquid appears to be repelled 
from it. The initial stages are similar to 1 and 2 of Series I. ; 
but subsequently, in place of the thick column, a thin thread 
of liquid is squirted to a considerable height. Much air is 
taken down. (See Plate IX., Series 4, showing what happens 
to the sphere under water.) 

IV. Smooth sphere falling 60 centimetres into liquid. — Here 
the liquid clings to the sphere, and even runs up it, closing 
over it before it is all below the original surface of the liquid. 
The phenomenon is quite silent, and no air is taken down as 
in Series III. The surface of the liquid is left smooth, and 
then out of it rises an unsymmetrical column of liquid. (See 
Plate X., Series 5.) 

Then experiments were described which were undertaken 
with a view to determining the reason for the differences 
between Series III. and IV. ; the conclusion being that the 
" rough " phenomenon is due to the presence of dust and pro- 
jections on the surface of the sphere, which allow the uprush- 
ing liquid to get free from the molecular attraction of the 
solid surface and rush off at a tangent. 

In conclusion, there was shown a photograph of the effect 
of a shot on a steel armour-plate, and attention was drawn to 
the similarity with a liquid splash. Full information can be 
found in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' of the Koyal Society 
(London)— vol. 189 (1897), pp. 137-148; vol. 194 (1900), 
pp. 175-200. 

94 Natural History Notes on Tenby. [Sess 


(Read March 28, 1900.) 

Attractive to the ordinary tourist from the beauty of it 
situation, the extent and firmness of its sands, and the un- 
usual salubrity of its climate, Tenby is specially interesting 
to the naturalist on account of the richness of its marine 
fauna and flora, in which respect it is excelled by few, if any, 
places on the British coast. It is situated on a somewhat 
lofty promontory, washed on both sides by the sea, the easterr 
extremity of which forms Tenby Head, or, as it is more 
commonly called, from the fragmentary ruins of the old castle 
which are located on it, the Castle Hill. Its coast offers 
many caves and recesses, forming highly suitable habitations 
for the lower forms of animal and vegetable life. The richest 
spot, however, in this respect, is undoubtedly a rugged mass 
of limestone situated at a short distance from the Castle Hill, 
known as St Catherine's Eock or St Catherine's Island. 
This rock is surrounded by the sea for two or three hours 
before and after high water, but at other times it is readily 
accessible across the sand left dry to a greater or less 
extent, according to the state of the tide. Penetrated by 
caverns and intersected by numerous caves and recesses, it 
offers a rich and almost exhaustless field of research for 
the naturalist working at the various forms of life which 
there abound. Eound the coast are Monkstone Point and 
Lydstep caverns, two and a half miles to the north and 
four miles to the west respectively ; while some two miles 
out at sea, marked by a lofty beacon, are the sharp and 
rugged Woolhouse Eocks. All these are rich in life, similar, 
though differing in detail, to that of Tenby Head and St 
Catherine's Eock. 

It is this last, however, as already said, which offers the 
richest hunting-ground. About two hours after the tide has 
commenced to ebb we may reach its western point, and, 
rounding the extreme end, find ourselves opposite the first 


i899~i9°°-] Natural History Notes on Tenby. 95 

cavern. This is the smallest, and perhaps the least pro- 
ductive, of the three caverns which penetrate the rock, yet it 
is well worthy of attention. Here, as well as in other parts 
of the rock, occur in abundance the dog whelk {Purpura 
lapillus), with its beautiful little egg-cases, which stud the 
walls in all directions ; anemones, chiefly the beadlet {Actinia 
mesembryanthemwm) in several varieties, are plentiful ; the 
acorn - shell barnacles, both Balanus Balanoides and B. 
porcatus, abound ; while the walls of the cave, from the 
ground to a height of twelve or fifteen feet, are covered, 
though perhaps not so abundantly as in the second cavern, 
with hydroid zoophytes. 

The second cavern, the entrance to which is but a few 
yards seaward from the first, like it penetrates the rock and 
emerges at the other side. Like it, too, it is always accessible 
at low water of ordinary tides. Larger than the first, it is 
divided in the centre by a vast pillar of rock, and the eastern 
of the two compartments thus formed is far the richer in 
animal life. Here occurs in abundance that beautiful little 
anemone, the snowy -disk (Sagartia nivea). In one small 
rock-pool three or four feet from the ground, and when the 
tide has receded presenting a surface of less than a square 
yard and not many inches in depth, I counted on one occasion 
about a hundred of these animals. As in the first case, the 
beadlet anemone is abundant, while the walls are covered 
with barnacles, and with zoophytes belonging chiefly to the 
genus Obelia, and in less abundance several other genera — 
Hydrallmania, Sertularia, Plumularia, Diphasia, &c. Sponges, 
except the crumb-of-bread sponge (Halichondriapanicea), though 
abundant on other parts of the rock, are not common here. 

The third cavern is more pretentious than either of the 
other two, but is accessible only at low water of spring tides, 
and easily so only at the equinoctial tides of March and 
September. This, like the others, penetrates the entire width 
of the rock, but it is not so easy to traverse. Towards the 
centre the passage is much constricted, and it is necessary, in 
order to pass through, to scramble up the rock, squeeze 
through a narrow opening, and then, having jumped down 
some eight or ten feet, to wade a deepish pool which remains 
even after the tide has receded. It is easier, instead of doing 

g6 Natural History Notes on Tenby. [Sess. 

this, to return, pass round the western extremity of the rock,, 
and go into the cave again by its northern entrance. This 
is by far the richest of the three caverns. Here many specie? 
of zoophytes occur. Sponges, such as Grantia compressa, G. 
ciliata, G. botryoides, Halichondria panicea, and other species, 
abound ; whilst of the Polyzoa, Bowerbankia imbricata, Cellu-,| 
laria circularia, Alcyonidiuin hirsutum, and other species, occur 
in great abundance. The hydroid zoophytes are not so con-i 
spicuous as in the other caverns, but careful search reveals a| 
greater number of species. Adhering to the rocks like patches'! 
of coagulated jelly are numbers of compound ascidians, — I 
Botryllus and other members of the family Botryllidse ; whilst! 
the strawberry ascidian (Amaroucium proliferum) is found inS 
great abundance. The Mermaid's fingers (Alcyonium digi-l 
latum) also occurs here somewhat plentifully, especially inl 
the darker portion of the cavern, light appearing to be detri-. 
mental to the growth of this animal. 

But the interest of this little rock is not confined to the* 
interior of the caverns. All round, but especially on the! 
northern side, where in many parts the overhanging rock! 
forms shaded recesses, it offers rich spoils to the naturalist.! 
Many parts are riddled by the rock-boring mollusc, Saxicavaj 
rugosa, known locally as " red-nose " ; and a few specimens of!i 
Pholas may at times be found. Nudibranchs (Eolis and other 
genera), Brittle-stars (Ophiocoma, &c), and the common star-l 
fish ( Uraster rubens), are frequent, the last often in enormous; 
quantities. Of the larger algce, Laminaria, Enteromorphai 
Porphyra, Delesseria, Pthodomenia, Ulva, and the beautiful 
Bryopsis plumosa, may be cited ; whilst a closer search on the! 
rock and amongst the fronds of the larger algre reveals many! 
smaller and rarer species. 

Nor are the attractions of Tenby, from a naturalist point of! 
view, limited to St Catherine's rock. Tenby Head, Monkstonei' 
Point, and Lydstep are equally productive. St Margaret'sf 
Island, some three miles out from Tenby, has caverns rnoreji 
magnificent than St Catherine's or Lydstep, though less rich 
in animal life. The Woolhouse Eocks, at high-water sub-fi 
merged to the extent of fifteen or twenty feet, and accessible} 
only at low tide by boat, also afford a rich field of study! 
Here the pretty little cat-limpet (Patella pellucida) is found in 


1899-1900.] Natural History Notes on Tenby. 97 

great quantity on the stems and fronds of Laminaria. At 
Scotsborough, now separated from it by a mile of cultivated 
land, the sea would seem to have ebbed and flowed less than 
two centuries ago, for, writing from this place under date of 
Feb. 28, 1697, Edward Lloyd, antiquary and naturalist, says 
that he had " discovered many undescribed zoophytes by 
dredging here, and many new sorts of figured fossils, amongst 
which a figure of a flat-fish represents one of the greatest 
curiosities hitherto observed by the curious." 

The land flora is no less interesting than the marine. 
Within an easily accessible distance something like one-third 
of all the plants recorded in Great Britain may be found, 671 
species being said to occur in the district. On the old town 
.walls the pretty little purple toadflax (Linaria Gymbalaria) 
hangs down in graceful clusters ; whilst between Tenby and 
Penally the bloody crane's-bill {Geranium sanguineum) is not 
uncommon. On the cliffs below the esplanade the red and the 
white Valerian (Centranthus ruber and Valeriana officinalis) 
grow in profusion ; and in the marshy ground near Holloway 
Bridge may be found the motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca), the 
bog myrtle {Myrica Gale), the marsh cinquefoil {Comarum 
pahistre), the bog asphodel [Narthecium ossifragum), and the 
water bedstraw {Galium pahistre), as well as the meadow-sweet 
{Spircca Ulmaria) and many other flowering-plants. Of ferns, 
the Osmunda is most conspicuous ; whilst on old walls and 
rocks in the neighbourhood Ceterach officinarum, Asplenium 
Trichomanes, A. Buta-muraria, A. Adiantum-nigrum, and A. 
marinum are far from uncommon. 

Of the geology and palaeontology of Tenby I have said 
nothing ; nor can I do more than mention the bone caves of 
Hoyle's Mouth and Longbury bank, of Caldy Island and the 
Black Bock. These have been explored by Professor Bolles- 
ton, Professor Boyd Dawkins, Mr E. Laws, and the Be v. O. N. 
Smith, and have yielded large collections of human and animal 
remains, — bones of sheep, deer, roebuck, rhinoceros, and bear ; 
flint and bronze implements and weapons ; and human bones 
and teeth. Many of these are preserved in the admirable 
local museum on the Castle Hill. 

[In illustration of the above, a large number of lantern 

98 Notes on the Frog. [Sess. 

slides, from photographs by Dr Davies, were thrown on the 
screen. These included views of the town of Tenby and the 
surrounding district — G-umfreston, Scotsborough, Pembroke, 
and Lydstep, — besides several views of St Catherine's Rock and 
its caverns, as well as the Woolhouse Eocks, fishing-boats off 
Tenby, &c. In addition, the marine zoology of Tenby was rep- 
resented by illustrations of its zoophytes, sponges, starfishes, 
and sea-anemones. Three of the views shown are here repro- 
duced — viz., St Catherine's Rock ; Second Cavern, St Cath- 
erine's; and the harbour of Tenby.] 



(Read April 25, 1900.) 

In submitting my few notes on observations made in connec- 
tion with the rearing of the common frog from the ovum, I 
cannot promise anything new, but only what must be known 
to many careful observers. Of course we know there are 
many observers who are not careful as regards the numerous 
small details that are peculiar to the habits of different animals. 
Some seem to think that in order to study the habits of an 
animal it is only necessary to confine it in some receptacle 
where it can be observed now and then as fancy prompts. 
Now I feel sure that is not the proper way to study the 
life-history or natural habits of any creature. Nature must 
be imitated as nearly as possible, and it is only as this is done 
that a true insight can be got into the life-history and habits 
of any animal. 

Before saying anything about my own observations, I should 
like to read to you a short paragraph from a lesson on tadpoles 
in a certain schoolbook : — 

" I went with a tin quart-pot in my hand toe-biter hunting on Clapham 
Common, and brought home exactly a quart of tadpoles ; these I emptied 

iSqo-^ 00 -] Notes on the Frog. 99 

into a tub in the beer-cellar. There they lived, being fed on meat several 
days, till one evening, on sending for a glass of the all-refreshing fluid, lip 
comes John with half a smile on his face, and simpers out : " If you please, 
sir, I have brought the beer, but I have upset the tadpoles." 

On arriving at the scene of the disaster, there were the poor things high 
and dry on the floor. I restored them to their tub, but forgot to put back 
their meat. The next morning I found some that had not recovered from 
their accident, and round the bodies of their departed brethren were 
crowded the cannibal survivors, eating and pulling away each for himself. 
After this I left them much to themselves, and their numbers dimin- 
ished considerably, the cook's opinion being as usual that that omniv- 
orous creature "the cat" had a hand in it, bringing forward as an 
argument, which is not strictly zoological as applied to tadpoles, that the 
" cat is fond of fish." 

Now I believe there are many who, upon hearing this read 
or reading it for themselves, would say that the writer was not 
a very advanced student in natural history, or at any rate not 
a careful observer. That was my first thought. I may add 
that it was one of my little girls who read the paragraph to 
me, not naming the author. Could it be imagined there was 
any attempt to imitate nature in emptying a " quart of tad- 
poles " into a tub in a beer-cellar, which is usually poorly 
lighted, if at all ? The story about the servant upsetting the 
tub was all the more reason that he should have put them in 
a better place. I think we may conclude there was little or 
no light, hence no chance of vegetable growth for the tadpoles 
to feed upon. Was it any wonder they should have become 
cannibals, as it is said they did ? But seeing his careful 
servant upset the tub once, he may have done it oftener, which 
would account for their loss. It need not cause wonder that 
wrong ideas are spread abroad after such a study of tadpoles 
as that. I can assure you it surprised me very much when 
I read the name of Frank Buckland at the end of that 

Now for my own notes. About the middle of April 1897 
I accompanied several members of the Society to Balerno 
Moss, where we came upon a small pool almost filled with 
frog-spawn. I made the remark that it would be a sight 
when the tadpoles were hatched, for there would scarcely be 
room for them to swim about. Some one replied that the 
tadpoles would soon cure that, as they would devour one 
another. I filled a tube with the ova, and took it with me, 


ioo Notes on the Frog. [Sess. 

resolved to prove to my own satisfaction, if possible, whether 
they ate each other or not. There were thirteen ova in the 
tube, and these I put in a large basin holding about four 
gallons of water. In the basin I placed a pot in which grew 
several aquatic plants. I also threw in some duckweed, which 
floated on the surface of the water, and set the basin in a green- 
house exposed to the light and sunshine. Here twelve of the 
ova hatched, and several times each day I carefully noted 
their movements, changes, &c. In a week they were hatched, 
although they did not leave the gelatinous mass that sur- 
rounded the ova until it was all consumed, which took about 
eioht days. I considered they were hatched when the tad- 
poles straightened out. For four or five days or longer, 
although seemingly perfectly formed, they remained rolled up 
like a scroll. After leaving the thin, almost invisible, fibrous 
material that seemed to hold the spawn mass together, there 
was easily seen a very small branched opening on each side 
near the head, which nearly in every case disappeared in from 
two to four days. After they began to swim about, until the 
head — or to be exact, the body, as there is no distinct head — 
got round or tumid, they almost constantly kept in groups 
when feeding, which at the first was always upon the stalks 
of the plants. Very often there was a line of six or eight, 
almost touching one another, along the one side of a branch 
of Eanunculus aquatilis, where they would stick for hours 
at a time, as if pinned by the head to the plant. After the 
body got plump, however, they became more lively, and 
moved about more, seemed more independent of each other's 
company, and never fed long at a time without shifting 
their position. They now began to feed more upon the 
confervoid growth which covered the sides of the flower-pot 
and basin. 

It was now, after they had been nearly four weeks swimming 
about, that I thought of trying them with some special food. 
I dropped into the basin one or two small caterpillars first, 
which they paid no attention to. Then I tried some small 
worms. They now evinced a little interest, but upon the worms 
making the slightest move they were off as fast as they could 
swim. All along they were very shy and timid, the slightest 
shake, or the passing of the hand over the basin, sending them 

i899- I 9°°-] Notes 07i the Frog. IOI 

all hiding. I next got very small worms, which I cut in 
pieces about the size of a pin-head : these I let slip down the 
side of the basin. Soon after, one of the tadpoles happened 
to rest upon the place where the worms slid down, and got 
very excited. Then two or three more came along, and also 
got infected, keeping up the side of the basin to the surface of 
the water, as if in search of the worms. It gave me the 
impression that they smelt where the worm had passed. In 
a short time each tadpole got a small bit of worm, and lay and 
sucked at it for an hour, or an hour and a half, before it dis- 
appeared. A few of them attacked a second bit, but as a rule 
some pieces were still lying the next day, and the tadpoles 
quietly feeding on the algae on the side of the basin, though 
they never failed to eat all the worm. After this I gave them 
one or two worms cut in small bits every alternate day. It 
seemed necessary that they should be thus cut : a whole worm 
killed and put in lay for a week untouched, when it began to 
develop fungus. I am sure that the whole twelve tadpoles in 
twelve days did not eat the bulk of one of themselves in worms. 
Of course they ate lots of vegetable substances, and I have no 
doubt other small organisms, yet they did not seem ravenous 
feeders, as one would expect of creatures that are accused of 
devouring each other. 

The tadpoles now grew in size at a great rate, and were a 
source of much pleasure and interest to me. About the 
beginning of the last week in May I first noticed two small 
warty-looking growths appear upon one, and one upon another, 
and next day there were one or two more showing like pro- 
tuberances, while the tadpole which had only one protuber- 
ance the day before had two now, and very much lengthened. 
I need scarcely say these were the hind limbs. One of them 
had its hind legs and feet perfectly formed, although not fully 
developed, in five weeks after it was hatched, but it was quite 
eight weeks before the last one was provided with these limbs. 
Some of them now began to show the fore limbs, and these 
were even more erratic in coming than the hind ones. Some- 
times one limb would shoot out in a few hours, showing joints, 
toes, &c, but would remain undeveloped from eight to ten 
days : in fact, there seems to be no rule for the period these 
limbs require to develop, but from the time the first tadpole 

102 Notes on the Frog. [Sess. 

showed the hind limbs until the last one had finished its fore 
ones was about seven weeks. 

After the limbs were fairly formed the creatures seemed to 
stop feeding, the head began to flatten and the mouth to en- 
large. They also began to change colour : from being of a 
uniform greyish black, some turned brown and yellow picked 
out with black, some entirely yellow with black markings, but 
scarcely two of them exactly the same colour. At this time the 
tails also began to vanish. Some of them did so in about 
twenty-four hours, while others took over a week : in fact, 
one of the frogs left the water with a small stump of a tail. 
In from twelve to fifteen weeks after they were hatched they 
had all left the water, and were hopping about the greenhouse, 
and would readily swallow a small worm about an inch long, 
although during all the time of their tadpole state I never saw 
any attempt to attack, or in any way interfere with, each 
other. On the contrary, they seemed a happy and contented 

I did not yet consider it certain that they would not harm 
each other, so next year I got sixteen ova, and reared them in 
much the same way as before, except that I only fed them 
once each week with worms, and each time only the same 
proportion that I had given the first ones every alternate day. 
Yet, with one exception, they all came to perfect frogs in 
about fifteen weeks, as large and as lively as the first ones, 
and never showed the least attempt at cannibalism. Last 
year I again reared some more, this time over thirty, and 
during their lifetime as tadpoles they got no special feeding of 
worms or anything else. Of course there was plenty of vege- 
table growth. It was a much larger dish than before that was 
used, and it stood in the open air all the time. These also 
reached the perfect frog state without any of them being 
devoured, although receiving no special animal food except 
what the water naturally contained in the shape of animal- 
culse, &c, and they arrived at maturity in much the same way 
and time as the others did. This year, if I can manage it, I 
intend to tempt them in a slight degree to cannibalism by 
restricting their vegetable diet. 

Now, after these three years' experiments and observations, 
I am perfectly satisfied that tadpoles in their natural state 

i899 _I 9 00 -] Notes on the Frog. 103 

do not devour each other. Yet I know for certain that any 
one going to a pool on Monday may find it swarming with 
tadpoles, while on Saturday very few, if any, will be present. 
Why ? because some wild ducks took a fancy to them. Newts, 
also, eat a great many. I have seen a black newt swallow 
three fully grown, with the limbs showing, almost as quickly 
as one could say he had done so. 

I have one of my first year's frogs yet. I had three last 
year, but two of them got away last autumn. They were all 
quite tame, and not at all shy. It is very amusing to see 
them feeding, if there are two for the same worm. Drop 
a worm before them — it can scarcely be too large. One 
would think they would at once pick it up, but no : they 
will sit and steadily watch the worm for a while, then have 
a look at each other, and so on for some time, alternately 
looking at the worm and at each other. One day two of 
them caught the same worm, which happened to be a large 
one. It was a sight to witness that tug of war ! The worm 
parted, and they both rolled off the shelf they were on. 
Another day I dropped a worm between two of them : after 
contemplating that worm for some time, one of them swallowed 
it. The other jumped at and bit its companion two or three 
times on the side of the head. I then put down another 
worm for the unsuccessful frog, but he studied it so long that 
No. 1 took it also. No. 2 looked up, seemingly astonished 
and enraged, for he gave a croak, jumped upon the back of 
No. 1, and dug his forefeet so hard into the other's sides that 
he squealed loud and long. They struggled with each other, 
rolling over and over, for two or three minutes, after which 
they separated, and No. 2 got his worm in peace. 

For the benefit of any who may not have studied frog life, 
I may say a few words about how frogs pass the winter. In 
a natural state they usually bury themselves in the loose 
mud and decaying vegetable matter round the weedy sides of 
lochs, ditches, and small streams. I have many a time turned 
up numbers of them while removing the accumulation of leaves, 
&c, from the bottom of some of these streams. I have also 
seen many turned up by the sides of lochs which had got 
stirred up while drawing ice ashore for filling ice-houses. I 
believe frogs will sometimes pass the winter in damp holes 

104 Notes on the Frog. [Sess. 

among accumulations of moss, leaves, &c, if sufficiently deep 
to be beyond the effect of frost. In confinement some of them 
have buried themselves under moss in a corner, or even under 
the half of a broken flower-pot, but usually in the bottom of 
the water-tank. One thing they often do in the summer 
season is rather interesting. I have several common tumblers 
and other glass vessels in which I keep various aquatics and 
other things for microscopic purposes. Mr Frog will get over 
the edge of one of these glasses, quietly drop himself to the 
bottom, and lie there for some days at a time. On coming 
out he generally carries proof of his visit by his back being 
covered with duckweed, or whatever the glass may have 

One of my frogs this year deposited a quantity of spawn, 
but not having a male in the frame, of course it came to 
nothing. I shall endeavour to get a male, so as to note the 
time the ova are in hatching, after they are deposited. I have 
not been able to add anything to my information about tad- 
poles. I got some, but unfortunately put two sticklebacks 
into the same tank, and in three days the tadpoles were all 
killed by these little fish eating off the tails of their black 

One of our members reared a few tadpoles this summer, and 
from some cause or other he has had several deaths when 
nearing the perfect stage. He tells me that if he leaves a 
dead one in the dish the others immediately begin to eat 
it. This seems very strange, as, with me, when nearing the 
perfect state, they seemed to stop feeding, while after they 
were matured they fed ravenously, swallowing worms nearly 
as large as themselves. Can any other members of the 
Society give their experiences of frog-hatching ? 

At this meeting Mr W. C. Crawford, President, read a 
paper entitled "The Excursions of a Field-Naturalist, with 
some Meditations thereon." 

iSgQ- 1 ^ 00 -] Notes on the Excu rsions of 1 900. I o 5 

By Me WM. WILLIAMSON, Secretary. 


The first excursion for the season was held on 28th April, 
when the members proceeded to Wemyss, principally with the 
object of seeing the caves which stud the coast-line, and which 
have attracted the attention of archaeologists by reason of the 
sculpturings to be found on the walls. 

On arrival at "Wemyss, the party first visited the ruins of 
Kennoway Castle — or the Thanes' Castle — which dates from 
1057. Many of the stones in the walls are now well honey- 
combed as a result of the severe weathering action to which 
they are exposed. Entering from the shore, and right beneath 
the Thanes' Castle, is Jonathan's Cave. This place is about 7 
feet long and 20 feet wide. Farther east is the Doocot Cave, 
which is much larger ; while beyond this are the Court and 
the Glass Caves. As stated before, prominence has been given 
to these caves on account of the rude sculpturings of animals, 
&c, found on the walls. Tradition has it that some of the 
missionaries among the early inhabitants of that part resorted 
to these caves, and it has been suggested that they were the 
artists, from the resemblance of the sculptures to those found 
on monuments of the period. 

Afterwards, by permission, a visit was paid to the grounds 
of Wemyss Castle, where for some time stood a battery of 19 
guns, believed to have been carried on the Great Michael in 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. These guns — 4 single- 
barrelled, 11 double-barrelled, and 4 multi-barrelled — were 
made of iron plate rolled into tubes, the breeches being closed 
by iron plugs forced in and the ends of the tube turned over 
by hammering. At the time of our visit these guns were 
under cover and locked up for preservation, and we were unable 
to see them. 

Before leaving East Wemyss a visit was paid to the fine 
old cruciform parish church, the architectural features being 
pointed out by the Rev. J. Kennedy, minister of the parish. 

io6 Notes on the Excursions of 1900. [Sess. 


The evening of Wednesday, May 2nd, was devoted to the 
old Castle of Craigmillar. In the unavoidable absence of Mr 
Speedy, the party were taken over the Castle by Miss 
Priestley, who pointed out the various features of interest. 

From the top of tbe Castle Mr J. A. Johnston gave an in- 
teresting account of the geology of the district, which was 
listened to with much attention. 


On 12th May the members of the Society renewed their 
acquaintance with this neighbourhood, which had not been 
visited for a number of years. Mr Arch. Hewat, F.F.A., 
and the Eev. Mr Blake, minister of the parish of Temple, 
were to have conducted the party ; but as Mr Blake was not 
able to be present, the Bev. Mr Wilson, of Stobhill, placed 
himself at the disposal of Mr Hewat and the members for the 
afternoon. Entering the Arniston policies at Gorebridge, 
the party followed the course of the South Esk till they came 
to Arniston House. Near this is Temple glen, through which 
the members walked till they came to Temple. The principal 
object of interest here is the ruins of the old church. Great 
interest attaches to this place, as it is believed to be ail that 
remains of the chapel of an establishment founded by David I. 
of Scotland — the " sair sanct " — for the use of the Knights 
Templars, or Red Eriars as they were also called. One of 
the stones in the belfry has some leaden letters sunk into it, 
but what they signify is not at all clear. Before setting out 
on the return journey, through the courtesy of the Bev. Mr 
and Mrs Blake, the party, to the number of thirty-four, were 
hospitably entertained at the manse. The return journey was 
made partly through the Arniston policies and partly by the 
road. Before leaving the policies, Mr Hewat pointed out 
what used to be the high road from Edinburgh to the South. 
Those members who visited Torwoodlee on July 7 saw another 

i899- I 9°°'] Notes on the Excursions of 1900. 107 

portion of the same road — viz., that which led from Galashiels 

Although the limestone, freestone, and coal formations call 
for the attention of the geologist, it is to the botanist that the 
district appeals most strongly, by reason of the abundant floral 
treasures which are to be found. Some trees of considerable 
girth were observed, and a note of the measurements — about 
4 to 5 feet from the ground — were made. These were : 
Spanish chestnut, 15 ft. 6 in.; ash, 14 ft. 9 J in.; beech, 14 
ft. 9 in. ; and a cedar and larch each 12 ft. 5 in. 


Through the courtesy of Messrs A. B. Fleming & Co., we 
paid a visit to the old mansion-house of Caroline Park and 
Eoyston Castle on Wednesday, 16 th May. Caroline Park is 
an old-fashioned grey- stone building, with a central quad- 
rangle. It adjoins the ruins of Royston Castle. The 
mansion-house was built in 1685 by Viscount Tarbat when 
he was Prime Minister of Scotland. The present name was 
given to it by a Duke of Argyll, whose Duchess had been 
Maid of Honour to Queen Caroline when she was Princess of 

Some little time was spent in the gardens examining a 
collection of herbaceous plants. 


Many of the members looked forward to this excursion on 
Saturday, May 26. The day was all that could be desired, 
but on arriving at Canty Bay it was found that, owing to a 
heavy swell, it would be impossible to land visitors on the 
rock. Most of the members returned to town by an early 


On the evening of Wednesday, May 30, a party met at 
Duddingston Loch, under the leadership of Mr Terras, for the 

108 Notes on the Excursions of 1900. [Sess 

purpose of observing the aquatic plants which grow here. 
Through the courtesy of Mr Affleck, the overseer on the estate, 
the party also visited the Prestonfielcl grounds, and returned 
by Newington. 

On 18th July we again visited the loch. Our best find 
was the Butomus umbellatus, or flowering rush, in full bloom. 
This plant appears to have been overlooked for some years, 
and was latterly considered to be extinct here. 


Saturday, June 2, was devoted to visiting the Marine 
Biological Station near Keppel Pier. The day was as fine 
as could be desired, and those botanically inclined had plenty 
of opportunity to indulge themselves on the way out to the 
station. The principal attraction was a dredging excursion, 
but this proved a failure. Owing to a strong current running 
contrary to the direction of a light wind, the dredge could not 
take the bottom sufficiently for a good haul, and only two 
sea-urchins were brought up. The rest of the time was spent 
in inspecting the museum and laboratories, which latter are 
being much improved by the addition of concrete sea-water 
tanks, so that it will now be possible to keep material for any 
length of time. A steamer is to be added to the equipment 
of the station, and with these increased facilities some good 
work will no doubt be done. 


A joint excursion was fixed with the Natural History Society 
of Glasgow to visit the Howietoun Fish-Hatchery on Saturday, 
June 9. Owing to the interest attaching to the place, it was 
expected that there would be a good attendance of members, 
but the inclemency of the weather prevented this. Several 
members proceeded by the morning train to Stirling, with the 
intention of visiting Bannockburn and the other historical 
places in the neighbourhood, under the guidance of Dr 
Watson. On arriving at Stirling it was found useless to 

i899- I 9°°-] Notes on the Excursions of 1900. 109 

attempt to visit the district, as rain was falling heavily, and 
this continued till about 4 p.m. When those members who 
travelled by the afternoon train reached Stirling, they were 
met by the morning party, and an informal meeting was held 
to determine what should be done. Some resolved to return 
home by the first train, and others to proceed to Howietoun, 
despite the inclemency of the weather. A 'bus was ulti- 
mately hired, and the party set out for the Hatchery. 
A separate account of the visit then paid, and of the 
interesting processes witnessed and described, has been 
drawn up, and will be found farther on (see p. 114). 
Despite the dismal weather and the damp grass, our visit 
was most thoroughly enjoyed, and a cordial vote of thanks 
was given to Mr Thomson, the manager, for the trouble 
he had taken and for the amount of interesting informa- 
tion he had imparted to the members. 


On the evening of Wednesday, June 13, a small party 
visited the loch in the Mortonhall grounds, through the 
courtesy of Mr Mackenzie, factor on the estate. The resources 
of this loch — the " Elf Loch " proper — have repeatedly been 
brought under the notice of the members of the Society, in 
connection with the labours of .our members, Mr Thos. Scott, 
E.L.S., and Mr J. Lindsay, on the " Upper Elf Loch," as 
they have named the neighbouring sheet of water. On 
the occasion of this visit a number of interesting specimens 
were collected. 


A large party met at Newington station at 3 p.m. on 
Saturday, June 16. Before proceeding to Bridgend, a visit 
was paid to the grounds of the Eoyal Blind Asylum. Mr 
Murray opened one of his frame hives to allow of a close 
inspection of the bees at work, and at the same time showed 

no Notes on the Excursions of '1900. [Sess. 

how the comb was built up on a wax foundation set into the 
frames. As a proof of his skill in handling the hives, not 
a single person was stung, despite the large numbers of bees 
flying about. After a very cordial vote of thanks to Mr 
Murray for his interesting demonstration, the party set out 
for Bridgend. On arriving there, Mr Massie, of Messrs 
Dicksons & Co., assisted by two of his foremen, conducted 
the party round the extensive grounds. Some of the plants 
in the houses, particularly a fine show of calceolarias, were 
much admired, as well as the fine collection of conifers in 
the grounds. Much interest was manifested in the immense 
number of seedlings destined to become trees, and in the 
means resorted to in order to prevent the destruction of the 
young shoots by birds. Before leaving, each lady received 
a bouquet of flowers, and Mr Massie was heartily thanked for 
his courtesy. 


A fairly large party met on June 23 to walk from Colinton 
by Glencorse Eeservoir and House 0' Muir to Penicuik. 
Owing to the restrictions on Bonally Hill, botanising was 
impossible ; and on reaching Glencorse, as most of the 
members evinced a desire to return by an early train 
to town, the journey to Penicuik was postponed. 


On the evening of June 27 we walked from Morningside 
to the foot of the Pentlands through the Swanston estate, 
passing the house where R L. Stevenson resided, and returned 
to town through Swanston village and Lothianburn golf-course, 
and by the Braid Eoad. The village of Swanston is very 
quaint, especially the older part, and owes much of its fame 
to the writings of Eobert Louis Stevenson, whose "roaring 
shepherd " was a well-known character in the little com- 
munity. A view of the village, from a photograph taken on 
this occasion by Dr Davies, is here given. 


iSqq-^ 00 -] Notes on the Excursions of 1900. 1 1 1 


It was intended to have had a joint excursion on June 30 
to Ben Lomond with the Glasgow Natural History and Geo- 
logical Societies, for the purpose of studying the geological 
features of the district and the alpine flora. Owing to a con- 
siderable alteration in the time of the departure of the trains, 
it was found that our members could not join the Glasgow 
party, unless by going to Glasgow or Ptowai'dennan the previous 
day and staying over-night. It was therefore decided to abandon 
the excursion, and this proved wise, as it was afterwards learnt 
that the weather had been very unfavourable in the West. 


On July 7, under the leadership of Dr Stevenson Macadam, 
a visit was paid to the Broch of Torwoodlee, when a most 
interesting account of that ancient structure was given by the 
leader. This account has been kindly written out -by Dr 
Stevenson Macadam, and will be found as a separate paper 
farther on (see p. 117). The extensive vineries at Clovenfords 
were also visited, by permission of Messrs Thomson. The 
company were hospitably entertained by Mr and Mrs Gibson 
of Torwoodlee Mains. 


The evening of Wednesday, July 11, was set apart for a 
visit to the Marl Pit at Davidson's Mains, but owing to a 
change of circumstances it was decided that the evening should 
be spent in botanising the banks of the Esk at Musselburgh. 
On the way back the party visited the gardens and grounds 
of the ancient residence of Stoneyhill, through the courtesy of 
General Govan and Mr Howden of Stoneyhill. The garden 
is one of the oldest in Scotland, fruit having been grown in it 
for more than three hundred years. The great buttressed walls 
surrounding the garden bear witness to its age. The evidences 
of what was at one time a high-road are still seen across the 

U2 Notes on the Excursions of 1900. [Sess. 

garden and in an old plan which was exhibited to the party. 
The present house was originally the offices of an older mansion- 
house, the residence of Sir Wm, Sharpe, a son of the famous 
Archbishop, who was on his way back from a visit to this 
place when he was murdered on Magus Moor. Later it was 
the abode of the notorious Colonel Charteris, who is depicted 
in Hogarth's picture of the Rake's Progress, and who is so 
often referred to by Pope. Not far from Stoneyhill is the 
Bogle's Hole, where the witches used to be burned. 


It had been arranged for July 21 that we should walk 
from North Queensferry to Charleston, to look especially for 
galls, under the leadership of the Rev. A. S. Wilson, who is 
well versed in the subject. The day was exceptionally wet, 
and in the circumstances an excursion was out of the 


The evening of Wednesday, July 25, was most enjoyably 
spent in the grounds at Rockville. A large party was received 
by Mr and Mrs Fraser, and entertained to tea. Thereafter, 
under Mr Eraser's guidance, the party made a tour of the 
grounds, examining the well-known collection of ferns grown 
in the open air, as well as the tropical and other forms in 
the houses. 


Our first cryptogamic excursion for the season was held 
on October 6, on the afternoon of which day a visit was paid 
to the familiar Roslin woods, the walk being continued by the 
side of the North Esk to Polton. A number of interesting 

iSq;?-^ 00 -] Notes on the Excursions of 1900. 113 

fungi, as well as hepaticae, were picked up by the way, but all 
attempts at thorough collecting had to be given up, on account 
of the heavy rain, which began when Eoslin was reached, and 
continued till well on in the evening. 


Our second cryptogamic excursion was held on 13th 
October to Arniston grounds, under the leadership of Mr 
Steele. The weather was again unfavourable, and we had 
a small attendance consequently. A number of specimens 
were obtained, among them being Helvella crispa, Leotia 
lubrica, Tremella sarcoides, Stereum purpureum, and Poly- 
porus varius. 

[It has always been the desire of the Council to make the 
summer excursions as attractive and interesting as possible; 
and, in order to further this desire, a small Committee has 
now been appointed to fix upon suitable localities, especially 
such as have not hitherto been visited by the Society. It 
would aid this Committee much if members would, at any 
time, send in to the President or to the Secretary a note 
of places they consider worth a visit, with particulars as to 
nearest railway station, distance to be walked, and objects of 
interest to be seen. Such information would greatly facili- 
tate the drawing up of the annual lists of excursions.] 

H4 Fish- Hatching at Howietoun. [Sess. 


By Mr WM. WILLIAMSON, Secretary. 

As recorded in the "Notes on the Excursions of 1900," a 
visit was paid to the Howietoun Fish-Hatchery on June 9. 
On arriving at the hatching-ponds, the members were met by- 
Mr John Thomson, the manager, who gave an account of the 
work which has to be done at the ponds and at the hatching- 
houses, which were afterwards visited. Mr Thomson has been 
associated with the place since the time when the first ex- 
periments were undertaken to hatch out trout eggs in 1874. 
These were begun by Sir J. E. Gibson Maitland, with some 
assistance from Mr Francis Day, CLE., as a result of certain 
remarks made by the late Frauk Buckland. A very interest- 
ing account of successes and failures of these early experi- 
ments is given by Sir J. Maitland in his large book on 
Howietoun. One great result is that the proportion of ova 
which do not develop into fish by artificial hatching is ex- 
ceedingly small : under the ordinary conditions of nature the 
reverse is the case. The general time of spawning is from 
October to January. This may be advanced or retarded by 
treatment of the fish early in the season. By means of a net 
which is shaped to the pond, all the fish can be collected at 
one point. The ripe females are then stripped of the ova, 
which are collected in large plates. Suitable males are then 
stripped of the milt, which is expressed over the ova, and 
these, when they have been thus fertilised, are prepared for the 
hatching-house. Prior to this the hatching-boxes have been 
charred by means of hot irons, and all distributing boxes and 
pipes thoroughly cleaned, as it appears essential that no work- 
men should be employed about the houses during the time of 
hatching. The eggs are conveyed to the hatching-houses and 
poured by measures over grilles in the hatching-boxes. These 
grilles are trays made of a large number of short lengths of 
glass tubes or rods, lying side by side and held in position 
by a light wooden frame. The eggs are then arranged in rows 
between the glass tubes by means of a feather, and from now 
onwards a daily record is kept of the eggs in each hatching- 

1 899- 1 900.] Fish-Hatching at Howietoun. 1 1 5 

box. From statistics of temperature of the water, it is 
possible to predict with accuracy the date at which any 
particular batch will hatch out. 

In fish culture there are five distinct stages. The first, or 
mulberry stage, occurs about the close of segmentation. The 
round disc rises in all ova during the first twenty-four hours, 
but during the period of segmentation the disc in properly 
fertilised eggs becomes hard, and in un impregnated eggs 
annular. At the close of the period of segmentation the disc 
in properly fertilised eggs enlarges, and has a soft appear- 
ance, so that it is easy to detect and remove all ova likely to 
develop imperfectly. Absolutely unimpregnated eggs show a 
well-defined annular ring when a third of the period of in- 
cubation is over, and they can then easily be removed. Im- 
perfectly impregnated ova call for some care, as they do not 
show the well-marked embryotic layers. 

The second stage is known as the spectacle stage, and is 
occasioned by the appearance of a loop of globules anterior to 
the embryotic line. This loop gradually enlarges and passes 
backwards over more than half the sphere, giving the egg at 
one time the appearance of a pair of spectacles minus one eye. 
The left side of the eye of the spectacle stops in the position 
shortly to be occupied by the principal duct of the yolk-sac 
circulation, and the right side gradually disappears. From the 
time of the appearance of this spectacle marking and the 
rate of its development, the vitality of the embryo can be 

The third stage is the eye stage, and at this time the tail is 
free. The addition of warmth causes a slight movement of 
the tail, and it is important that ova are not packed for export 
until this movement can be discerned. 

The fourth stage is marked by the appearance of red blood, 
and one-half of the period of incubation is passed. The ova 
can now stand any fair usage, and can be packed for export 
and endure a long journey. 

The fifth stage — the completion of the embryonic circle — 
immediately precedes hatching. The tail curls round generally 
to the right, and passes the nose. The body of the embryo 
has now become dark, and the yoke globules have mostly 
collected immediately below the stomach. 


Il6 Fish-Hatching at Howietoun. [Sess. 

When the eggs are ready to hatch, they are washed off the 
grilles on to the bottom of the hatching-box, and the grilles 
are then removed. Shortly after hatching, the young fish, or 
alevins as they may now be termed, congregate together 
against the sides and in the corners of the hatching-boxes. 
A close inspection discloses the fact that they are all lying 
with their heads together, and that the pectoral fins are 
moving very rapidly. "Water currents are thus created, which 
convey fresh oxygen supplies to the closely crowded fish, and 
so their destruction from suffocation is prevented. This 
grouping of the alevins has very aptly been described by Sir 
J. K. Gibson Maitland as " a gigantic co-operative breathing 
association." After the fry have herded together for a few 
weeks, they are seized with a roaming and inquisitive spirit. 
Very little attention beyond regulating the flow of water is 
required for the alevins. The boxes do not need much 
cleaning, as the fish in their incessant motion scour the 
bottom and keep it clean. 

As the young fish grow, the provision made by nature for 
their sustenance decreases, till a stage is reached when 
artificial feeding is absolutely necessary. The food in use 
is a paste made of eggs and a sort of mince, made from 
beef which has been pounded in a mortar and passed through 
a sieve. When feeding is about to take place, the paste is 
made into a fine vermicelli by being forced through a spoon 
formed of fine perforated zinc, and these fine paste-threads 
are then dropped into the hatching-boxes and greedily seized 
by the fry. After a fortnight's feeding on this prepared food, 
raw sheep's liver, finely sieved, is added. Then horse flesh, 
very finely reduced, is substituted; and when the fry have 
become accustomed to this, they are transplanted to the 

After the fish are turned out into the ponds, they have to 
be taught to collect together for feeding. An attendant 
with a feeding spoon scatters a small quantity of prepared 
food over the deeper parts of the pond. As a little time 
elapses before it can reach the bottom, a scrimmage ensues 
among the fish in the immediate neighbourhood for the 
food. The commotion attracts others, and by repeating the 
dealing out of the food in small quantities, the fish are all 

iSo^ 1 *) 00 -] The Brock of Torwoodlee. 1 17 

attracted to these places. After a pond has been fed in 
this way for about a fortnight the fish collect very quickly, 
and can be fed in a few minutes. 

The varieties of trout which are reared are the Salmo 
levenensis or Loch Leven trout, S. fario or common trout, 
S. fontinalis, and S. irideus or rainbow trout. Of these last 
a number were netted and taken out of one of the ponds for 
our inspection, but at the time of our visit the characteristic 
iridescence had not developed itself. 

That the hatchery is not a mere experimental station but a 
commercial enterprise is evidenced by the large number of ova 
packiug-cases and fish travelling-tanks and railway vans built 
specially for the live-fish traffic. That the enterprise is suc- 
cessful is evidenced by the demand being greatly in excess of 
the supply, necessitating the construction of new ponds cap- 
able of rearing 50,000 more yearlings. Ova are seut to all 
parts of the world, packed in trays with perforated zinc 
bottoms. To supply the oxygen necessary to the life of the 
ova, they are packed between layers of fresh sphagnum moss. 
Fry and older fish are conveyed in specially constructed tanks 
of galvanised iron. Considerable attention has to be given 
to the aeration and temperature of the water ; and before 
despatching, the fish have to undergo a course of treatment to 
fit them for the journey. 


The doings of our ancestors or predecessors in prehistoric 
times are chronicled, not in writings or even in folk-lore, but 
in the remains of their places of abode and the fragments of 
their contents. The earliest places of shelter appear to have 
been cave dwellings, where the natural cavities in the rocks 
were taken advantage of, and such were gradually developed 
into earth dwellings, which were scooped out of the ground 
and often mounded over, forming chambered cairns or eirde 

1 1 8 The Brock of Torwoodlee. [Sess. 

houses, ultimately with underground galleries, stone lined and 
earth covered. These were succeeded by massive, circular 
stone towers of great strength, now known as brochs, and those 
were followed by the castle or peel towers, so numerously 
observed all over the Tweed district, and which were not only 
strong places of defence, but also served as signalling towers. 

For the purposes of this excursion, we confine ourselves to 
the brochs, for much of the information concerning which we 
are indebted to papers in the ' Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland,' and especially those by Drs Anderson, 
Pergusson, and Christison, and Mr James Curie. The measure- 
ments of a large number of these brochs showed that the ex- 
ternal diameter of these massive round towers ranged from 
34 to 90 feet, the internal court from 25 to 50 feet, the 
thickness of the walls from 9 to 19 feet, and the prob- 
able height from 30 to 50 feet. Hundreds of these brochs, 
more or less in ruins, have been found in the north of Scot- 
land, including the Shetland and Orkney islands, but only three 
have as yet been found south of the Tweed — (l) at Edens 
Hall, Cockburnspath, in Berwickshire ; (2) at Bowshank, on 
the Gala, about two miles north of this Torwoodlee site ; and 
(3) on the ground we are now standing upon. The property 
is that of Torwoodlee, or Towerwoodlee, belonging to Captain 
Pringle, R.N., and tenanted by Mr Thomas Gibson, to the latter 
of whom we have been indebted for liberty to inspect, and 
facilities and assistance in exhibiting, the details of the broch. 

Besides being the site of a broch, the spot is further inter- 
esting as being the northern end of the Catrail or Picts work 
ditch, which can be traced down the hill to the southwards, 
across the Tweed, on the south side of which the Catrail can 
still be clearly observable at numerous places by Peatlaw, and 
onwards as far as Peel Fell in Northumberland. At Torwood- 
lee the Catrail and broch merge practically into each other, 
and the site is surrounded by a number of ditches or entrench- 
ments, known locally as the " Kings of Torwoodlee." It was 
not till 1891 that the Gala Ramblers' Club visited Torwoodlee 
and made all the necessary arrangements for the excavation of 
the remains of the broch. They were induced to do so be- 
cause three years previously they had discovered another broch 
at Bowshank, only some two miles away. 

iSqq- 1 *? 00 -] The Broch of Torwoodlee. 119 

The excavations at Torwoodlee gradually revealed the remains 
of a large broch, almost circular in form, with a total diameter 
of 75 feet, and with an interior court of 40 feet diameter. 
The remaining part of the wall, which was laid bare, and which 
we now see, was 3 feet in height, and in greater part 17 \ feet 
in width or thickness, though at the south-west corner it was 
19 feet. The entrance was at the' east side, with a general 
width of 3 feet 9 inches right through the Vl\ feet thick wall ; 
but near the middle of this entrance passage there was a rebate 
on both sides to admit of a heavy door being opened and 
swung back. Within this door, and on the south side of the 
main passage, there was another narrow passage, which led into 
the guard chamber, still well outlined, and which was apparently 
6 1 feet in width and of some considerable length. Entering 
the interior court, there was observable at the south-west side a 
third passage, leading to a chamber formed within the 19 feet 
wall at this part, and which is still in good preservation, being 
well built, and measuring about 14 feet in length, with a flight 
of steps at the farther end, apparently leading to upper cham- 
bers in the wall. These beehived apartments or honeycombed 
recesses in the thick walls were apparently used as retiring 
chambers, and have been observed in many other brochs. 

The building construction of the Torwoodlee broch was in 
all respects good — large placed stones formed the outside ring 
of the wall, and smaller stones the inner ring, with loose 
rubble between. The masonry at the entrance to the 
chambers was very creditable to the builders. Indeed it is 
said that three generations ago the broch was used as a quarry, 
some 2000 cartloads of stones being removed from the site of 
the broch and its entrenchments and used for building neigh- 
bouring dykes and outbuildings. 

On carefully examining the inner court or central area, it 
was found covered with a thin layer — 1 to 2 inches — of ashes, 
which were carefully sifted, and yielded principally fragments 
of pottery, of a kind better than the broch pottery of the North, 
being manufactured on the wheel and fired by the potters' 
kiln, and were mainly Eoman in origin. There were frag- 
ments of bowls and other vessels, of bright-red glazed Samian 
ware ; other fragments of red but not glazed, known as false 
Samian ware ; pieces of jars of hard blueish-black ware, known 

1 20 The Brock of Torwoodlee. [Sess. 

as Eoman-British fragments of culinary vessels ; and amphorae, 
used for oil and water ; whilst only two fragments of coarsely 
made native pottery were found. As the broch was situated 
within convenient distance of two Eoman stations — Inveresk 
and Newstead — there need be no mystery as to where the 
Eoman remains came from, either through pillage or barter. 
Besides, fragments of glass vessels of various colours were 
found, such as are always obtained at Eoman sites. One 
small coin of the Emperor Vespasian (69 to 79 a.d.) was 
sifted out, as also some Celtic remains of a glass armlet and 
a bronze harness ring and button, some bits of rusty iron, a 
few shaped stones, and the bones of swine and oxen were also 

To sum up. the main relics indicated the possession, by the 
dwellers in the broch, of vessels, &c, having some connection 
with Eoman civilisation, and to a lesser degree to native 
manufacture. Probably, however, some of the latter, being less 
well made and fired, may have crumbled away by age. 

The question now remains, Who constructed those brochs, 
and this broch in particular ? Who occupied and were 
sheltered by them ? On the construction of brochs generally 
two opposite opinions have been decidedly expressed — one, 
that they were built as refuges for defence by the native 
Celtic population — the Picts or Celts — who were known to be 
stone-builders and stone-workers ; and the other, that they 
were constructed by the Norwegians or Vikings — the Norse 
robber kings — for aggressive purposes. The latter view is 
scarcely tenable, because the Norse invaders were accustomed 
in their own country to wood building, and not to stone 
building. The only support to the Viking view is the fact 
that the greater number of the brochs are found in the more 
northern parts on the sea-shore, or within easy access to the 
sea ; but even this view has two sides, for every position which 
gave facilities for the sea invaders to land and occupy for 
pillage in the locality was necessarily also one which called 
for the native Celtre to erect the broch shelters for the 
defence of their territory and belongings. In the broch of 
Torwoodlee, which is similar in construction to all the other 
brochs either on shore or somewhat inland, we have an un- 
doubted broch built away from the sea and the incursions 

i899- 1 9°°-] The Brock of Torwoodlee. 121 

of the Norse robber kings, and clearly connected with the 
northern end of the Picts' or Celts' ditch — a defensive path- 
way, stretching for many a mile southwards into England. 

The Eoman remains of pottery and glass found in the 
broch may raise the question of the Eomans themselves 
forming an entrenchment on the spot ; but it is much more 
likely that the Eoman ware and other articles were acquired 
from one of the near Eoman stations, either by exchange or 
otherwise. The Vespasian coin, 69 to 79 A.D., does not prove 
anything either as to date or occupation, because such would 
be available for purchase or barter for long after its true date. 

The construction of brochs in general has been ascribed to 
a period ranging from 500 to 1000 A.D., but the Torwoodlee 
broch would point to an earlier date. The Eomans under 
Agricola invaded Scotland in 80 a.d., followed by Hadrian in 
135 A.D., whilst the Eoman legions were withdrawn in 410 
A.D. It is reasonable to suppose that the broch was then 
occupied. The Eoman ware points to a date not later than 
the fifth century. Of course it is possible that the Eomans 
may have occupied the site at an earlier period, and that the 
broch was constructed by the Celtse afterwards. The main 
evidence from the remains, however, including their resting- 
place in the inner court, would point to the broch b'eing con- 
structed and occupied by the native population — Picts or 
Celts — at a time contemporaneous with the presence of the 
Eomans in their neighbouring stronghold at Newstead. 

It may be said that in attributing the building of the well- 
constructed stonework to the handicraft of the native Celtse, 
we are ascribing to them rather more skill and enterprise 
than they are entitled to be credited with. But we must 
remember that, even before the Eoman invasion, the Picts or 
Celts in Scotland were good artificers, especially in metals. 
The remains of their bronze and other metallic work exhibited 
in our National Museum prove conclusively the intelligent 
skill of the natives even before the Christian era, and would 
lead us to consider that in other branches of handiwork, as in 
stone construction, they would not be behind. The brochs 
were apparently stone towers for shelter — defensive, and not 
offensive — and the Picts or Celtae were intelligent enough to 
construct them, and were the only parties likely to use them. 

122 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 


By Mr JAMES EUSSELL, Convener. 

The Crustacea formed the subject of study of the section 
daring this session, and the type chosen was the Crayfish 
(Astams fiuviatilis). The text - books referred to were 
Huxley's ' The Crayfish ' and Huxley's ' Practical Biology,' 
by Howes and Scott. The course followed was to study 
the general characters and different organs in detail, and 
for this purpose a supply of crayfish was kindly obtained 
for the section by Dr Davies. 

The Crustacea form a large and important class of animals, 
ranked under the sub-kingdom Articulata, better called Annu- 
losa (ringed animals). The crayfish, the type studied, consists 
of twenty rings or somites, to each of which appendages are 
attached. The somites are divided into three sections — the 
head, the thorax, and the abdomen. The head and thorax are 
joined together in one solid mass, termed the cephalo-thorax, 
covered by a strong hard shield called the carapace ; the abdomen 
is jointed or hinged to the thorax, and each of its somites is 
hinged to the one immediately in front, so that the whole of 
the abdomen can be bent inwards upon itself. The back of 
the crayfish is termed the tergum, and the under side the 
sternum, and the part which unites the two the pleuron, or, in 
the plural, pleura ; while the whole of the outer covering is 
called the exoskeleton. 

Of the somites, into which the exoskeleton is divided, six 
belong to the region of the head, eight to the region of the 
thorax, and six to the abdominal regions. The first somite 
of the head carries the eyestalks, on the ends of which are 
situate the compound eyes ; the second somite bears the 
antennules, or lesser antenna?, on the upper side of the basal 
joint of which are situate the auditory organs, the opening to 
which is protected by a tuft of delicate setae. These anten- 
nules have each two branches, which bear fine seta? ; but on 
the outer branch there are, in addition to these seta?, several 
bundles of curious appendages, which are thought by some to 
have olfactory functions. The third somite bears the greater 

iSqq- 1 !? 00 -] Report of the Microscopical Section. 123 

antennae, or feelers, which act as organs of touch. The next 
somite in order bears a pair of mandibles, or jaws, which are 
actuated by a pair of very powerful muscles. These are the 
principal external organs for crushing the food of the crayfish. 
The fifth and sixth somites bear each a pair of maxillae, or 
lesser jaws. 

The next somites in order are situate in the region of the 
thorax, and of these the seventh, eighth, and ninth bear each a 
pair of maxillipedes, or foot jaws, so called from being organs 
of mastication and at the same time having a general resem- 
blance to legs. They are called the first, second, and third 
maxillipedes, of which the last is strongly toothed along the 
inner edge. The tenth somite bears the great forceps, or 
cheloe, the principal prehensile organs of the crayfish. The 
chelate part of these organs, or hand as it is sometimes termed, 
is moved by very powerful muscles called the adductor and 
abductor muscles, the former of which especially is attached 
to a very powerful tendon, thus enabling the animal to seize 
and hold its prey very securely. The next four somites bear 
each a pair of ambulatory or walking legs, and of these the 
first two pairs are chelate, and thus help in tearing the food ; 
the other two pairs end in simple claws. 

With the fifteenth somite begins the first of the abdominal 
ones, of which there are six. To each of these, except the 
last, are attached a pair of small appendages called swim- 
inerets. The last somite has two large broad plates attached, 
one on each side of the animal, with a third plate between 
called the telson, and these three plates constitute the flapper 
of the crayfish, by aid of which it is enabled to move very 
rapidly backwards. By some naturalists the telson, with the 
plate on each side, is held to constitute an additional somite, 
and those who so hold reckon the number of somites as 

The exoskeleton, or outer covering of the crayfish, is a 
calcified hard substance, except at the joints, where it is soft 
and flexible. If a bit of the calcified part is put into a weak 
solution of chromic acid for a week or ten days, it becomes 
soft, and thus thin sections of it can be made for examination 
under the microscope. Under a high power, say of one-eighth 
or one-tenth of an inch, cross sections exhibit a beautiful 

1 24 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

striation. Three distinct layers are discernible. The outer, 
called the epiostracum, is a thin tough areolated substance ; 
subjacent to this is a layer called the ectostracum, which 
is made up of thin laminae traversed by delicate striae ; the 
rest of the section consists of a layer termed the endostracum, 
which is also a beautifully striated substance. 

This slight glance at the external covering of the crayfish 
permits us to proceed to our examination of the internal 
organs, and the first to engage our attention is the muscular 
system, The principal muscles are — (1) the flexor abdominis 
muscle, a powerful mass extending along the lower interior 
side of the abdomen, from near the anterior border of the 
thorax to the base of the telson, and united in its course by a 
series of winding slips to each of the abdominal sterna. Its 
function is to bend the abdomen inwards upon itself. (2) 
The extensor abdominis muscle, a much less powerful mass, 
running along the upper interior side of the abdomen, and 
attached to cords of the abdominal terga. Its function is to 
straighten the abdomen. (3) The levator abdominis muscle, 
arising immediately above the extensor, and passing obliquely 
backwards to be inserted into the first abdominal segment. 
(4) The adductor muscles of the great forceps or chela?, very 
powerful masses, the functions of which are to close the forceps 
so as to enable them to grip anything; and (5) the smaller 
abductor muscles of the same, whose function is to open the 
forceps. (6) Adductor muscles of the mandibles, strong fan- 
shaped masses passing from the hinder edge of the mandibles 
to the cephalic shield. In addition to these, several muscles 
pass from the stomach and antennary organ to be attached to 
the adjacent exoskeleton. 

The alimentary organs. — The mouth of the crayfish is a 
longitudinal parallel-sided opening on the sternal or under 
side of the head. It is bounded by two lips, called respec- 
tively the labrum and metastoma, while it is protected 
externally by the powerful mandibles, and also by the two 
pairs of maxillae, while the three pairs of maxillipedes also lie 
adjacent to it. The mouth leads into the stomach by a wide 
opening called the oesophagus or gullet. 

The stomach is a beautiful complicated organ divided by a 
constriction into two chambers, the anterior and larger called 

i899- I 9°°-] Report of the Microscopical Section. 125 

the cardiac, the posterior and smaller called the pyloric. 
The gullet opens directly into the floor of the cardiac chamber, 
and here the food which has not been sufficiently crushed 
and divided by the mandibles and other external grinding 
surfaces encounters another complicated set of crushing 
apparatus called the gastric teeth. These consist of two 
powerful lateral teeth and a median one, together with two 
accessory lateral ones, all actuated by muscles, so that they form 
a very complete mill, by which the food is so finely divided 
that it can be passed on to the pyloric chamber. The 
entrance to this chamber is still further guarded. In addition 
to the constriction of the side-walls, a projection something 
like a hood rises in the centre, and thus leaves only a narrow 
slit or opening on each side. These openings are again pro- 
tected by a fringe of delicate setae, which spring from the 
side walls, so that the entrance is closed to everything but 
the most finely divided particles of food. This part of the 
stomach is called the cardio-pyloric valve. There are other 
accessory valves, the function of the whole being to prevent 
any particles of food not sufficiently divided from entering 
the intestine. All such particles are understood to be 
ultimately ejected through the gullet. For a low power, of 
from 6 to 10 diameters, which enables the whole organ to be 
seen at the same time, the interior of the stomach of the 
crayfish is a beautiful microscopic object. 

The respiratory organs consist of gills, or branchiae, placed in 
a chamber on each side of the thorax. The part of the 
exoskeleton which forms the covering of these chambers is 
called the branchiostegite. On the tergal aspect the branchi- 
ostegite forms a solid mass with the exoskeleton of the thorax, 
but on the ventral aspect it has a free edge, thus permitting 
free access to the surrounding water. In each of the 
branchial chambers there are eighteen functional gills, 
arranged in three sets, grouped around each of the thoracic 
limbs, except the first maxillipede and the last ambulatory 
limb. The following is the arrangement : attached to the 
basal joint of each of these limbs is a gill, six in number, 
called podobranchice, while in the soft interarticixlar parts of 
these limbs are another set of six, called arthrobranchise ; a 
little more to the interior of the branchial chamber is a set of 

126 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

five, called pleurobranchias, while attached to the side of the 
thorax, above the basal joint of the last ambulatory limb, is a 
single gill, called also a pleurobranchia, thus making the 
number eighteen. They may be summarised thus : 3 ambu- 
latory limbs, the great chela, and the third maxillipede, each 
with 3 branchiae, making together 15 ; the second maxillipede 
with 2, and the pleurobranchia apart 1 = 18. In addition, 
there are one or two rudimentary branchiae. 

Each of the podobranchise consists of two parts : the plume, 
a feathery-like appendage, and the lamina, a broad thin plate 
plaited into about a dozen folds ; while the arthrobranchise 
and the pleurobranchia have only the plume or feathery 
part. Owing to the branchiostegite being open in its ventral 
aspect, the water in which the crayfish moves has free access 
to the branchial chambers, so that the gills are continually 
bathed in this element. The amount of water at any one 
time in the branchial chambers is very small, so that the supply 
must be constantly renewed. The branchiae, being attached to 
certain of the limbs and interarticular parts, are actuated by 
the motions of these limbs, and thus cause a current of fresh 
water to pass over the gills ; while to hasten the flow of this 
current a peculiar arrangement exists in the anterior part of 
the branchial chambers. In the channel which leads from 
the interior of these chambers forwards to the outside there 
lies a broad oval-shaped plate, called the scaphognathite, 
which is attached to the base of the second maxilla. This 
plate acts as a scoop to bale the water out of the chamber ; 
and as the water is baled out, fresh water comes in to supply 
its place, and thus a constant current over the gills is main- 
tained. It is from this water that the oxygen necessary for 
the renovation of the vitiated blood is obtained. This brings 
us to the consideration of the organs which serve for the 
circulation of the blood. 

The circulatory organs. — In the crayfish, equally as in the 
higher animals, the heart is the driving-wheel in the circula- 
tion of the blood. This organ lies near the posterior end of 
the thorax, on the tergal aspect of the animal. It is a thick 
muscular body, of an irregular hexagonal shape, lying in a 
comparatively large cavity called the pericardial sinus, to the 
sides of which it is attached by bands of fibrous tissue. The 

iSoc?- 1 *} 00 -] Report of the Microscopical Section. 127 

walls of the heart are pierced by six small holes, of which 
two are on the tergal aspect, two on the ventral, and one on 
each side. Each of these holes is provided with a valve 
opening inwards, while from the heart radiate several arteries, 
each of which is also provided with a valve opening inwards 
to the tube of the artery. 

The principal arteries which radiate from the heart are the 
following : the superior abdominal artery, arising from the 
posterior end of the heart and passing backwards above the 
intestine, giving off many branches ; the ophthalmic artery, 
arising from the anterior end of the heart and passing for- 
ward above the stomach, giving off branches to the eyestalks 
and adjacent parts ; the sternal artery, arising in the junction 
of the superior abdominal artery and the heart and passing 
directly downwards to the nervous system, where it sub- 
divides into an antero-ventral, which passes forward, giving 
off branches to the various appendages surrounding the mouth ; 
and a postero- ventral, which passes backward to the telson, 
giving off branches to the intermediate parts ; the antennary 
artery, arising at the junction of the ophthalmic artery and 
the heart and passing downwards and forwards to the antennas. 
AH these arteries give off numerous branches, and all end in 
capillary ramifications. 

The cavity of the heart, and the space between the heart 
and the walls of the pericardial sinus, are filled with blood. 
During life the heart contracts and expands with a regular 
motion. At each contraction the blood in its cavity is forced 
into the various arteries, and is prevented from returning by 
the valves at the origin of these ; while at each expansion the 
surrounding blood in the pericardial sinus flows in through the 
small apertures in the walls of the heart to refill the cavity, 
and it is prevented from returning by the valves on these 
apertures. Thus by the expansion and contraction of the 
heart a constant flow of blood is maintained from the peri- 
cardial sinus to the cavity of the heart, and from the cavity of 
the heart to the arteries. 

The blood thus forced into the arteries finds it way by their 
various ramifications into sinuses or channels, by which it is 
conducted to the gills. These blood sinuses may be considered 
as analogous to the veins in the higher animals. The blood in 

128 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

its passage from the heart to the gills loses part of its oxygen, 
and takes up a corresponding quantity of carbonic acid. This 
latter must be got rid of and the former renewed, which inter- 
change is effected by means of the gills. In these there are 
vascular channels which break up into a fine network, and the 
blood brought from the arteries by the sinuses is forced into 
these channels, wheve it is separated by a very thin chitinous 
membrane from the surrounding water in the branchial chamber. 
Here the blood becomes aerated, giving off its carbonic acid and 
taking up a corresponding quantity of oxygen. Thus renovated, 
it is forced by the succeeding currents of blood into other sin- 
uses, which in turn conduct it into the pericardial sinus, so that 
it may again with its life-supporting oxygen enter the heart. 

The nervous system of the crayfish runs in the middle line 
of the ventral aspect of the body close to the integument from 
the eyestalks to the telson. At this hinder end the nerve 
cord is divided up into several distinct branches, each proceed- 
ing to a different part of the telson and adjacent places. At 
each of the abdominal somites there is a ganglionic mass giving 
off branches to the muscles : equally in the thorax there are 
six ganglionic masses giving off branches to the muscles of the 
various appendages. When the main nerve cord reaches the 
gullet, it divides into two branches, one running on each side 
of the gullet, afterwards uniting in front of it into a mass 
called the cerebral ganglion, from which nerve fibres run out 
to the antennae and eyestalks. 

The organs of vision. — These are borne on the first somite 
of the head, and consist of a pair of compound eyes placed in 
a cavity at the end of comparatively long eyestalks. These 
eyestalks are calcified the same as other parts of the exo- 
skeleton, and at their end is placed the cornea, a transparent 
substance divided into a large number of minute squares, 
which, under the microscope, resemble mosaic work. Attached 
to the inside of each of these squares or facets is a rod called 
the visual rod, which runs back to a bulb in the eyestalk. 
This bulb is the expansion of the optic nerve. The luminous 
sensations are carried along these rods to the optic nerve, 
whence they are conveyed to the brain. On examining a 
longitudinal section of the eye under the microscope, it is 
found that the visual rods consist of several bands or zones of 

i899- 1 9°°-] Honey-Bees in Warm Climates. 129 

a darker and lighter colour. Next the cornea is a broad band 
of dark pigment called the outer dark zone ; this is followed 
by a pale band called the outer white zone, which is followed 
by another dark band called the middle dark zone, followed in 
turn by a white line called the inner white zone, after which 
comes the bulb of the optic nerve heavily charged with a dark 
pigment, and which is called the inner dark zone. The differ- 
ence in colour in these various zones arises from the greater 
or less amount of dark pigment contained in them. How 
these different zones act in the transmission of the luminous 
ether is not known. If a crayfish is examined with a light in 
a darkened room, the cornea? are seen to glow like two small 
points of fire. 

This brings us to the end of our task, which is not a treatise 
on the crayfish, but a report of the work accomplished during 
the Session by the Microscopical Section. 


At the evening meeting of December 27, 1899, the following 
query was submitted to the members : " It is said that bees 
— say British bees — when taken to a genial sub-tropical 
climate, where there are flowers all the year, cease to store 
honey as they do in the old country. Is this true ? " In 
the course of the discussion which ensued, the following im- 
portant communication from Mr Eobert Grieve, of Brisbane, 
was read by the President : — 

" As to the question whether bees do not store honey in 
warm climates, I make answer that there is not a particle of 
truth in it — as to Australia, at least. Bees store honey in 
much greater quantity and much quicker near Brisbane (i.e., 
in South Queensland) than in England — wax also. These 
facts are due to their food-supply being much more abundant 
and constant. Eucalypts are their chief food-supply. Tons 
of honey can be bought here at any time at a price something 
under 2d. per lb. 

130 Exhibits in Natural History. [Sess. 

" Far to the north, at Townsville (the capital of North 
Queensland), which is far within the tropics (latitude 19° S.), 
I know that bees also do well, and I have every reason to 
think that what I have said about bees near Brisbane applies 
there also." 


The following interesting objects in Natural History were 
exhibited at winter evening meetings during the Session by 
members of the Society. Mr Forgan showed a robin's nest 
inside a basket ; and Mr Chas. Campbell exhibited sections of 
Scotch fir to exemplify the ravages made by the wood-boring 
insect, Sirex juvencus : specimens of the perfect insect, as well 
as the grub or caterpillar stage of it, were included. Miss 
Eose showed a large and interesting example of a wasp's nest. 
A specimen of rock (blue ground) containing diamonds, from 
Kimberley, was shown by the President ; a transverse section 
of tree " Sipo Cruz," from Brazil, showing white and dark 
coloured woods, the white having assumed the form of a 
complete Maltese cross, was exhibited by Mr James Adam ; 
while Mr Pinkerton showed a specimen of the butterfly Van- 
essa atalanta, with markings which suggested mimicry. Three 
adders from Aros, island of Mull, were also shown by Mr A. 
B. Steele. At various times during the Session numbers of 
microscopic slides were exhibited by members. 


The Society held its Annual Business Meeting on the evening 
of October 24, at 20 George Street, the President occupying 
the Chair. The Secretary read his Pteport, as follows : — 

During the winter season 1899-1900 six evening meetings (exclusive of 
the meetings of the Microscopical Section) have been held. The attend- 

iSq^Q 00 -] Annual Business Meeting. 131 

ances have been very satisfactory, the hall being quite filled on two occa- 
sions. For the summer season of 1900 twenty meetings were arranged. 
Two of these were not held : one to North Queensferry, on account of very 
stormy weather, and the other to Ben Lomond, owing to the difficulty of 
suitable train connections. At the remaining eighteen there was an 
aggregate attendance of 426, or an average of about 23 at each meeting. 
Through the courtesy of Dr Davies, meetings were held at his house after 
the excursions for the purpose of discussing and carefully examining the 
collections, and several members regularly availed themselves of these very 
pleasant evenings. 

Mr Russell, Convener of the Microscopical Section, held at his house a 
number of meetings, of which the members were notified in the billets. He 
has again kindly offered the use of his house for the ensuing season, and 
hopes an increased number of members will avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity of taking up the study of the Entomostraca. 

It is but right to place on record that much is owing to Mr Crawford, 
our President, Dr Davies, ex-President, and Mr Russell, Convener of the 
Microscopical Section, for their liberality in allowing us the use of their 
valuable scientific books and apparatus for the furtherance of the interests 
of the Society. 

During the year 28 names have been removed from the list of ordinary 
members. Of these 17 have resigned, one (Colonel Pennefather) has died, 
and one (Mr Thomas Scott, F.L.S.) has been elected an honorary member. 
The number of new members who have joined the Society is 24, and our 
membership now stands as follows : Honorary members, 7 ; corresponding 
members, 4 ; and ordinary members, 206. 

The prosperity of the Society has thus been maintained, and it is hoped 
that in the new Session it may be largely increased. 

The Treasurer, in tabling his printed balance-sheet for the 
past year, drew attention to one or two items of extra ex- 
penditure, and to the outstanding arrears, which latter amounted 
to £5, 10s. In spite of these, he was able to show a balance 
to the credit of the Society of £47, 3s. lOd. 

The new Office-bearers were then elected by ballot, when 
the complete list was adjusted as follows, the names in italics 
being those now added: President — W. C. Crawford, F.E.S.E.; 
Vice-Presidents — Arch. Hewat, F.F.A., A. B. Steele, and Jas. 
Etissell ; Secretary — W. Williamson ; Treasurer — G. Cleland ; 
Editor of ' Transactions ' — J. Lindsay ; Auditors — E. C. Millar, 
C.A., and J. T. Mack ; Councillors — T. Laidlaw, C. Campbell, 
Miss Oxley, Dr Watson, Dr Davies, Wm. Forgan, A. Murray, 
A. B. Colder, Jas. Frascr, Major Grahame, Miss I. Elliot, and 
Mrs Maxwell. 

The President having thanked the Society for the honour 

VOL. IV. k 

132 A miual Business Meeting. [Sess. 1899-1900. 

done him in his re-election to office, Mr Hewat moved a vote 
of thanks to the Secretary and the Treasurer for their labours 
in connection with the working of the Society during the past 
year. The President also thanked Mr Eussell and Dr Davies, 
in name of the Society, for their kindness in granting the use 
of their houses to the members for the meetings of the Micro- 
scopical Section, and for the Monday evening meetings during 
summer for the examination of plants gathered at the excur- 
sions. These gentlemen having replied, the meeting soon 
afterwards terminated. 

22 NOV. 1902 



Dr Robt. Brown 

(deceasi d), 
Mr R. .Scot Skirving, 1869-1874. 

MrWM. Gorrie ) 1874 _ 1877 . 

(deceased), ) 

Rev. R. F. Colvin t i«77-1879 

(deceased), ) 

Mr John Walcot, 1879-1882. 

Mr A. B. Herbert, 1882-1S85. 

Mr Symington Grieve, 1885-188S. 

Dr William Watson, 1888-1891. 

Dr Sprague, 1891-1895. 

Dr Davies, 1895-1898. 

W. Ranken. 

E. Denson. 
Mrs Deuchar. 
Miss Sprague. 
T. Laidlaw. 
C. Campbell. 

OFFICE-BEARERS, 1899-1900. 

W. C. Crawford, F.R S.E. 

A. He wat, F.F.A. 


Jas. Russell 
Miss Oxley. 
Dr Watson. 
Dr Davies. 
W. Forgan. 
A. Murray. 

(ibitor of ' transactions.' 
John Lindsay. 

W. Williamson. 

George Cleland. 

R. C. Millar, C.A. ; J. T. Mack. 

A. B. Steele. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. 1899-1900. 

I^onorarji Members. 
Fraser, Hugh, 223 Leith Walk, Leith. 

Henderson, Prof. John R., M.B., CM., The College, Madras. 
Herbert, A. B., Sunnyside, Mitcham, London. 
King, M., 120 Pitt Street, Bonnington, Leith. 

Macfarlane, Prof. J. M., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
Scott, Thos., F.L.S., 3 Menzies Road, Torry, Aberdeen. 
Walcot, John, Craiglockhart Hydropathic, Slateford. 

dorrcspoitbiug Members. 
Archibald, Stewart, Dalarossie Schoolhouse, Tomatin, Inverness. 
Cruickshank, T. M., South Ronaklshay. 

Hobkirk, Charles P., Easthorpe House, Mirfield, Norman ton, Yorks. 
Hossack, B. H., Craigie Field, Kirkwall. 

List of Members, 1899- 1900. 

(As at October 15, 1900.) 

Adam, James, Comely Park, Dun- 

Anderson, James, 55 York Place. 

Anderson, R., 67 Princes Street. 

Armstrong, J. Muirhead, Aberarder, 
Polwarth Terrace. 

Banks, William, 2 Kilmaurs Road. 

Bird, George, 38 Inverleith Place. 

Blacklock, William, 19 Bruntsfield 

Bonnar, William, 8 Spenee Street. 

Braid, Mrs, 12 Wilton Road, Craig- 
10 Braid, W. W., 4a St Andrew Sq. 

Brotherston, George M., 18 St John 

Bryce, George F. , 2 Albyn Place. 

Bryden, Miss, Linksfield, Aberlady. 

Bryden, Mrs, Linksfield, Aberlady. 

Buncle, James, 21 Maitland Street. 

Burnett, Robert, 10 Brighton Ter., 

Butchard, J. B., 10 Montagu Ter- 

Cairns, Miss Mina, 27 Dick Place. 

Calder, A., 2 James St., Portobello. 
20 Campbell, Alexander, 62 Marchmont 

Campbell, Bruce, British Linen Com- 
pany Bank, St Andrew Square. 

Campbell, Charles, North British 
and Mercantile Insurance Com- 
pany, 64 Princes Street. 

Carey, Walter T., 12 Comely Bank 

Carment, Samuel, 1 1 Keir Street. 

Carter, Albert, Selville Cottage, 

Chapman, M., Torbrex Nursery, St 
Ninians, Stirling. 

Clapperton, Miss Mary E., 10 Green- 
hill Terrace. 

Clapperton, Mrs W., Stamford Hall, 

Clarke, William Eagle, 35 Braid 
30 Cleland, George, Bank of Scotland, 
61 Leith Walk — Treasurer. 

Coats, William, 10 Duddingston 
Crescent, Portobello. 

Cockburn, A. Myrtle, M.A., lfl 

Braidburn Crescent. 
Cowan, Alex., Woodslee, Penicuik. 
Cowan, Charles Wm., Valleyneld 

Craig, Archibald, 38 Fountainhal 

Crawford, Francis Chalmers, li|) 

Royal Terrace. 
Crawford, Miss Jane C. , 1 Lockhartoi, 

Gardens, Colinton Road. 
Crawford, Mrs, 1 Lockharton Gai 

dens, Colinton Road. 
Crawford, W. C, 1 Lockharton Gar ! 

dens, Colinton Road — President, li 

40 Crocket, Wm., 10 Gillespie CrescentM 

Davidson, Miss M. E., Dairy House U 

Orwell Place. 
Davies, Dr, Tweedbank, West Savil; 

Day, T. C, 36 Hillside Crescent. 
Deas, Miss L. C, 16 Gilmore Placed 
Denson, E., 83 Comiston Road. 
Deuchar, Mrs, Harlaw, Hope Ten 1 ' 

Dewar, John F., Hamilton Lodge.) 

Dickie, James, 40 Princes Street. 
Dowell, Miss, 1 3 Palmerston Place. I 
50 Dowell, Mrs, 13 Palmerston Place. I 
Duncan, James Patrick, 3 CobdeiM 

Durham, Frederick W., 2 Argylej] 

Crescent, Portobello. 
Eaton, F. A, 207 Dalkeith Road. I 
Elliot, Andrew, 8 Rillbank TerraceJ 
Elliot, Miss E., 1 Merehiston Bank! 

Elliot, Miss I., 1 Merehiston Bankjj 

Ewart, James, 1 Dundas Street. 
Fairley, Captain J. H., 32 Comelyb 

Bank Avenue. 
Farquharson, John K., 100 Thirle-i; 

stane Road. 
60 Forgan, John, S.S.C., 20 George St.l 
Forgan, William, 3 Warriston Cres-B 

Forrest, John L., 8 Glengyle Ter-I 


List of Members, 1899- 1900. 



Foulis, Thos. N., 27 Cluny Gardens. 
Fraser, James, 18 Park Road, Leith. 
Gartshore, Miss Murray, Ravelston 

Gibson, John, M.A., 19 Bernard 

Gloag, David, 9 Barnton Terrace. 
Goodchild, J. G., 2 Dalhousie Ter. 
CJrahame, Major G., 2 St Bernard's 

Gray, Miss Edith M. H., 59 George 

Grieve, Sommerville, 21 Queen's 

Grieve, Symington, 1 1 Lauder Road. 
Grieve, Mrs Symington, 11 Lauder 

Hamilton, G. R., 14 Caledonian 

Harris, Charles Kerr, 13 Argyle 

Crescent, Portobello. 
Harrison, H. J., Craiglockhart. 
Harvie - Brown, J. A. , Dunipace, 

Heggie, John, 149 Warrender Park 

Hetherton, Miss M., 13 Sciennes 

Hewat, Archibald, 13 Eton Terrace. 
Huie, Miss Lily, Hollywood, Colin- 
ton Road. 
Humphries, John, Easter Dudding- 

ston Lodge. 
Hunter, John, Waverley Cottage, 

Regent Street, Portobello. 
Hunter, Robt. , 8 Abercromby Place. 
Hutton, Mrs, 27 Gardner's Cres. 
Johnson, W. H., Tweed Villa, 

Relugas Road. 
Johnston, J. A., 7 Annandale St. 
Kerr, Thomas, 15 Gilmour Road. 
Kilgour, Thos. W., 22 Nile Grove. 
Laidlaw, Thomas J., 2 Oxford St. 
Laing, Rev. G. , 17 Buckingham Ter. 
Law, Mrs, 41 Heriot Row. 
Lewis, David, Roselea Villa, Grange. 
Lindsay, John, 43 James St., Pilrig 

— Editor of ' Transactions.' 
Lindsay, William, 18 South St 

Andrew Street. 
Lonie, Peter, 6 Carlton Street. 
Macadam, Prof. W. Ivison, Slioch, 

Lady Road, Craigmillar Park. 
Macdonald, J. J., Commercial Bank, 

M'Donald, J., 9 Brunstane Gardens, 


100 MacDougall, R. Stewart, M.A., 

D.Sc. , Royal Botanic Garden. 
M'Gillivray, Wm., 4 Rothesay PI. 
M'Intosh, James, 42 Queen Street. 
Macintyre, John, care of Cameron, 

342 Morningside Road. 
Mack, J. T., 101 George Street. 
M'Kean, Miss Minnie, 7 Montagu 

Terrace, Golden Acre. 
MacLauchlan, J. J., 8 Merchiston 

Bank Terrace. 
Macvicar, Miss K., 34 Morningside 

Malcolm, C. A., S Keir Street, 

Mason, J. Gordon, S.S.C., 51 Han- 
over Street. 
110 Masson, Miss, 2 Lockharton Gardens. 
Masson, Mrs, 2 Lockharton Gardens. 
Maxwell, John, 125 George Street. 
Maxwell, Mrs, 61 Braid Road. 
Millar, R. C, 6 Regent Terrace. 
Millar, T. J., 27 Albany Street. 
Millar, W. F., 22 Howard Place. 
Miller, R. Pairman, 12 East Preston 

Milne, James, Muirend, Colinton. 
Mitchell, Miss M., 153 Warrender 

Park Road 
120 Moncur, Miss, 16 Eildon Street. 
Morison, Peter, 24 Great King St. 
Morrison, Hew, Librarian, Public 

Library, George IV. Bridge. 
Mossman, Robert C, 10 Blacket PI. 
Muir, John, 24 Barnton Terrace. 
Munro, John Gordon, 7 Howe Street. 
Murray, Alister, Blind Asylum, 

Craigmillar Park. 
Nesbit, John, 162 High Street, 

Nisbet, Alex., 2 Bruce Street. 
Normand, J. Hill, of Whitehill, 

130 Oliph'ant, J. C, 23 Charlotte Square 
Oliver, C. M., 13 Fountainhall Road. 
Oliver, John S., 12 Greenhill Park. 
Osier, Alexander, 7 Tanfield. 
Oxley, Miss M. E., Dairy House, 

Orwell Place. 
Parkes, C. W., Inland Revenue, 

Paton, John, Scotland Street Tun- 
Paul, Rev. D., LL.D., Carrielee, 

Fountainhall Road. 
Paulin, George Alex., 6 Forres St. 
Pentland, Miss, 73 Inverleith Row. 


List of Members, 1 899- 1 900. 

140 Pierce, W. J., 16 Forrest Road. 

Pillans, Hugh H., 12 Dryden Place. 

Pinkerton, Allan A., 39 Viewforth. 

Pittendrigh, T. M., 29 Comely Bank 

Pyatt, W., M.A., Fettes College. 

Raeburn, Harold, 32 Castle Terrace. 

Ranken, William, 1 1 Spence Street. 

Ranken, William Ford, 11 Spence 

Reid, Andrew, 1 Laverockbank Ter- 
race, Trinity Road. 

Richardson, A. D. , Royal Botanic 
150 Richardson, Mrs Ralph, 10 Magdala 

Ritchie, William, 75 Morningside Rd. 

Robertson, Dr W. Aitchison, 26 
Minto Street. 

Robertson, W. , 35 Polwarth Gardens. 

Roriston, James G. , 8 Dalziel Place. 

Rose, Miss, 3 Hillside Crescent. 

Russell, James, 16 Blacket Place. 

Sanderson, Mrs H. , 95 Shandwick 

Sarah, H. A. P., 19 Braidburn Cres- 

Sconce, Colonel, 18 Belgrave Cres. 
160 Semple, Dr Andrew, Caledonian 
United Service Club, 14 Queen 

Sime, David, 27 Dundas Street. 

Smeal, Miss, 16 Eildon Street. 

Smith, David, 12 Belgrave Place. 

Smith, Harry W., 21a Duke Street. 

Smith, Dr James, 4 Brunton Place. 

Smith, Rupert, 51 Minto Street. 

Smith, Thomas J., care of Messrs 
Watson & Sons, 313 High Hol- 
born, London, W.C. 

Smith, W. C, Advocate, 57 North- 
umberland Street. 

Speedie, M. H, 2 Alford PL, May- 
field Terrace. 
170 Speedy, Tom, The Inch, Liberton. 

Speedy, William Hogg, Braeside, 

Sprague, Dr T. B., 29 Buckingham 

Sprague, Thomas Archibald, 29 
Buckingham Terrace. 

Sprague, Miss, 29 Buckingham Ter- 

Steele, A. B., 41 Regent Street, 

Steele, Mrs, 41 Regent Street, Porto- 

Stevens, Dr John, 2 Shandon Street. 

Stevenson, Miss, 2 Albert Place. 

Stewart, Robert, S.S.C., 7 East 
Claremont Street. 
180 Story, Colin, 41 Dick Place. 

Tait, John Scott, C.A., 3 Albyn 

Terras, James, B.Sc, 21 Teviot 

Thacker, T. Lindsay, 24 St Andrew 

Thomson, John, 20 York Place. 

Thomson, Lockhart, Derreen, Mur- 

Townsend, Miss E. A., 20 St Cath- 
erine's Place, Grange. 

Traquair, Dr, 8 Dean Park Crescent. 

Walker, Alexander D. , 1 St Vincent 

Wanless, Miss, 12 Wilton Road, 
190 Wardlaw, George, 14 St John's 

Watson, John, B.A.,Comiston Drive. 

Watson, Robert, M.A., 12 Chal- 
mers Street. 

Watson, Dr Wm., Waverley House, 
Colinton Road. 

Watson, Mrs, Waverley House, 
Colinton Road. 

Weir, James Mullo, S.S.C., 5 W. 
Brighton Crescent, Portobello. 

Welsh, Mrs, Ericstane, Moffat. 

Westwater, R. M., 7 Wardie Cres- 

Wilkie, W. F. Rollo, 122 George St. 

Williamson, Wm., 4 Meadowbank 
Terrace — Secretary. 
200 Wilson, Rev. D. W.,' Stobhill Manse, 

Wood, J. B. , Viewforth, Brunstane 
Road, Joppa. 

Wood, T. A. D. , Viewforth, Brun- 
stane Road, Joppa. 

Wright, J. P., 6 Grosvenor Cres. 

Wright, Miss E., Aberarder, Pol- 
warth Terrace. 

Wright, Thomas, 12 Brunton Ter. 
206 Young, David E., 60-62 High Street. 




S)Ijp Qbinidurg^ Jfiplb JQafurelisfs' anb 
JnBirro&rojnral ^oripfg 

SESSION 1900-1901 / \ 



I. A Field Naturalists' Holiday at the Paris Exhibition— The President, 133 

II. Badgers— Mr Tom Speedy, 141 

III. The Mole— Mr Allan A. Pinkerton, 150 

IV. Natural Forests and the Growth of Cones— Mr S. Archibald, 157 
V. Notes on the Topography and Flora of Strathdearn— Mr S. Archibald, 161 

VI. A Geological Trip to Aultnacallagach and Inchnadamff— Mr T. C. 

Day (with Four Plates), 165 

VII. Mushroom-Culture— Mr J. Paton 177 

VIII. A Mushroom Disease— Mr G. T. Malthouse (with Five Plates), . 182 

IX. Orthochromatic Photography— Mr T. C. Day (with Two Plates), . 190 

X. Notes on the Flora of the Shores of the Firth of Forth— Mr M. King, 202 

XI. Fern Varieties— Mr S. Archibald 206 

XII. Recent Observations in Natural History— Mr Tom Speedy, 208 
XIII. Notes of Experiments on the Growth of Yeast — The President and 

Dr A. E. Davies (with Three Plates), 214 

Camping in the Haunts of the Venus' Fly-trap— Dr J. M. Maofarlane, 219 

Report of the Microscopical Section— Mr J. Russell, .... 222 

In Memoriam: Mark King— Mr J. Lindsay 231 

Exhibits in Natural History, 233 

Nature Study from the Point of View of the Field Naturalist— The 

President, 234 

Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea 254 

Annual Business Meeting, 261 

List of Members, 1900-1901 xvii 

Putolusfjeb far tlje Soctetg 



%> ^? 



Price to Non-Members, Four Shillings. 

SESSION 1900-1901. 


By Mr W. C. CRAWFORD, F.R.S.E., President. 

(Read November 28, 1900.) 


In the beginning of September of this year (1900) I went 
to Bradford to attend the meeting of the British Association ; 
and when it was over I went direct to Paris to see the 
Exhibition, and be present at the Botanical Congress. I had 
arranged the time of my visit for that purpose. And although 
I arrived in Paris more than a fortnight before the Congress 
met, that was not too long to see the finest museum of con- 
temporary art, science, and industry that has ever existed : 
that I have no hesitation in saying, for I have seen four great 
Exhibitions in Paris — in fact, all except the first. I was away 
from home six weeks in all, and I am sure I never had in a 
similar time so much and so varied intellectual food presented 
to me for intellectual digestion. 

We soon had our first glimpse of the fairy land which the 
Exhibition had created. It was evening and dark, and on our 
way from the Gare St Lazare to the Boulevard St Germain — 
near to which Boulevard we lived — we passed the Porte Mon- 
umentale, illuminated. It came upon us unexpectedly, and its 
enormous size, with its brilliant electric lamps of many well- 
harmonised colours, was very striking. In fact, I have never 
seen anything when illuminated artificially look so effective. 


134 A Field Naturalist' s Holiday. [Sess. 

Next day we paid our first visit to the Exhibition, and 
passed through the Porte Monumentale, which we took time 
to study a little in brilliant sunlight. From its shining green- 
and-gold decoration the irreverent Parisians dubbed it the 
Salamander. By daylight it was also very striking. It is 
known to few, I daresay, of those who saw it that the archi- 
tect who designed it studied for some time carefully at the 
Museum of Natural History the most lowly forms of animal 
life, the beautiful patterns of foraminifera and radiolaria, to 
give him the necessary inspiration for his work : and the 
lattice-work of this great monumental gate is covered over 
with magnified casts of these beautiful organisms — what 
Haeckel would call the " Kunst formen der Natur," and to 
illustrate which he is publishing just now a large handsome 
volume. Is it not a very fine idea to pass through the low- 
liest of living things and yet some of the most beautiful to be 
admitted into the great world show where there are displayed 
the most developed results of human labour and thought ? 
The Exhibition, is full of such ideas, artistic ideas — not objects 
and facts scattered altogether at random, but connected by 
threads of synthetic thought, which the tourist who goes to the 
Exhibition for a few days mostly fails entirely to notice. 

As I have said, I went to Paris a good fortnight before the 
Congress, and I spent nearly all that time about the Exhibi- 
tion. The Exhibition covers, with its annex at Vincennes, 500 
acres, and all the buildings had galleries. Supposing that I 
had spent a solid fortnight in seeing the Exhibition, that would 
have given me 33 acres a-day to go over, not including the 
galleries. The most of it, of course, one only walked through, 
and perhaps three-fourths of the Exhibition I did not attempt 
to see at all. Still, I believe I walked a good twelve miles 
every day, and so by the end of my first fortnight I had a 
fairly good idea how to find my way about. Now suppose, 
after I knew my way about, I had met a party of Edin- 
burgh Field Naturalists, it would have given me much 
pleasure to have had a few walks with them to places in 
the Exhibition, to see which would have given them great 
delight. I propose to take you now to some of these places. 

We have entered by the Porte Monumentale, and we walk 
along a broad avenue, having for a third of a mile two rows 

1 900-190 1.] A Field Naturalist's Holiday. 135 

of conservatories on either side of it. These conservatories 
were exhibited by hothouse builders, and contained in some 
cases interesting collections of plants, — one of cactuses, for 
example, struck me ; but they are far too numerous to try to 
describe. We pass the greater and the lesser Palaces of Art. 
If we pause, however, in the space between them, and look 
over the new bridge, we shall see the most magnificent piece 
of city architecture in the world. On either side we have the 
permanent homes of art — which stand on the place of the 
Exhibition building of 1855 — the Palais d'Industrie. The 
beautiful white stone of which they are constructed has been 
tinted with primrose and lilac so slightly as just to give it 
a feeling of colour, with the happiest effect. We leave the 
great avenue at the Pont des Invalid es and go down towards 
the river. There we shall find in a little ravine a spot to 
delight the field naturalist. It is just at the side of the 
foot-bridge which crosses the Seine. There is a collection of 
aquatics and succulent plants, opuntias and house-leeks, melo- 
cactuses and agaves and euphorbias, besides water-lilies and 
reeds and Egyptian papyri. We have here a picture — a 
tableau vivant — of how the plant suits itself to its surround- 
ings — the lilies and other aquatics living in water, the cactuses 
and the agaves reducing their leaf-surface as much as possible 
to prevent evaporation and economise water. We may notice 
amongst the plants a Euphorbia resenifera, which has very 
much the appearance of a cactus — although euphorbias and 
cactuses are a considerable way apart in the vegetable king- 
dom. The euphorbia has assumed the habit of the cactus to 
suit desert conditions. This little ravine, like so many other 
bits of the Paris Exhibition, is an object-lesson arranged with 
a deeper significance than a few rocks and pools with pretty 
plants might at first sight suggest. It is a thought-model of 
how the organism grows to suit the environment. 

We now come to the Palace of Horticulture, where all the 
fruit- and flower-shows are held. These shows took place 
weekly, I think. Every week or so different lots of plants 
and flowers and fruits were exhibited. Once when the new 
supplies for the week had been brought in, I walked through 
the show. There were a great many asters of all colours, 
having the habit of Aster Tripolium. There was a striking 

136 A Field Naturalists Holiday. [Sess. 

collection of montbretias, strawberries witb long fruit, a 
great many cactus dahlias, and most striking lots of 
begonias ; coxcombs of all colours, scarlet and orange, pink 
and greenish-yellow and cream colour. There were brilliant 
cannas in masses, and gladioli, and dahlias with little flowers 
not much bigger than a penny. Then there were waggon- 
loads of the finest apples and pears and oranges and plums 
from almost all parts of the world, and in the most beautiful 
condition. The horticultural shows which I saw were good, but 
they were not anything like one I saw in Paris some years 
ago in the Tuileries gardens. It was in May, and the ex- 
hibition was in great tents : rhododendrons and azaleas were 
placed in baskets and arranged in masses : the cut flowers 
were not put in bare tin stands, but surrounded with leaves 
and moss. The artistic effect was great : I have never seen 
a flower-show like it. That was a great summer flower-show, 
and as the Exhibition Shows went on all the summer, the same 
excellence could not be maintained. 

We leave the Palace of Horticulture and go towards the 
river. Outside the buildings we may notice many conifers 
and roses, and, had we been earlier in the year, rhododendrons. 
The number of different kinds of plants in the Exhibition 
grounds is immense. There were some hundreds of varieties 
of pears; there were 650 different kinds of trees and shrubs 
in the Champ de Mars alone. Along one bank, for a quarter 
of a mile or so, there were fruit-trees trained on espaliers 
of all forms. I have never seen trees trained with such 

We are now in the Pavilion of Forestry, Hunting, and 
Fishing. We see models of the manner in which hills are 
planted with trees, and, as they are cut, how they are re- 
planted. There are diagrams showing the importance of 
forests. It is very probable that the coasts of the Mediter- 
ranean — Greece, the Adriatic, South Italy, as far as Gibraltar 
— became decadent more from the destruction of forests than 
from anything else. There were all kinds of nets and traps 
for catching fish ; there were sponge culture, oyster culture, 
pearl culture, exhibits from marine stations. There were 
instruments used in hunting animals : here were skins by the 
thousand, many prepared for the market. I saw here some of 

1900-1901.] A Field Naturalists Holiday. 137 

the best photographs of wild animals I ever saw — by far the 
best. They were taken by a rich American, Mr Shiras. He 
began by studying the habits of the animal he wished to 
photograph. He paid particular attention to its nocturnal 
habits — where it went to drink or to lick salt. He placed 
several cameras in position, and made them work automati- 
cally : he placed wires in the grass, which, being pulled, 
discharged a spark of electricity, and so fired in some way 
magnesium powder. One would think he must have spoiled 
a vast number of plates : still, those he exhibited were master- 

We go on now to the Champ de Mars — the largest of all 
the parts of the Exhibition. We neglect the piles of cloth 
(the textile industries), the gallery after gallery of bottles of 
chemicals and apparatus used in chemical industries. We 
go straight to the Science and Art and Education section. 
I want to tell you of only two or three things. One exhibit 
interested me much. It was six ants' nests, with their com- 
mensals and parasites all alive and displaying the utmost 
activity. The nests were made of red terra-cotta — very like 
what better- class flower-pots are made of : they were in the 
shape of square tiles about an inch thick and about a foot 
on each side. They had deep grooves in them, made, when 
the clay was moist, by an inch gouge. The grooves made a 
scroll figure. One side of the tile was kept moist — a moist 
chamber — and the whole was covered by a plate of glass, 
and that again by a thick curtain. When the curtain was 
drawn aside, there were the insects at work. I do not know 
what they were fed on. The exhibitor, M. Charles Janet, 
has written a pamphlet on them, which I have just got. 
Beside each nest there was a long description of the insects it 
contained. The reading of this was not easy, because there 
were generally several people waiting their turn to have a 
look. There is a nest of red ants (Myrmica rubra) ; in it 
there are a commensal and a parasite : the one — Platyarthus 
Hoffmannseggi — is a little land crustacean. It is white, and it 
is blind. It seems to find its way about by its sense of smell. 
An organ of smell is said to be placed in the antennas. It 
eats animal and vegetable matter, which it finds in the 
galleries, and it moves about little The other is a parasite 

138 A Field Naturalist's Holiday. [Sess. 

— one of the Thysanuridae — and is exceedingly active, — Lepis- 
mina polypoda. It is yellow, and blind like the crustacean. 
The ants kill it if they can catch it. It lives in an extra- 
ordinary way. Ants carry a nutritive fluid in their crop, and 
feed other ants by disgorging it into their mouths. When 
that operation is going on the Lepismina comes up cautiously 
aud catches a little drop, and then runs off as fast as it can. 
Like the Platyarthus, it seems to have a most acute scent, 
and to smell the droplets. Its usual food is the young ant 

The Formica fusca occupied another nest beside it. There 
was a colony of a very small ant, Salenopsis fugce. Its habit 
is to have its nest beside that of the Formica, and to make a 
communication between the two nests by very narrow galleries, 
by which it gets access to the nest of the larger ant, and lives 
on the undeveloped young. 

I was greatly interested in these ants' nests — all the more 
so when I learned that M. Janet, who exhibited them, was 
not a naturalist by profession, but an engineer who occupied 
himself very much with social questions. I have written to 
M. Janet asking him where I could get any of his earthenware 
nests, so I may be able to show them at some future meeting 
of this Society. If some of us could start a few ants' nests, it 
would be most interesting, and I do not see any more difficulty 
in doing so than in keeping half a dozen beehives. 

Farther on in the same building there is a large exhibit of 
objects connected with bee-keeping. On account of the fine 
climate bees are very much kept in France — so far as my 
own observation goes, too much in the old-fashioned straw 
skep. There were splendid collections of insects injurious to 
bees and to plants in general. About the time I arrived in 
Paris there was an Apicultural Congress, and I must mention 
to you one of the communications made to that congress by 
M. Giraud Pabout. All the members know that it is only the 
queen in a hive which lays the eggs, and she lays an immense 
number. The workers have short lives — a few weeks only — 
and the bee society is continually recruited by the new brood. 
It is of the greatest importance, therefore, to have good queens, 
so as to have good bees. An American has invented a way of 
manufacturing queens on an extensive scale, and the results 

1 900-190 1.] A Field Naturalists Holiday. 139 

were shown in the cases of the Central Apicultural Society. 
The members know that there are three kinds of cells in a 
hive : small hexagonal cells — the workers' cells ; larger hex- 
agonal cells — the drone cells ; and a few very large cells, not 
unlike strawberries that have been hollowed out by snails, — 
these last are the queen cells. Now in a hive, although the 
social organisation is so highly developed, the work goes on 
with the routine of the War Office. The queen lays eggs at 
the rate of many hundreds a day: if she lays an egg in a 
small cell, the other bees give it a worker's fare, and it grows 
up into an undeveloped female, or worker — shall we say the 
new woman of bee society ? When she lays an egg in one of 
the large strawberry cells, the nurserymaids of the hive feed 
it with much richer food, and it grows into a queen. Now 
every bee-keeper knows that the more queen cells there are in 
a hive the more queens will be produced ; so he removes the 
queen cells — all but one, just as he removes the drone cells 
except a few. Two Americans went on another tack to attain 
their object — good queens. They had 600 hives, and they 
noticed that one hive particularly worked extremely well, 
while the rest did moderately well or badly. They made 
artificial queen cells, little hanging capsules attached to laths. 
The queen soon did her routine duty, laid a fertile egg in one 
of the cells, and the workers did theirs. When it had hatched 
into a larva, they put in some royal jelly beside it. The bee- 
keepers transferred the capsule into the hives needing improve- 
ment — the workers there did the rest : they fed the young 
larva with more royal food, and in due time the hive had a 
new queen of the most desirable kind. In this way in a very 
short time they had all their 600 hives supplied. This is a 
wholesale way of improving animal societies. 

We continue our walk, and have time for only one more 
visit. We go now to the Eue des Nations, and look into one 
of the houses there, of great interest to the field naturalist. 
It is the villa of the Prince of Monaco. It contains samples 
of all kinds of apparatus used by the Prince in his ocean 
explorations — dredges, and traps of all kinds, some very in- 
genious, which the Prince used in his explorations in the 
" Hirondelle " and the " Princess Alice " I. and II. Here 
was an unrivalled collection for an amateur to make. There 

140 A Field Naturalist's Holiday. [Sess. 

was a rosy feather-star on its stem, like an encrinite, called 
after the " Hirondelle " ; and there was a cuttle-fish with scales. 

We might have gone to many other places to interest a field 
naturalist. The aquarium was not much for us who live beside 
the sea, but in it there were some pillars of the Temple of 
Serapis from near Naples. Now, although I had seen the 
temple several times before at Pozzuoli, I don't think I ever 
touched a pillar of it : here I put my finger into the holes the 
boring shells had made when it was under the sea. The 
Temple of Serapis is one of the few records we have of a great 
change of sea-level — a great sinking and a considerable rising 
again — within historic times. 

Before leaving the Exhibition for good I must go to have one 
more look at what I think is the most wonderful instrument I 
have ever seen. It is the telephonograph, invented by a Dane, 
Poulsen. It consists of a cylinder very much like that of an 
ordinary phonograph, but instead of being made of wax it has 
wire coiled round it of steel or nickel. A small electro-magnet 
the size of half an inch of an ordinary pencil comes down upon 
the coil, so that the wire passes between the poles. Now, 
the extraordinary thing is that the molecular condition of the 
wire is changed : it preserves a record of what has been spoken, 
and by beginning again and listening instead of speaking, the 
steel wire will repeat all that has been spoken. The wire 
retains the words, it is said, for some years at least. The whole 
may be obliterated instantly by an electric current passed 
through the wire. Have we not here an extraordinary de- 
monstration of the wonderful structure of matter ? — shall we 
call it the memory of matter ? 

17^/i Oct. 1901. — In his evening discourse on "Movement 
of Plants " at the meeting of the British Association at Glas- 
gow last month, Prof. Francis Darwin expressed his opinion 
that plant movement might be regarded as psychological, in- 
volving some kind of memory or consciousness. He referred 
particularly to Prof. Hering's lecture, " On Memory as a Uni- 
versal Function of Organised Matter," delivered before the 
Vienna Academy of Sciences, 1870, and also to Samuel 
Butler's "Life and Habit," 1878, and "Unconscious Memory," 
1880, as supporting this view. Possibly, in the controversy 

1900-1901.] Badgers. 141 

between those who believe that the phenomena of life may 
be explained by chemistry and physics and those who do not 
regard these as sufficient, the materialists and the vitalists, 
old or new, might do well to remember the telephonograph 
as a thought model : it seems to present the problem in a 
still simpler form. 


(Read Nov. 28, 1900.) 

As most of you are aware, I am a native of the historic 
Borderland — a descendant of the Border thieves, who 

" Stole the beeves that made their broth, 
From England and from Scotland both." 

At an early age the habits of the birds and beasts that 
peopled the district were to me subjects of intense interest. 
Inheriting the hunting spirit of my ancestors, to engage in a 
badger, a fox, or an otter hunt was in my boyish imagination 
the chief end of man. My curiosity was whetted by an 
old gamekeeper rehearsing to me the stories of his adven- 
tures with the wild beasts referred to. He was not at that 
time old, but in my youthful arrogance I imagined every one 
old when the slightest indication of grey hairs made their 
appearance. I have somewhat changed my mind on that 
subject now. This man, Bassett by name, was a native of 
Sussex, but was taken to Morayshire by the late Charles St 
John, with whom he acted as keeper. Subsequently he was 
with Sir William Gordon dimming, grandfather of the present 
baronet of Altyre and Gordonstoun, and eventually came to 
Ladykirk, where he acted for forty years as head-keeper on 
that estate. About the time referred to Mr St John's book on 
' "Wild Sports in the Highlands ' made its appearance, and was 
the first book on natural history I ever read. Even to this 

142 Badgers. [Sess. 

day he is one of rny favourite authors. His anecdotes about 
badgers keenly whetted my appetite, and I resolved at least 
to try and see one. In a deep ravine between the estates of 
Ladykirk and Milnegraden were, I had often heard, a number 
of badger holes, and I started one day to try and discover 
them. This was a simple matter, as they were easily found in 
consequence of the many tons of earth which they had drawn 
out, and which indicated that the burrows were of great depth. 
Though a considerable distance apart, the burrows connected 
inside. This I found out in subsequent years, as on putting 
a ferret into one of the holes a couple of foxes bolted twenty- 
five yards from where the ferret was put in. It was in the 
winter months, and I presume if badgers were inside they 
were sleeping. I have frequently bolted foxes and cats with 
ferrets, but never badgers ; neither have I ever lost a ferret in 
a badger's hole. It has been frequently asserted that foxes 
and badgers will not remain in the same earth. This I know 
to be at variance with fact, though I cannot speak minutely 
of the domestic arrangements of fox and badger. 

I was exceedingly interested in seeing the big burrows of 
the badgers and the prints of their feet on the sandy bank. 
A popular notion prevailed at that time among country-folks 
that the legs of badgers were shorter on one side than on the 
other — a provision of nature for enabling them to run along 
the steep hillsides. Observing their tracks both up and down 
the glen from the " earth," I began to wonder how one would 
manage if the side with the short legs was down hill. I care- 
fully measured the length of the limbs of the first badger I 
saw killed, and needless to say from that date I consigned the 
belief to the region of romance. Though then only ten years 
of age, I was continually asking the keeper about a badger- 
hunt, and he at last consented to have one, on condition that 
I was to sit and " sack " the badger. I am certain I never 
would have engaged in a badger-hunt had I known the treat- 
ment to which I was to be subjected. The two keepers 
arranged to play a trick and frighten me, so that I would 
never trouble them again with badger-hunting. I have too 
vivid a recollection of that night ever to forget it. The moon 
was about its first quarter, and went down a little after mid- 
night. We were to start before eleven o'clock. I was to be 

1900-1901.] Badgers. 143 

the victim of as contemptible a trick as was ever perpetrated 
on a boy of tender years ; but, as events turned out, I scored 
against them, and was made a hero in spite of myself. Bassett 
had over a dozen rabbit terriers, half of which were well-bred 
and the other half a motley group of mongrels. I could not 
better describe them than in the words of Dandy Dinmont: 
" There was old Pepper and old Mustard, young Pepper and 
young Mustard, little Pepper and little Mustard." Then there 
was Nettle, Mischief, Venom, Tartar, and others, whose names 
I have long since forgotten. Besides the well-bred Dandies, 
there were "mongrel, whelp, and cur of low degree," but 
having had large experience among rats, cats, stoats, weasels, 
and badgers, they would turn tail to no creature covered with 

While the sacks were being prepared the terriers, knowing 
what was up, kept yelping in wild excitement. It was there- 
fore arranged that the under-keeper and I were to start and 
put the sacks in the holes, having a string from each of them 
a considerable way up the bank and secured to the branch of 
a tree. The sacks being duly inserted and pinned round the 
entrances to the burrows, I was told to sit near the tree with 
the strings in my hand. On leaving, the keeper asked if I 
was " feared." To tell the truth, I was terrified, but this need 
not be wondered at, considering my youth. However fright- 
ened I was at being left alone, I was ten times more so to be 
called a coward ; so, though trembling from head to foot and 
my voice husky with excitement, I replied, " No, I'm no' 
feared." I saw the keeper's head and shoulders between me 
and the sky, and when he disappeared I felt as if my last hour 
had come. It was a dark ravine closely overshadowed by trees. 
The agony of that night still haunts me. The glen was, and 
I presume still is, a favourite resort of owls, and that night I 
could safely say in the words of Burns that 

" The cry o' hoolets make me eerie." 

Little did I then think that the same eerie cries would 
afford me so much pleasure in after life. I at last heard the 
yelping of the terriers in the distance, and felt some relief, as 
I thought the keepers would come to me. I strained my ears 
to listen, but the excited yelping of the terriers died away, 

144 Badgers. [Sess. 

and no sounds were audible except those of nature — the loud 
hooting of the owl, the sighing breeze, the tinkling of cascades 
in the brook flowing down the glen, and the bleating in the 
distance of sheep which had evidently been disturbed by the 
keepers and terriers. 

The moon disappeared beneath the horizon, and the inky 
darkness was almost palpable to the touch. I am not 
ashamed to confess that I was terribly frightened, but as time 
wore on I must have become somewhat reconciled to the 
situation, as I fell sound asleep. How long I slept I know 
not, but I awoke shivering with cold. Presently I heard a 
rustle among the grass and leaves, and a low grunting noise. 
1 sprang to my feet and screamed with terror. My doing so 
was the means of frightening a badger, which bolted for the 
hole, and immediately the tugging string gave indications of 
his entanglement in the sack. I have since frequently heard 
badgers emitting that low grunting noise when they happened 
to pass in the darkness, but whether they do so only when 
they suspect danger I am not prepared to state. What was to 
be done ? I dared not go near the sack, as I had some idea of 
the terrible teeth of badgers from wounds inflicted on the 
terriers in previous fights. I held on to the string and yelled 
at the pitch of my voice for assistance, but got no response 
except the echo from the opposite side of the glen. To have 
run away would have been arrant cowardice, so I cut the 
string from the branch and rolled it round my arm till I got 
near the sack. I knew the running noose would secure the 
mouth of the sack, and as I got near I found most of the sack 
in the burrow with the mouth kept outwards by the string. 
With considerable difficulty I pulled sack and badger out, 
taking care to tightly twist the sack, till I got the badger in 
the bottom, unable to move. I then threw him over my 
back and made tracks for home, leaving the other sacks in 
the positions we had placed them. On the way home I felt 
like Eobinson Crusoe after seeing the footprints in the sand. 
I took every bush I saw for a man or a ghost. As I 
proceeded the clock on the stable tower struck three, and I 
knew that I must have slept for some hours. Where by this 
time were the keepers with the terriers ? I had forgotten 
about them in my sleep, and events since I awoke had driven 

1 900-190 1.] Badgers. 145 

them out of my head. On nearing the kennels the dogs 
began to bark, and I soon discovered that the keepers were 
home. Why, I wondered, had they gone home without me ? 
Little did I then think it was an organised plot. 

Scenting the badger, the entire kennel — from the loud bark 
of retrievers, pointers, and setters, to the yelping of the 
terriers — kept up an excited pandemonium. The bell rang 
again and again in vain, no attention being paid to it. Why 
a bell should be rung to make dogs quiet may not generally 
be understood. A bell is fixed in the kennel with the pull at 
the keeper's bedside. When the dogs bark during the day 
this bell is rung, and the keeper then goes out with a whip 
and lashes them into their bed. Learning to associate the 
bell with the whip, they generally become quiet with the first 
ring, but on this occasion it had no effect. Bassett had 
therefore no alternative but to get up, and on coming out, 
cried, " Who is there ? " Amid the noise I shouted " It's me, 
and I've got a badger." With his assistance I had it secured 
in a box, and went home to bed. As the news spread on the 
following day I was regarded as a hero, but the awful agony 
I suffered from fear was carefully suppressed, and I do not 
think has ever been divulged till now. 

From the fact of the badger being nocturnal in its habits, 
few people ever see one, even in districts where they are 
plentiful. We have yet a great deal to learn regarding the 
habits of this quaint night-pig, and much nonsense has been 
written on the subject. Although it generally adheres to the 
district near its burrows, I have known one caught and 
worried by foxhounds several miles from an " earth." Only a 
few weeks ago one was caught and worried by the Jedforest 
hounds. It was a male, and weighed 32 lb. When driving 
the woods in Lauderdale last week, one of the guns shot 
a badger which broke cover. It was also a male, and 
weighed 30 lb. I have also trapped badgers far from their 
haunts. Notwithstanding their short legs, they run at a 
remarkable pace. I have several times in my younger days 
come upon them, giving chase, and found I could keep up 
with them for a couple of hundred yards, but though I was 
always " speedy," in every case they soon distanced me in the 

146 Badgers. [Sess. 

The presence of badgers in a district is soon discovered 
by the wasp-bikes being dug up, the comb scattered all 
round, and the young wasps picked out. There is no mis- 
taking their footprints, which resemble those of a miniature 
bear. They appear to be omnivorous, eating anything that 
comes in the way. I have trapped them with eggs as a bait, 
and also with part of a rabbit. I have noticed half-chewed 
wheat in their droppings, and I have found that in confine- 
ment they become exceedingly fat on dog's ordinary food. 

In former times the badger was subjected to the most 
horrible cruelty. Drawing the badger along with cockfighting 
used to be favourite pastimes even well on in the nineteenth 
century. " Drawing the badger " never failed to gather a 
crowd, a badger frequently being kept for the purpose at low 
public-houses. This cruel sport, however, was prohibited by 
Act of Parliament in 1850. Yet long after the passing of the 
Act it was now and then indulged in by the lower stratum of 
society in rural districts. I have an indistinct recollection, 
from this distance of time, of a band of travelling gipsies 
camping on a disused road, and having with them a badger in 
a box for carrying on this illegal sport. My remembrance of 
the box is that it was six or seven feet long and about 
eighteen inches in width and depth. A number of people 
brought their dogs to " draw the badger." Not one of them 
could accomplish it, and those game enough to try generally 
came out with ugly cuts about the head. Some of the 
terriers got hold of the badger, and for a time it looked as if 
they would fetch him out ; but in every case they failed, and 
the reason was obvious. Being largely endowed with curiosity, 
I got on my knees and looked into the box. I saw the white 
stripes of the badger's face and his small eyes like fiery orbs, 
no doubt expecting an encounter from another adversary. 
For half the length of the box next the badger spars were 
nailed across the bottom, so that he could get a hold for his 
feet, and consequently it required considerable strength to 
dislodge him. On the other hand, it was alleged that the 
bottom near the entrance had been rubbed over with soft-soap, 
so that once past the spars, the slippery floor rendered 
" drawing the badger " impossible. I was not old enough to 
take notice of the stakes, but I remember money changed 

1900-1901.] Badgers. 147 

hands, and the language used, as is generally the case in such 
low species of gambling, was more expulsive than refined. 

An amusing story used to be told of a young miner in the 
Scremerston district, near Berwick, who had a well - bred 
young dog which he purposed training to " draw the badger." 
The story is of some antiquity, and perhaps not altogether to 
be depended on. When the dog was about eight months old, 
the lad induced his father to put a badger - skin over his 
head and shoulders, and crawl into the room on his hands and 
knees to see how the dog would act. Being well-bred, it 
rushed at its supposed natural enemy and fastened on the 
nose of the old gentleman, who shrieked out at the pitch of 
his voice. Without attempting to render assistance, the 
young scamp cried out, " Bide it, man, faither, bide it, man ; 
it'll be the makin' 0' the pup." 

The manner in which badgers were persecuted has added a 
word to the English language, the term " badgered " being 
very expressive. " Drawing the badger " is also a favourite 
phrase applied to asking questions with the view of eliciting 
information when the person questioned is not disposed to be 

There is a simile in Burns's poems I cannot agree with, and 
which to my mind constitutes one case where this acute 
observer of nature had not studied the animal in question for 
himself, but quotes from the well-known Scotch proverb. 
When referring to the gentry in his " Twa Dogs," he 
says : — 

" They gang as saucy by puir folk 
As I wad by a stinkin' brock." 

Now, badgers are the cleanliest animals in the world. Like 
the model housewife, they have their spring and autumn 
cleaning, clearing out their beds and replacing them with 
fresh material. This they generally do early in February, 
in anticipation of the wants of the nursery. Badgers in 
their normal state have not an offensive smell, and in order 
to have this corroborated I would suggest that on one of 
their excursions next summer the members of the Edinburgh 
Naturalists' Society should go to Butherford and see the 
beautiful and interesting creatures to be presently mentioned 

148 Badgers. [Sess. 

as now kept there. I am certain that one and all will then 
agree with me that " stinkin' brock " is a misnomer. Of 
course any animal, if confined in a box with a total disregard 
to sanitary laws, will have an unpleasant odour. I am not 
overlooking the fact that, as a means of defence, the badger has 
a glandular apparatus from which an offensive matter exudes 
when the animal is being " badgered." I hold, however, that 
a badger has no right to be " badgered," and if let alone 
" stinkin' brock " is not applicable. 

The period of gestation in the badger has been a subject of 
much discussion in many journals, and notably in the ' Field ' 
newspaper — the exact time never having been satisfactorily 
demonstrated. Several interesting circumstances bearing 
upon this subject have appeared at intervals in the columns 
of the ' Field.' In the issue of that popular newspaper for 
5th April 1861 Mr H. Shaw of Shrewsbury states that a 
badger which had been kept in confinement at Haughton 
Hall, Salop, from April 3, 1860, brought forth two young 
on 12th March 1861, more than eleven months after she 
commenced her solitary life. Again, under date 25th June 
1864, Mr F. Hey cock of Bedford says that he caught a 
badger, and kept her for thirteen months, when she brought 
forth a young one. We further learn from the ' Field ' of 
17th September 1864, on the authority of Mr John Seaman, 
superintendent of the Hull Zoological Gardens, that a badger 
brought forth young after being shut up in a cage there for 
fifteen months. Again, on 22nd March 1868, we learn 
from the same source that a ratcatcher named Butler, living 
near Oxford, had kept a female badger in his possession 
from November 1866, and had her locked up in an iron 
cage. On the first of March 1868, after she had thus 
been in confinement for fifteen months, she gave birth to 
four young. 

I have thus far quoted from the ' Field ' newspaper, but am 
glad to say that I can now from personal knowledge speak 
with some degree of certainty on this point. My friend 
Mr Paterson of Butherford possesses a number of badgers, 
already referred to : three generations have been bred in 
captivity. Finer pets I never saw. They are very tame, 
eating out of my hand, but they are very shy if anything 

1900-1901.] Badgers. 149 

unusual attracts their attention. In a recent visit I tried 
to photograph them, but this was by no means easily accom- 
plished. Mr Paterson informed me that the operation would 
have been managed with less difficulty during the long 
summer days, but as the time for hibernation approaches 
they become restless, excited, come little out, and scarcely 
eat any food. In summer they eat a great quantity of food, 
but for four months in winter hardly any. Even if not 
dormant, they move little about, and are seldom seen during 
the winter. For many weeks I have known the earths 
stopped and covered with snow. At the same time, I have 
occasionally seen their footprints in snow, but not during a 
settled storm with hard frost. The period of gestation is 
from the beginning of July till near the end of February. 
I have known four in a brood, and possibly there may be 
more ; two and three are common. Last spring one pro- 
duced her young on the same day of the month as she was 
herself born. When the young are born they are void of 
hair, and, like the weasel tribe, cannot see till six weeks 
old. It is the opinion of Mr Paterson, who has made 
badgers the study of his life, that in the heat of the 
mother the young lie dormant for some time, and weeks 
elapse before they suckle their dam. When they begin to 
move about they grow very rapidly, but do not breed 
the first year. 

I cannot speak of the longevity of badgers, but doubtless 
will find out a good deal in this direction during the next 
few years, though it is always dangerous to rest any theory 
upon an experiment which dissociates wild creatures from 
their natural environment. At this time of the year 
•badgers are so fat that any person seeing them dissected 
would jump to the conclusion that they had been grossly 
•over-fed. There is no doubt, however, that it is their 
normal condition at this season. At least I have always 
found them so, and I have skinned a considerable number. 
It is otherwise in the spring months, as when then skinned 
the fat had all disappeared. 

Badgers are becoming scarce, the traps of the rabbit-catcher 
being instrumental in reducing their number. It is gratifying 
to learn that some proprietors are now reintroducing them on 


1 50 The Mole. [Sess. 

their estates, and giving orders that they are to be protected. 
Among these I may mention the Earl of Eosebery, and an ex- 
ceedingly interesting paper on " A Badger Colony in Dalmeny 
Park " was read to this Society in March 1897 by Mr Charles 
Campbell. I cannot do better than solicit you all to peruse it 
again in our ' Transactions.' In conclusion, I may say that I 
believe the day is yet far distant when the extinction of the 
badger will have to be deplored. 


{Read Dec. 26, 1900.) 

I well recall my first introduction to a mole-catcher. Sitting 
by the roadside one lovely summer day, some few years ago, 
examining a butterfly, I was accosted by the remark that it 
was a warm day. On looking up, I saw a tall man with 
shoulders like Hercules and a beard about two feet long. His 
skin was as brown as a berry. Dressed in a grey suit, with boots 
one could see were specially made for tramping, he had on his 
left arm several traps, and in his right hand as a staff he was 
carrying a spade with a slender shaft and a blade about 3 to 4 
inches square. Having replied to the salutation, which is a 
pleasant feature of country folks, I was cogitating on the use 
of the traps, and allowed him to reach a distance before I 
assured myself that if I never asked I would never know. 
The same day saw my first introduction to the practical study 
of the mole. 

The mole in appearance is rather a handsome creature. Its 
fur, smooth as velvet, is generally black, with a slight brown 
colour in adults on the breast and the belly. In size it is 
about 5 \ inches, but as a rule larger in mossy land. The 
male also is considerably larger than the female. It is 
adapted for its calling ; and as it passes its existence in the 

1 900-190 1.] The Mole. 151 

earth, its body is nearly cylindrical. The snout is long and 
wedge-shaped. Nature, by adaptation and modification, is 
ever adjusting its creatures to their ends, and nowhere are its 
operations more excellently displayed than in the mole. It is 
generally thought the common mole has no eyes. This, how- 
ever, is an error. But as the sense of sight is not required in 
its method of living, the eyes, which are very minute, are 
hardly discerned, though none the less there, and they can 
readily be observed in the embryos which are now exhibited. 
The external ears on first view would seem also to be conspicu- 
ous by their absence, but closer inspection reveals their pres- 
ence. It is supposed that the senses of hearing, smell, and 
taste are very acute and highly developed. 

The head is connected with the body by no perceptible 
neck. In proportion to the animal, its two front paws are 
enormous. They are broad and flat, having five digits, each 
armed with a sharp, curved claw. Used by the animals for 
digging, they are not covered with fur, and the slight hairiness 
on the back of the foot which is present in the young is very 
soon destroyed, and the skin thus left bare becomes very tough. 
They are turned slightly outwards, and are admirably fitted 
for burrowing. The hind feet, which have also five sharp 
claws, are used chiefly for propelling the animal, and conse- 
quently they are not broad like the front paws. In the young 
the hind feet are very like those of the mouse, and when on 
the surface of the ground the young moles really gallop. In 
the adult they become more adapted to their ultimate use. A 
small stump of a tail about an inch long, covered with fur 
and tipped with a few white hairs, completes the mole's ex- 
ternal appearance. 

The mole is relegated to insectivorous mammals because of 
its dentition. As the hedgehog belongs also to the Insectivores, 
and is larger, I have exhibited a skull of that animal, from 
which you will see the molar teeth are furnished with numer- 
ous small pointed eminences for crushing insects. If you take 
a look at the other teeth of the moles exhibited, you will 
observe they are very sharp. I will not trouble you with 
the anatomy of the mole, which can be got from any text- 
book, but I should like to draw your attention to two points. 
First, to the humerus bone, of which a specimen is exhibited. 

1 5 2 The Mole. [Sess. 

You will observe that it would seem to be deformed, but that 
is not so, for it assists the lateral movement of the paws 
enormously. The second reference is to the additional bone of 
the paw, which increases the breadth of it. The upper- and 
fore-arm bones are also exhibited for inspection. From the 
study of the internal parts it is seen that the whole concentra- 
tion of muscular strength is thrown into the front paws, the 
two tendons of which are very large. To illustrate the re- 
markable strength of the mole, we experimented with a young 
animal placed on the surface of a piece of ground into which I 
could not push my walking-stick, so hard was it. Into this 
in an incredibly short time the beast completely submerged 

The mole's abode is always under the soil, and its food con- 
sists of worms, grubs, &c, in search for which, and guided by 
the sense of smell, it makes runs in all directions and at various 
depths. In very cold weather it must make deep runs in 
search of worms, for then these recede into the depths of the 
soil. In the case of the young mole, the runs are very zig- 
zag and not at all deep. In fact, you can see the earth moving 
as it burrows. The young therefore require experience before 
they can make deep runs, and, as a consequence, in dry seasons 
young moles are often killed by drought and the heat of 
the sun, accompanied by the want of food. Weather has a 
peculiar effect on the moles, in the direction of inciting them 
to make fresh runs, the mole-catcher's experience being that for 
a few weeks hardly a fresh mole-hill is to be seen, whereas at 
other times new workings can be observed in every direction. 
The mole-hills one sees are ejected soil made by means of 
shafts. At the first sight the method of burrowing might be 
thought, from the shape of the snout and the position of the 
fore-limbs, to be after the manner of swimming, but this is not 
so. While so engaged, the animal rests on its left side, first 
gives three or four scratches with its right paw, then turning 
on to its right side it similarly uses the left paw and thus 
alternately propels itself. During summer the mole makes 
few hillocks, but with the first touch of frost it makes deeper 
runs, and therefore more mole-hills. The more severe the 
weather the deeper the runs and the larger the hills. Possibly 
this is caused in their search for worms. We may take it as 

1900-1901.] The Mole. 153 

an axiom that the deeper the runs the fewer and larger are the 
mole-hills. This is evidently to save shafts to the surface. 
These shafts are not necessarily perpendicular to the runs. 
In the case of a slope they may be parallel. In making these 
shafts to the surface the mole is guided by the nature of the 
soil, both as to their number and direction. Another feature 
is that the runs always continue past the last mole-hill. 

In its manner of eating the mole is epicurean. Having 
caught the worm, it immediately makes for the tail, cuts 
a bit off, and returns to the head. Then holding the worm 
between its paws, it proceeds to eat, cleaning its victim at 
the same time by the pressure of the forepaws. Nor does it 
forget the piece cut off. We experimented on this several 
times by giving the mole the worm by the head. If you 
put a stick into ground where there are worm-castings and 
heave the soil, you will very soon see worms coming to the 
surface. The explanation of this may be that the worm is 
trying to escape from its natural enemy. The mole, from 
its sense of smell, has found this out. And occasionally after 
burrowing it proceeds to the surface, with the view of allevi- 
ating the perturbation of the worms ! 

It is sometimes said that moles make for water, but this 
seems erroneous. Worms dwell in moist soil, and feeding on 
them one can well imagine would not necessitate thirst. 

The voracity of the mole is so great that it cannot live 
many hours without food. In view of this it is thought that 
having gorged itself it falls asleep and in a little time awakes 
to repeat its diet, not distinguishing between day and night, 
summer or winter. Mr Alexander M'Leish, mole-catcher, 
Corstorphine, a most observant naturalist, informs me that 
twice he has observed the mole carrying worms along its run, 
drawing them backwards, most likely to form stores, as one 
would think one place would do as well as another for eating. 
On half-a-dozen occasions he found hoards of worms in 
their runs in considerable quantities, say as large as a 
man's fist. These worms do not seem to have power to 
depart, and bear every appearance of having been paralysed. 

The mole-hills seen over the country-side are not to be 
mistaken for the mole's nest. As has been already said, they 
are formed by the soil ejected at the shafts. The nest is 

1 54 The Mole. [Sess. 

under a hillock of earth larger than the mole-hills, and with- 
out any effort at concealment. We have in most of our 
articles on moles a mathematical design of galleries and 
passages in symmetry as beautiful as a spider's web, but this 
is all wrong. A French naturalist, Le Court, is said to have 
been the originator of this plan, which goes to show the 
danger of plagiarism. The nest consists of dry grass or 
leaves, whichever is most obtainable. The passages leading 
into it vary from one to five, but there are usually two or 
three on a level with one another, while another leads down- 
wards and all join the runs. 

The mole is polygamous. If you see a female hare running 
across a field and watch for a few minutes, you will soon 
observe a few others following in its spoor. In the same way 
in the breeding season the mole-catcher often catches several 
males in one run. During this period there are many fights 
between males. This is evidenced by the fur on the breast 
being scratched at this time, most likely by the forefeet. The 
skin on the breast is very thick. Young moles are occasion- 
ally noticed in the autumn, but whether there are two litters 
in a season is not quite certain. If the district is what is 
technically known as " dirty," only two or three are born ; 
but if " clean," as many as four to six. There are six teats 
on the female. 

During the breeding season it is rather curious that for a 
fortnight or so only males are caught, and it would appear 
that the females hide themselves. But immediately following 
this the males seem to retire from public life, and in their 
turn females for a like period are the only moles caught. 
The mole has been said to leave its runs in hot summer 
nights, but this is questionable. With few exceptions they 
pass their lives under the soil. One exception I have already 
mentioned. Another is after the young have grown to 
maturity they get notice to quit. If they do not depart, the 
male immediately kills them. In their haste to escape some 
of these young moles arrive at the top, where they fall a prey 
to their enemies the weasel, the hooded crow, and the jay. 
This seemingly cruel proceeding is of course necessary, as the 
food-supply required must in the case of a family be very 
great. As a rule, moles live singly, and it is only in the 

1900-1901.] The Mole. 155 

early spring that there is any intercommunication. How 
long they live has not been ascertained. Their numbers are, 
however, great. In a " dirty " piece of ground as many as 
112 have been caught in a day. 

A rather curious coincidence might be remarked here. The 
worm, as you know, is very useful for disintegrating the soil. 
The mole, its natural enemy, carries on the same work, and 
so the balance of nature is maintained. 

The enemies of the mole, I have said, are the weasel, the 
hooded crow, and the jay. In its endeavours to reach its prey 
the weasel enters the runs, and to avoid it the mole burrows 
fresh ones, throwing the earth behind itself and sometimes 
digging perpendicularly downwards. 

Some of you will perhaps wonder why the farmer should 
have such an antipathy to moles, seeing that they are not 
vegetable eaters, but feed exclusively on worms, insects, grubs, 
and the like. In a field with young turnips great injury is 
caused to the crop by drought, the runs of the mole along the 
drills over the field acting as so many tunnels, depriving the 
plant of moisture. In the case of young grass, injury is 
caused by the mole-hills covering the field, and rotting out the 
grass. In pasture each mole-hill simply deprives the sheep of 
so much grazing, and the mole is of course partial to the 
richest bits of the land where its food is most plentiful. 
When, therefore, there are numbers of moles on a farm, it is a 
very material loss. On the moors, too, it is troublesome on 
account of filling up the surface-drains made to carry away 
the water. In its progress it of course takes the easiest way, 
and when it accidentally feels the soil easier on the side of 
the water-channel it takes its course parallel with that, turning 
the soil into it. On the other hand, it carries on a good work 
in keeping down insects which might grow too plentiful and 
be very injurious to crops, &c. Whether we would benefit by 
its extermination is an open question. In Scotland, however, 
it is destroyed on almost every occasion. 

The diseases of a mole is a difficult matter to say anything 
on. Being treated as vermin, there is not much consideration 
given to this, but it is known that by their promiscuity they 
contract a venereal disease which dispenses with the services 
of a mole-catcher ; and of course they are subject to parasitic 

156 The Mole. [Sess. 

insects such as the Pulicidse. It is also known that they are 
troubled with the cystic form of a tape- worm, which you are 
aware requires two hosts. 

There are three ways of destroying moles : by strychnine, 
by laudanum, and by traps. The strychnine method is to 
apply it to a worm and then to insert the worm into a run. 
That by means of laudanum is to pour laudanum into the run 
and cover the orifice quickly. The common way is by a trap, 
which usually strangulates the mole when caught. Sometimes 
the mole will not enter a trap, but will dig a run immediately 
round it. When it is difficult to catch, the strychnine worm 
is more generally resorted to. 

The fur of the mole is peculiar, inasmuch as, from its in- 
sertion in the skin, it can lie in any direction. Thus it is 
very useful to the animal in its runs. "Whether moving 
forward or backward, the fur assumes the direction in which 
it is stroked. 

The skin of the mole is not in great demand commercially, 
and consequently the mole-catcher throws the skins away, as 
they are hardly saleable at a halfpenny each. 

I have had the privilege of attending the burial of a mole. 
In my wanderings with the mole-catcher I have come across 
moles which, as I have remarked, are just dropped out of the 
traps and left to rot. In one case I remember we found that 
very interesting insect, the sexton beetle {Necrophorus vespillo), 
at work. It is perhaps not pertinent to the subject, but the 
mode of operation of this beetle might be mentioned. The 
burying beetles, having by their sense of smell located the 
carcass of a mole, rat, bird, or other small animal, proceed to 
scrape the soil at the side of the dead animal, which falls 
down as the earth is removed. The female beetle then lays 
her eggs in the body, where the grubs are hatched and live on 
the carrion. 

The description and habits of the mole I have described are 
those of the common species, Talpa europcea, in which consider- 
able variation in colouring is found to occur, such as sandy- 
brown, creamy-white, iron-grey, green-black, otherwise called 
mossy, blue-black, which is most common, piebald or black- 
and-white, black tipped with white hairs, and black with 
white belly, which colour points to its being a surface animal 

1900-1901.] Natural Forests and the Growth of Cones. 157 

originally, for surface animals are of lighter colouring on the 
belly than on the back. It is less disadvantage to the mole 
to depart from the ordinary colour than with other animals. 
An albino rabbit, being more conspicuous than an ordinary 
grey one, is consequently in more danger, but any colour to tbe 
mole in the dark is the same. 

The common mole ranges over the greater part of Europe 
and Asia north of the Himalayas, occurring as far eastwards 
as Japan, and it is also found in the Altai Mountains. It 
is said not to occur in Ireland. Dr Scharff of Dublin, con- 
firming this, tells me that tbe explanation usually given for 
its absence from that country is that the mole came to the 
British Islands from the Continent, but that Ireland was 
already separated from Great Britain when England was 
still connected with the Continent. 

Of the Talpidae there are something like a dozen repre- 
sentatives. All are limited to temperate regions of Europe, 
Asia, North America, and South Africa. The greater number 
of them have digging habits, but a few are aquatic and 
cursorial. The eyes of some are covered with skin, as in the 
Talpa cceca of Italy. 

In point of antiquity moles are very old, and their fossil 
remains have been found in the Tertiary strata of Europe. 

In conclusion, I should like to say that my contribution to 
this communication is infinitesimal compared with that of my 
friend Mr M'Leish, to whom I have already referred. 


By Mr S. ARCHIBALD, Tomatin, Inverness, 
Corresponding Member. 

{Read Dec. 26, 1900.) 

In ancient days, as every one knows, large tracts of this 
country were covered with dense woods, and when the Bomans 
invaded it they had to cut their way through the pathless 

158 Natural Forests and the Growth of Cones. [Sess. 

forests of Caledonia. Many changes have taken place since 
those days. These ancient forests were gradually cleared 
away to make room for corn-fields, and many generations of 
trees have been planted (on limited areas), have grown to 
maturity, and been cut down for their timber. On some 
parts of the Grampians " still stand " a few patches of " the 
forest primeval," and in many mosses the roots of trees, the 
remains of old forests, are found in abundance. A curious 
and interesting example of this was brought to light not far 
from here, when the new Aviemore and Inverness Railway 
was being made. East from Tomatin, and between it and 
The Slochd (slock), the railway passes through a deep cutting 
of moss and bluish clay. In the moss, which will be nearly 
10 feet deep, are the remains (tree roots standing in situ) of 
three successive forests. After the first one was cut down, a 
deep layer of moss had been formed completely covering the 
roots. On this a new forest had been planted, and so on, the 
third also being completely covered, the country for miles now 
presenting the appearance of an ordinary heath-covered moss, 
on the outskirts of which people have been cutting their peats 
for generations, I suppose. In many other mosses in this 
neighbourhood the roots of trees are quite common, but mostly 
of birch, of which there are large natural plantations and 
scattered trees in the glen, and these add much to its beauty. 
A number of thriving young plantations, mostly of fir, are 
rapidly growing up around, giving more beauty to the glen, as 
well as affording shelter for game ; and they will in course of 
time produce useful timber. These young forests afford good 
opportunities for the study of the growth of trees. 

The fir tree is monoecious (unisexual), the male and female 
flowers being separate, but on the same tree, though it is quite 
common to see a tree appropriated almost or altogether ex- 
clusively by flowers of one sex. The male or pollen-bearing 
flowers arrange themselves in dense spikes of very small 
catkins at the base of the part which has grown during the 
season, and preferably on trees where the season's growth on 
branches and branchlets is very short, and they shed their 
pollen in clouds, forming the well-known " sulphur " of rustics. 
The embryo female cones form close outside the buds on the 

1900- 1 9 o i .] Natural Forests and the Groivth of Cones. 159 

top of the season's growth, singly, or in two's or three's ; some- 
times more. The female cones require three summers to come 
to maturity, growing to about the size of peas the first year, 
to their full size the second year, and in the third the scales 
become dry and open out to allow the now ripened seeds to 
escape, the cones at the same time dropping off. 

Cones seem to be plentiful all round this year (1900), and 
some trees are densely covered with them, in two's and three's 
and half-dozens, and frequently in large clusters, though none 
that have as yet come under my observation are equal to some 
that I saw in the fir woods of " The Mearns " nearly fifty 
years ago. They would contain fifty or sixty or more 
cones each, arranged in a dense spike nearly the whole length 
of the season's growth. Since then I have seen nothing to 
equal them, but this year the abundance of cones, and the 
prevalence of good-sized clusters or spikes, containing from 
ten to thirty or more cones each, form rather a remarkable 
feature, and seem worthy of being taken notice of by the 
naturalist. On the tree from which the specimens now 
exhibited were taken there were eight or ten good - sized 
clusters, and some larger ones are to be seen, but, being on 
central stems, could not be removed without spoiling the tree. 
One tree, besides bearing several such clusters, has at the tops 
of the same shoots large spikes of embryo cones, which promise 
to continue the feature for another season. In the few places 
in the neighbourhood where spruces have been planted and 
attained any considerable size, a great profusion of spruce 
cones is quite a feature almost every year. 

In connection with the foregoing, it may be noted that the 
past summer was a great fruit season. In this strath, black 
currants, which seem to be the chief fruit grown, were a 
heavy crop everywhere. In our own garden, 1074 feet 
above sea - level, the crop on the few bushes we have was 
extraordinary. On account of want of shelter from strong 
westerly winds, the bushes have to be pruned like goose- 
berry bushes, to keep them low and the branches strong ; 
but even with that, the branches had to be supported to 
prevent them being broken with the weight of fruit. 

In the case of either fruit bushes or trees, a season of 

160 Natural Forests and the Growth of Cones. [Sess. 

plenty (of fruit or cones) must be preceded by at least one 
good summer for ripening the wood and forming good buds. 
The summer of last year was such an one, having been 
warm on the whole, and very dry till the middle of October. 
What may follow this one it is hard to say, but all through 
it has been bad enough — wet, cold, and sunless ; and seem- 
ingly it means to keep up its character to the end of the 
year. Let us hope that the opening year of a new century 
may bring us something better. 

As regards the different kinds of conifers which grow and 
thrive in this district, I may add in conclusion that I visited 
lately Corrybrough, near Tomatin, where there is a large 
mansion - house with many fine trees growing around it. 
Accompanied by the gardener, who received me very kindly 
and lent me every assistance, I noted the following trees, all 
of which were strong and healthy, and evidently growing 
rapidly : — 

1. Sequoia gigantea, planted in 1872, now about 60 feet high, and 6 feet 

4 inches in circumference at 3 feet from the ground ; a grand 

2. Douglas Fir, about same age, nearly 40 feet high, and with an enor- 

mous spread of branches. 

3. Thuia Lobbi semper aurea. 

4. Thuia gigantea, a young tree, growing rapidly. 

5. Thuiopsis borealis ( = Cupressus Nootkatensis). 

6. Cupressus Lawsoniana elegans. 

7. Cupressus Lawsoniana, a seedling variety. 

8. Ketinispora, a young tree 4 feet high. 

9. Ketinispora plumosa aurea ( = Cupressus pisifera plumosa aurea). 

10. Pinus excelsa. 

11. Pinus cembra (Swiss Stone pine), a tree of considerable age, about 40 

feet high, the trunk nearly 2 feet in diameter, well shaped, and 
very dense ; a grand tree, said to be the second best of its kind in 
this part of the country. 

12. Firs in great variety, including silver fir. 

13. In nursery beds, numbers of young trees of most of the above species 

preparing for planting out, and all evidently thriving well. 

1900-190 1.] The Topography and Flora of Strathdearn. 161 


By Mr S. ARCHIBALD, Tomatin, Inverness, 
Corresponding Member. 

(Read Dec. 26, 1900.) 

Somewhat to the east of the middle of Inverness-shire a 
large area is covered by a billowy sea of mountains, called 
the Monadhliath (Mon-a-le'-a) Mountains, with many sum- 
mits, the highest, Carn Mairg, rising to a height of 3087 
feet. Down the steep sides of these mountains rush an 
immense number of small streams to form and to feed 
the Findhorn, which has a rapid course of about 70 miles 
in a N.N.E. direction. The Gaelic name of the river is 
Eire, genitive Eireann. Hence Strath(d)eireann, or Strath- 
dearn (the d being euphonic) is the valley of the Findhorn, 
the name being more particularly applied to the upper part. 
Dalarossie (pronounced Dal-ar'-os-sie) is Dail Fhearghuis, 
the Dulergusy of 1224-42, the "Dale of St Fergus," to 
whom the chapel there was dedicated. 

Near the middle of its course the Findhorn is crossed by 
the highroad from Perth to Inverness, and a little over half 
a mile farther down by the new Aviemore and Inverness 
Eailway, the former on a substantial iron girder bridge 
built in 1881, and the latter on an immense girder viaduct. 
The following notes apply to the part of the strath upwards 
from the highroad, from which a road leads up the glen for 
about fifteen miles. The whole of this part of the strath is 
essentially Highland. Where the glen road leaves the high- 
road, the elevation is about 980 feet ; at nine miles up it is 
1220 feet — a rise of about 240 feet. In the next six miles 
it rises 400 feet or more. For ten miles or so of this part 
of the strath there is a narrow strip of cultivated or cultiv- 
able land, with mountains rising abruptly on each side. Near 
this place (Dalarossie) the glen, which here lies E. and W., 
widens out considerably, sweeps round to the south, receiv- 
ing affluents from two tributary glens on the outside of the 

1 62 The Topography and Flora of Strathdearn. [Sess. 

curve, with farms and shooting-lodges around ; then through 
a narrow gorge with precipitous mountains on either side, 
which become higher and wilder as one advances up the 
glen. Some distance farther, or about nine miles from the 
high-road, one comes to another widening of the strath, 
surrounded by an amphitheatre of still higher mountains. 
This picturesque, peaceful-looking, and very secluded little 
valley is the abode of a colony of crofters, who all appear 
to be in comfortable circumstances. This and the previous 
expansion of the valley seem to be the beds of ancient lakes 
with the remains of the natural embankments which gave 
them being. Beyond the Coigs (the names of these crof- 
ters' homes all begin with Coig) the glen becomes wilder, 
and is entirely given up to game, one of the chief being 
deer. (The whole of this district is great in game.) A 
palatial shooting -lodge, with its electric light, &c, has 
recently been erected just about three miles short of the 
end of the road. 

The prevailing rock of the district is granite, of many varie- 
ties as to size of grain. A coarse kind of limestone is got in 
some of the hills near, but is not now worked, though not 
many years ago a good deal was quarried and burned, chiefly 
for manure ; and at each farm-steading, whether standing or in 
ruins, the remains of a lime-kiln are to be seen. 

Strathdearn, like Strathnaver and many other Highland 
glens, has become greatly depopulated within the last forty 
years or so ; but it seems to have come about more naturally 
than in the case of " Bonnie Strathnaver," about which the late 
Professor Blackie sang so touchingly. 

In a bend of the river three and a quarter miles up 
from the bridge on the highroad stands the half - ruinous 
parish church of Dalarossie, surrounded by its ancient burying- 
ground. In the churchyard there is a stone of very great 
interest, but whose history it is not easy to read. In shape it 
is a roughly made circular basin about 18 inches wide inside, 
and at present it is sunk in the ground in an unused part of 
the burying-ground nearly to the level of the brim. From 
what was said before, it will be seen that Dalarossie (Duler- 
gusy) dates from a remote time, and the popular tradition 
makes this stone to have been the font for the " holy water " 

1 900-190 1. J The Topography and Flora of Strathdcarn. 163 

in the days of old when the Eoman Catholic religion was the 
religion of the country. 

In the days of witchcraft, Dalarossie churchyard was con- 
sidered a very holy spot — sufficiently so to afford sanctuary to 
the spirits of the unfortunate creatures who had sold them- 
selves to his satanic majesty, if, after quitting connection with 
their mortal bodies, they could but reach the holy spot before 
being caught by their master. A story is told of one notorious 
witch, who lived at Laggan in Strathspey, and who in her life- 
time had done an enormous amount of mischief. On her 
demise her spirit-form made for Dalarossie churchyard, distant 
about fifty miles, with all the speed of which she was capable, 
thinking to cheat her master of his due ; but, mounted on the 
proverbial black steed, and accompanied by his faithful hounds, 
he was soon after her in full cry, and caught her just outside 
the gate of the sanctuary. 

Of the flora, which is, of course, of a sub-alpine character, 
I have not made anything like an exhaustive study, but 
endeavour to keep my eyes open as far as possible for any- 
thing that is rare or interesting — and it would be a very poor 
locality indeed that did not yield a considerable number of 
interesting subjects, and perhaps a rare one here and there. 
As there is " nocht like Heelant heather," we will begin with 
this most plentiful production of all our Highland mountains, 
and even of our Lowland plains, but which is beautiful every- 
where. There is no need for me to enlarge on the charms 
which it imparts to the landscape wherever found. Erica 
cinerea and E. tetralix are also plentiful, the latter, with its 
lovely waxy bells, growing in great profusion on some of the 
places on the hills where we cut our peats. Native birch, 
I need hardly say, is abundant. Juniper is quite a feature, 
some slopes being almost completely covered with it. It 
may be noted that juniper belongs to the Coniferae, and that, 
like fir cones, the juniper berries take three years to ripen. 
Another shrub worthy of note for the profusion in which 
it grows " down the country " is Myrica gale. On the hills 
around, Loiseleura (Azalea) is plentiful. In spring and early 
summer, primroses are abundant, followed by Anemone and 
Trientalis. By the river there is abundance of Trollius, Ger- 
anium sylvaticum, and here and elsewhere Carduus hetero- 

164 The Topography and Flora of Strathdearn. [Sess. 

phyllus rears its lordly head. By the side of the river are also 
to be found, but sparingly, Saxifraga stellaris and Oxyria 
reniformis. Parnassia and Menyanthes, the two rival belles 
in the floral world, are frequently met with. While admiring 
to the full the exceeding loveliness of each, there is another 
flower with whose beauty I was much struck when I met with 
it (for the first and only time) in a wood in Ayrshire, and 
which in my opinion will make a very close third. I refer 
to Cephalanthera ensifolia, with its graceful, sword- shaped 
leaves (as its name implies) and handsome spike of pure 
white flowers. Of the Orchis family in this district I have 
noted Orchis maculata in great profusion, Gymnadenia fre- 
quent, Habenaria bifolia and H. albida sparingly, and a few 
plants of the rare Malaxis. Drosera rotundifolia, Pinguicula 
vulgaris, and Narthecium ossifragum are plentiful. This past 
summer I noticed growing by the roadside a few plants of 
Pedicularis sylvatica with pure white flowers. In autumn 
Scabiosa succisa is abundant everywhere in great variety of 
colour, occasionally white. White bluebells are also met with 
sometimes. (I always look with great interest at white speci- 
mens of our native flora whose normal colour is a dark hue. 
Some other plants which I have noticed with white flowers are 
Agraphis in Fife, Geranium sylvaticum in Pitroddie Den above 
Errol, and Digitalis near Kilmalcolm in Eenfrewshire.) 

The most interesting fern I have observed is Botrychium 
(Moonwort), of which there are a few plants in and around 
our school-grounds here, and plenty in an old pasture half a 
mile away. 

Of Lycopods, L. clavatum and L. alpinum are plentiful, and 
L. Selago and Selaginella selaginoides frequent. Equisetums 
are represented by E. arvense, E. sylvaticum, and others. 
Mosses, especially the commoner Hypnums, are in strong 
evidence. So are also the Sphagnums in our peat-mosses, 
and many other genera and species in their proper localities. 

Although I do not know much of birds, I have, noticed 
several pairs of bullfinches, and for the first time have seen 
the night-jar. 

Altogether, from what I have observed in a cursory way, 
Strathdearn seems to present a good field of observation and 
study for the naturalist. 

1900-1901.] A Geological Trip. 165 


{Read Feb. 6, 1901.) 

Far away in the north-west of Scotland we have exposed to 
view some of the very oldest rocks, geologically speaking, that 
are to be found in the world. In addition to this, great dis- 
location and overthrusting of the strata have taken place in 
this district, which has had the effect of complicating in a very 
great degree the geological study of the rocks. The tract of 
country to which I allude stretches in a narrow strip from a 
little to the east of Cape Wrath — namely, Whitten Head on 
Loch Emboli — to the island of Skye. It was known for a long 
time as the " Secret of the Highlands," and for many years 
baffled the ingenuity of geologists, though you may be sure 
many and arduous attempts were made to solve the problem. 
Within comparatively recent years the puzzle has been in a 
great measure cleared up, and the country carefully mapped. 
It was only by persistent study, sheer hard work, untiring in- 
dustry, and careful attention to minute detail that this was 
accomplished. The names of those who took part in this great 
work are well known, and it is unnecessary for me to attempt 
to assign individual merit where all have shone conspicuously. 
They have made for themselves a monument more enduring 
than brass. 

It was the desire to study this interesting district that took 
me northwards in the summer of 1895 to spend a nine days' 
holiday, all too short for the purpose, in going over a portion 
of the country now so well mapped out, and especially that 
part which has been affected by earth movements. Fig. 1 is 
a sketch-map of the part visited. To get there, the usual 
course is to take train by the Highland Eailway vid Inver- 
ness to Lairg, and there to take a place in the mail-cart, which 
goes daily from that place to Lochinver on the west coast. 
The distance from Lairg to Aultnacallagach is about twenty- 
iive miles. In the first part of the drive the country is fairly 


1 66 A Geological Trip. [Sess. 

wooded and interesting, but after six miles or so are passed we 

Fig. I. — Sketch-map of District. 

get out on to the open moorland, a dreary heath-covered waste 

1900-1901.] A Geological Trip. 167 

with little to break the monotony. The underlying rocks of 
the whole of this district consist of plicated and drawn out 
schistose rocks (Plate XIV. 1), the geological age of which 
still remains undetermined. At Oykell Bridge, where there is 
an inn for the accommodation of salmon-fishers, we cross the 
Oykell river, a swiftly flowing stream, which has eaten for itself 
a channel in these same rocks. They are well exposed on its 
banks. In process of time Aultnacallagach is reached. It is 
neither a town nor a village, but consists of an inn with a 
wooden annex, stables, a few sheds, and perhaps two or three 
cottages. The accommodation is good and the fare excellent. 
Situated close to the margin of Loch Borrolan, with the high- 
way only between, and the great mass of Cnoc-an-Sroine rising 
behind, the name Aultnacallagach means the burn of the 
deceiver. I found it to be a great place for trout- fishing, and 
several gentlemen were staying at the hotel for that express 
purpose. The sport is excellent, as there are about five lochs 
connected with the hotel. When we became acquainted, we 
had many disputes regarding the merits of fishing on the one 
hand and the study of geology on the other as a means of 
spending a holiday. I was in a very small minority, but 
stuck to my guns with determination, and endeavoured to show 
that I had the advantage, 1st, financially, and 2nd, in the en- 
during results when the holiday was finished. 

One great advantage of Aultnacallagach is the long daylight 
in summer. It has a few drawbacks, however. The weather, 
which I found to be exceedingly capricious, limited my excur- 
sions considerably. Then another and formidable foe appeared 
in the form of the light and airy midge, also in the more cum- 
brous but not much more venomous clegg. I had not 
reckoned with these interesting parties when I laid my plans, 
and suffered severely in consequence. However, one of my 
fishing friends had a bottle of a compound the name of which 
spelt death to any midge that had the hardihood to absorb the 
least particle of it into his system. This compound is to be 
freely rubbed over the skin, and it will entirely prevent 
midges biting at all. I don't know much about insects per- 
sonally, — I am afraid my energies have been rather exerted to 
compass their destruction than to study their anatomy. I was 
assured, however, by my friend that the usual tactics of the 

1 68 A Geological Trip. [Sess. 

insect in question were as follows : The midge first finds a man, 
and, after expressing his delight, he settles on his victim, but 
he does not bite straight away ; with a circumspection far 
beyond his years, he gives a lick first. " Taste and try before 
you buy " is his motto. I was assured that, after this prelim- 
inary test had been applied, if there was no liniment as a 
protection, the next act on the part of the midge was the 
prompt insertion of a set of fangs, rendered doubly sharp by a 
healthy appetite ; and the unhappy tourist had to carry the 
marks of the onslaught some few days before they disappeared. 
I gladly took advantage of the remedy, and had much cause 
to be thankful, for in many places one could positively feel 
the clouds of insects pass like cobwebs over the face when 

We shall now look at the geology of the district broadly 
(fig. 1). To the west, for the most part, lie the rolling plains 
of the archaean gneiss, the most ancient rock of which we have 
any record. Upon this, as we move eastwards, we find the 
Torridon sandstone, lying in patches, and rising into many 
separate, rather conical, and high mountains, such as Quinag, 
Canisp, Suilven, Coulmore, Coulbeg, and Stack Polly. These 
mountains, from their peculiar position and shape, have a 
remarkable appearance, particularly Suilven and Canisp, which 
can be well seen in the vicinity of Aultnacallagach. There 
they have stood through countless ages, weather-beaten and 
scarred, the hoary sentinels of that rock-bound coast. Still 
going eastwards, we come to a series of rocks whose outcrop is 
sinuous, but the strike runs in a direction from N.N.E. to S.S.W. 
They consist, first, of a band of quartzites, then the fucoid 
beds ; above these the serpulite grits ; and then, above all, a 
considerable thickness of limestones. All these beds dip below 
the surface, at a low angle to the east. Just as we come upon 
the line of these rocks we find, on still going eastward, that 
they are very much broken up, scattered, and misplaced — 
indeed to such an extent that we find the archsean gneiss, un- 
doubtedly the oldest rock of all, in many places overlying the 
much younger limestones ; and many other curious inversions 
have taken place. This confusion in the rocks has been caused 
by great disturbances and a powerful thrusting movement from 
the east towards the west. It is as if the strata had been first 

1 900-190 1.] A Geological Trip. 169 

broken up by a powerful upbeaval and then pushed together 
like a pack of cards. The outcrops of three main lines of 
thrust, the maximum thrust planes, have been traced, the trun- 
cated edges of which are shown by the three black lines on 
the map. The lowest one is named the Glencoul thrust, as it 
is extremely well developed on the banks of Loch Glencoul. 
The next in order is the Ben More thrust, and is well dis- 
played in the vicinity of Ben More of Assynt. The third 
thrust plane is called the Moine thrust, because it brings the 
Moine schists which lie to the east on to the top of the lime- 
stones in the Durness district. This thrust plane is well 
developed at the Knockan Cliff, a little to the south of the 
village of Elphin, and can be traced all the way from Whitten 
Head in the north to beyond Ullapool. You will observe that 
at the Knockan Cliff the three great thrust planes appear to 

Besides these three great maximum thrust planes there are 
others of less extent ; for when the great movements took 
place the friction along the sole of the thrust caused the rocks 
more nearly concerned to break up and fold over one another, 
producing a complicated series of major and minor thrusts. 
To the east of the outcrop of the last great thrust plane lie the 
Moine schists over many miles of country. To explain the 
matter more fully, I have prepared the following diagrams 
(fig. 2, A, B, 0, D), in which we shall trace roughly the build- 
ing up of the geological series in this district. Fig. 2, A takes 
us back to the time when the gneiss was the only rock in the 
place : here we see a section of it. It is usually supposed to 
consist of a great mass of eruptive rocks of a more or less 
basic type. These have been foliated by powerful mechanical 
movements within the mass, which was afterwards invaded 
by numerous dykes of molten matter and again subjected to 
great shearing and crushing movements. Here we see it at 
the surface, the sea and atmospheric influences together re- 
ducing it to a plane of denudation. This rock, where it 
appears at the surface, now produces a typical scenery. It 
forms rolling tracts of hummocky rock, mostly low- lying, as in 
Barra, but sometimes rising as high as 600 or 700 feet, as at 
Lochinver. The surface exposed by the old gneiss now is 
probably little different from that left by the old plane of 


A Geological Trip. 


SEA LE-v£i_ 


5"f«Pl/L/TE- GfllT- ■ . ' . ■ 

. . » •.■ 



ST- ~ 

-I=-~- FOCO/O BeOS (iJif/.fu(,.5) 


- - — : 

- r^ — ■- " 


1 1 1 1 

1 ' ', 1 ' ' 

', ' ,' i ' i i ' 'i ' Pire-o oM«T2irf ',i. 


"".'-'.'/ 'i" 

',' »'.',», V 

quarti i re 

Fig. 2. — Building up of Geological Series. 

1 900-190 1.] A Geological Trip. 171 

denudation previously referred to, the smooth rounded ap- 
pearance it now has being impressed upon it by severe glacia- 
tion in the Ice period. Where the rock has been exposed to 
recent prolonged denudation it breaks up into wild crags, as 
can be seen on the west coast line. Geikie describes gneiss as 
a schistose aggregate of orthoclase, quartz, and mica, with bands 
of hornblende schist, actinolite schist, mica schist, &c, and 
varying in texture from a fine-grained rock up to a coarse 
crystalline mass. Plate XIV. 2 gives a hand specimen, 
showing but little sign of foliation. A banded specimen is 
shown in Plate XV. 1, the dark bands being composed of horn- 
blende or some allied mineral. 

The second diagram (fig. 2, E) shows the levelled platform 
of gneiss being gradually submerged, and being covered, as it 
sinks, with a series of rocks composed of conglomerates and 
fine sandstones, in layers, and of great thickness, some 
thousands of feet. These are the Torridon sandstones. From 
their general appearance they must have been accumulated at 
a fairly rapid rate, as broken and not much weathered crystals 
of felspar are frequent. They probably represent an extensive 
lacustrine deposit. No distinct fossils have yet been found. 
The sandstones contain many pebbles derived from the gneiss 
itself, and also many of quartzite, &c. Plate XV. 2 is a 
specimen obtained from the base of the series on the shore of 
Loch-an-Fada, on the slopes of Suilven. After these sand- 
stones had obtained their full thickness the land rose again 
above the level of the water, was bent into gentle folds so that 
the sandstones were tilted at low angles to the horizontal, and 
the whole mass was subjected to an enormously long period of 
denudation, during which, over wide areas, the sandstones were 
completely removed from the underlying gneiss. Subsidence 
again took place, and we see, as in the diagram fig. 2, C, the 
tilted and denuded ends of the Torridon sandstones, and the 
exposed gneiss being overlaid by a great series of rocks, which 
lie unconformably along the upturned edges of the tilted sand- 
stones. The internal evidence afforded by this fresh series of 
rocks points to the conclusion that the subsidence was more 
rapid this time, and carried to a greater depth. The first 
layer, basal quartzite, is composed of a rough quartz con- 
glomerate (Plate XIV. 3), 200 to 300 feet thick. Above this 

172 A Geological Trip. [Sess. 

is another layer, 200 to 300 feet thick, composed largely of 
fine white quartzite, so white and pure that it looks like loaf- 
sugar, and has had the term " saccharoidal " applied to it. In 
many parts it has a pink or reddish colour. In this series 
occurs the famous piped quartzite (Plate XIV. 4, 5), the 
pipes heing composed of a quartzite somewhat harder than 
the matrix. They are supposed to mark former worm- 
burrows in the rocks, as they were being deposited in the 
soft state at the bottom of the sea. These markings are very 
abundant, and are a characteristic feature of the quartzites. 
Plate XIV. 6 shows a " pipe " in longitudinal section. Above 
the layer of piped quartzites appear a series called the fucoid 
beds, 40 to 50 feet in thickness — so called from certain 
peculiar markings which the earlier geologists took for sea- 
weeds. These marks are now understood to represent the 
flattened castings of the various worms that swarmed at that 
period (Plate XV. 3). 

The careful examination of these beds, which are composed 
of calcareous shales and sandstones, with bands of rusty dolo- 
mite, has afforded evidence which establishes with a fair degree 
of certainty the true geological position of these rocks. Ee- 
mains of trilobites have been found, and of one especially, 
termed Olenellus, which is particularly characteristic of rocks 
of Lower Cambrian age — that is to say, about as ancient as 
the lowest sedimentary rocks in Wales, and long supposed to 
be the very oldest. You will see the importance of this 
discovery : it stamps these series of rocks, beginning with the 
basal quartzites, as being of Lower Cambrian age (fig. 2, C) ; 
and you will have observed that these rocks lie unconform- 
ably on the edges of the Torridon sandstones ; and when you 
regard the enormous interval between the time the Torridon 
sandstones were laid down and the time when the quartzites 
were commenced, you may be able to form some slight con- 
ception of the venerable antiquity of these sandstones. In 
fact, as far as I am aware, they represent the oldest water-laid 
rock, of which we have certain knowledge, in the world. 

Above the fucoid beds we come to the band called the 
serpulite grit, thirty feet or so in thickness, which marks a 
shallowing for the time being of the sea where it was deposited. 
It is composed of massive grit, and in many parts the remains 

1 900-190 1.] A Geological Trip. 173 

of serpulites are found — i.e., the little calcareous cases of a 
small species of worm (Plate XVII. 1). You may examine this 
rock over wide areas and find nothing to speak of in the way 
of serpulites, but in some places it is crowded with them. 
This specimen, which I secured on the road between Aultna- 
callagach and Inchnadamff, close to a small loch called Loch 
Awe, you see is crowded with the little fossils, and looks 
almost like a piece of ripe stilton cheese. I happened to come 
across a portion of this rock in a burn called Allt-an-Uamh, 
where it had been invaded by a dyke of basic igneous rock. 
Contact metamorphism had taken place, and the grit, 
which is here free from serpulites, was fused into a kind of 
bluish glass. Above the serpulite grits (fig. 2, C) come a 
series of limestones, probably laid in deep sea water, 200 to 
400 feet thick, Various fossils have been found in this 
series, but only at Durness. Formerly considered to be of 
Lower Silurian age, but now regarded as Cambrian, most of 
the beds are traversed by worm-casts in such a way that 
nearly every particle must have passed through the intestines 
of worms. It is seen in great thickness in the great limestone 
plateau at Inchnadamff. A few scattered cottages and the 
hotel comprise the little hamlet which is picturesquely 
situated at the southern extremity of Loch Assynt. The 
great thickness of the limestone here is due to the piling 
up of the strata due to overthrusts. Now referring to 
fig. 2 D again, we see that the land had been again tilted, 
and in such a way as to bring the Torridon sandstones 
back to their original level position, while all the overlying 
beds now dip away to the east at a low angle. That is 
roughly the position that they occupy now ; but towards the 
east, as before mentioned, great dislocations, upheavals, and 
thrusts have taken place, and the broken-up mass has been 
pushed forward from east to west and piled up in lines, as I 
showed you before, marked by the outcrop of the three 
principal thrust planes — the Glencoul, the Ben More, and the 
Moine. The next diagram will make this clear (fig. 3). This 
diagram gives a section from Quinag east by Achumore, 
Glasven, Ben Uidhe, and head of Glen Beg, covering a distance 
of about seven miles. There are two of the great thrust planes 
shown here — that of Glencoul at the foot of Glasven, and of 


A Geological Trip. 


Ben More at the head of Glen Beg. We can see in this 
section how the long band of quartzites lying on the archaean 

gneiss, which in its 
normal position should 
be continued under- 
ground, dipping to the 
east, has been brought 
up to the surface, and 
with it great masses 
of the gneiss. The 
figure plainly shows 
how the whole up- 
heaved mass has been 
thrust forward along 
definite thrust planes, 
till the quartzites and 
limestones to the west 
have been completely 
overwhelmed, and we 
find the anomaly in 
the field of the older 
rocks superimposed on 
those of a much later 
date geologically. This 
magnificent section can 
be well seen at Inch- 
nadamff, and gives to 
the eye the impression 
of a great range of 
mountains which has 
been brought bodily 
forward. I believe 
these great disturb- 
ances are supposed to 
have taken place 
about the time that 
the volcanoes of the 
Lower Old Ked Sand- 
stone period were 
pouring out their lavas, which are to be seen so largely 

1900-1901.] A Geological Trip. 175 

represented in the Ochil Hills and in the Pentlands near 
here. When we look at the magnitude of these great 
earth movements, we can well understand that the rocks 
in the immediate vicinity of the thrust planes themselves 
must have been much altered in their structure by the grind- 
ing and crushing process to which they have been subjected. 
Such is indeed the case, but in the limits of these short notes 
I do not intend to enter into particulars of change of mineral 
character, but merely to show you a few of the specimens 
of various kinds that I obtained from under the three great 
thrust planes. 

Quite close to Aultnacallagach a considerable patch of 
igneous rock occurs which bears the name of Borrolanite 
(Plate XVI. 2). It has been much sheared by movements 
between the Ben More thrust and the Moine thrust. You 
will easily observe the pulled-out appearance of the white 
crystals of felspar. On the shores of Loch Cama, about 
three miles west of Aultnacallagach, we can see the 
quartzites much affected by the Glencoul thrust (Plate XV. 
5). This specimen is much slickensided, and the mass of 
it so broken up that a slight tap with the hammer would 
suffice to smash it in pieces. Turning now to the S.W., 
we pursue our way through the little village of Elphin for 
an additional three and a half miles till we arrive at the 
famous Knockan Cliff, where the Moine thrust is so well 
displayed. Here, immediately under the Moine schists, 
are the crushed and torn limestones turned almost into a 
kind of marble by the treatment they have undergone 
(Plate XVI. 1). You will observe in this specimen the 
peculiar brecciated appearance suggestive of crushing and 
grinding. Here is another specimen of limestone (Plate 
XV. 4) from the same locality. It is weathered on the 
surface, and shows in rather a striking way two separate 
lines of movement to which it has been subjected. 

On the way back to Aultnacallagach we shall turn nearly 
a mile out of our way on the road towards Inchnadamff to 
visit the Ledbeg marble. This is a case of contact meta- 
morphism. The limestones have, by the intense heat of the 
large intrusive mass of igneous rock which forms the bulk 
of the hill Cnoc-an-Sroine, been converted into marble of 

176 A Geological Trip. [Sess. 

singular purity and whiteness — the well-known Ledbeg 
marble (Plate XVI. 3). 

To the east of Aultnacallagach, say about three miles, is a 
little loch called Loch Ailsh. It lies in a valley just under 
the Moine thrust plane, and in its vicinity the action of the 
great thrust on the limestones can be well studied. There 
you see them sticking up out of the ground like flagstones, 
sheared and drawn out till they are quite fissile, like shales, 
and subjected to such intense pressure that in many parts 
they are converted into fine white marble (Flaser marble) 
(Plate XVI. 4). You can see in this specimen how the 
marble tends to split along certain planes. Plate XV. 6 
is another specimen of sheared limestone from the same 
place. Another rock there is in this place, evidently a 
limestone at one time, into which had been intruded a 
dyke of ultra-basic igneous rock. This rock had been much 
serpentinised, and when the thrust took place, limestone and 
dyke became inextricably mixed, the limestone being changed 
into white marble, the serpentine retaining its green colour, 
and the whole having somewhat the appearance of a pot 
of white paint into which a little green pigment had been 
stirred, but yet not enough to mix it properly (Plate XVI. 
5, 6). 

I have just one more specimen to show you : it is a piece 
of the crumpled schist from the Moine thrust at the same 
spot (Plate XVII. 2). This concludes these few notes on a 
district of great interest, and I trust, though they have 
been of necessity rather rambling and diffuse, they have 
been sufficient to show that any one with a geological 
turn can spend as much time as he has to spare, with 
profit, in the places spoken of. He will also bring home 
more luggage than he started with. His boots will probably 
be down at heel and pretty well used up, but his brains 
will be brightened and his experience considerably enlarged. 

On account of the death of her Majesty Queen Victoria 
on the 22nd January 1901, the meeting of the Society called 
for the 23rd January was postponed until the 6th February, 

PLATE XIV.— A Geological Trip. 

PLATE XVI.-A Geological trip. 

1900-1901.] Mushroom- Culture. 177 

when the above paper by Mr T. C. Day was read. At the 
same meeting Mr A. Murray contributed a paper on the 
Plane-tree ; and Mr Charles P. Hobkirk, F.L.S., a corres- 
ponding member of the Society, submitted a communication 
as to the finding of a moss new to the British flora — viz., 
Tortula cermia (Hueb.), Lindb. This latest addition to our 
British mosses was found by Mr George Webster, of York, 
at the end of September 1900, in the West Kiding of 
Yorkshire, in small quantity only, on the magnesian lime- 
stone near Aberford. It was stated that " now that 
attention has been called to it, . . . it may be detected 
by some of our active bryologists in other districts of Great 
Britain ; but as it ripens its fruit in summer, it could 
hardly be recognised during the winter and spring months." 



Manager, Scottish Mushroom Company, Limited, 
Scotland Street Station, Edinburgh. 

{Read Feb. 27, 1901.) 

When I was asked to give a paper on mushroom-culture, I 
willingly consented, if the Society would accept one dealing 
chiefly with its commercial aspect. My friend Mr Malthouse 
will follow me with a paper of a strictly scientific nature on 
the same subject, and will be able, I have no doubt, to give us 
some valuable information. In dealing with my own theme, — 
that of mushroom-culture,— I shall confine my remarks to the 
Agaricus campestris, that being the only mushroom which is 
cultivated in this country. There are many other kinds which 
are pleasant to eat, some of them holding a higher place in the 
estimation of epicures, but as a universally appreciated 
mushroom the true meadow mushroom bears the palm. I am 
not aware that the effort has ever been made to cultivate any 

178 Mushroom-Culture. [Sess. 

other variety, the Agaricus campestris being the kind most 
desired. It is rather a curious fact that in Eome what we 
call toadstools are freely eaten, and the meadow mushroom is 
held in abhorrence. Nothing can convey the hatred of one 
Italian towards another more than by expressing a wish that 
he may die of a pratiolo (meadow mushroom). 

It is unnecessary to enter into any detailed account of the 
many kinds of mushrooms. No doubt you are well aware 
that many so-called poisonous ones are really quite harmless, 
but, owing to popular ignorance, are left to waste instead of 
being utilised as an article of food. Still, it is hard to under- 
stand the reasons which influenced the authorities at Eome to 
issue a command that all meadow mushrooms should be thrown 
into the Tiber. 1 It is true that at Eome there is a plentiful 
supply of Agaricus Ccesareiis, certainly the most delicious of 
all mushrooms, but even that does not justify the severe con- 
demnation of A. campestris. 

With such diverse opinions we do not intend to intermeddle 
at present, but will proceed to give a plain account of our 
mode of cultivating the mushroom from a commercial point of 
view. One of the first considerations is the kind of place 
proper to grow them. In the tunnel at Scotland Street we 
consider that we have an ideal place. It realises effectually 
all the conditions required : lstly, evenness of temperature ; 
2ndly, humidity; and 3rdly, absence of light. This last 
element may be disputed as not absolutely required, but ex- 
perience convinces us that it is a great assistance to the 
growth of mushrooms. Without these three essentials only 
a qualified amount of success need be looked for. 

In order that mushroom-growing be successful from a money 
point of view, it is further necessary that a command of a steady 
supply of manure be assured. This can only be done by being 
contiguous to a large town. To attempt growing mushrooms 
at a distance from a large town would so increase the cost of 
the material by extra haulage and cartage, that it would 

1 ' ' The stale funguses of the preceding day, as well as those that are mouldy, 
bruised, filled with maggots, or dangerous, together with any specimens of the 
common mushroom detected in the baskets, shall be thrown into the Tiber." — 
From the Rules of the Inspeitore dei Funghi at Rome. 

1900-1901.] Mushroom- Culture. 179 

hardly compensate any one to attempt it. In such a place as 
Edinburgh, and with such a ready access to the Scotland 
Street tunnel by rail, we can always command a large supply 
of manure, and so the initial cost is much lightened. In the 
works there all the manure is taken down by rail to the sheds 
at Warriston. It is then unloaded and put through a course 
of turning. First, the long straw is all taken out, and the 
manure allowed to lie for a day or two. It is then again 
very carefully turned over, and this operation is repeated three 
or four times, as required, in order to allow the extreme heat 
to escape. When the heat is sufficiently reduced the manure 
is then loaded into trucks, and taken up the tunnel by the 
engine to the place where the beds are to be made. It is then 
unloaded, and the making of the beds is at once proceeded with. 
To do this different growers adopt different methods. In our case 
we have a mould the exact size of the bed, open at the top, into 
which the manure is thrown and pressed down hard. When 
the mould is full it is lifted off, and the bed is then seen to be 
made. We make our beds 12 feet long by 2 \ feet high and 
3 feet broad at base, tapering upwards so that at the top each 
bed is only about 1 8 inches broad. The beds are laid trans- 
versely in the tunnel. When in full operation we have 800 
beds, giving a surface measurement of about 1§ acres. The 
tunnel is 1200 yards long, about 21 feet high, and 24 feet 

After the bed has been made by the mould it is left for a 
few days in order to allow it to gradually lower its temperature, 
for if the bed were spawned immediately after being made, 
the heat would burn the spawn and render it useless. The 
scientific mode of determining when the bed is ready for the 
spawn is by using a thermometer, when the heat should be 
about 90°. But for all practical purposes the right tempera- 
ture can be decided by inserting a stick into the bed, allowing 
it to lie for a minute, and then withdrawing it and feeling the 
heat by the hand. The spawn is then broken up into the 
proper sizes, and inserted after a hole has been dibbled in the 

The bed is now ready for soiling, a duty which has to 
be very carefully done. We find it advisable to procure the 

l8o Mushroom-Culture. [Sess. 

very best soil, which in a district such as this is not a difficult 
matter. Before using it we have it thoroughly broken up and 
disintegrated, so as to be free from lumps and all foreign 
matter. It is then carefully put on by hand and a coating of 
about 2 J inches applied. The bed is now completed and 
awaits developments. 

I need hardly refer here to the common idea that 
mushrooms grow up in a night. This idea is erroneous, as 
under the most favourable circumstances they take from a 
month to six weeks to mature. The heat of the manure 
begins to work on the spawn, and gradually the mycelium, 
which is seen as a white, streaky matter in the spawn when 
first placed on the beds, begins to soften, and appears by-and- 
by as a thick viscous substance, which creeps all over the beds 
under the soil, and in course of time finds its way up through 
the covering of earth, by an enormous latent force bursting the 
soil, which is very firmly packed. Small dots, not larger than 
a pin-point, then appear, and from that time onward very 
rapid progress is made. Daily a great difference is seen, until 
in about a fortnight — sometimes only a week — mushrooms 
ready for the market are obtained. 

It is not a necessity to the grower that he should have a 
knowledge of the life-history of the mushroom. What the 
spawn is botanists hardly know yet. We can see the spores 
through the microscope, but cannot tell their history. Suffi- 
cient for us to know where to procure good spawn, and 
experience soon teaches us how to get the best results 
from it. 

It is a peculiar fact that, although the mushroom throws off 
innumerable spores, yet commercially they are not adopted as 
the foundation in making spawn. The spawn as used by 
makers is found in mill-tracks, riding-schools, in pastures — in 
fact, wherever horse-manure is found in a dry state ; and in 
its midst there is found an article which is converted into a very 
valuable property. A small piece of virgin spawn is worth a 
large sum of money. When the spawn is found the manu- 
facturer takes a very small quantity of it and mixes it 
thoroughly in a mass of horse- and cow -dung and road- 
scrapings. When it is thus distributed over the whole mass 

1 900-190 1.] Mushroom-Culture. 181 

it is formed into bricks. If the spawn is of good quality 
these bricks are quite sufficient to supply the beds with seed 
sufficient for the usual life of a bed, and will produce a large 
crop of mushrooms. It is very important that one should be 
able to judge one's spawn, as very inferior stuff is often put on 
the market, with the result that failure is writ large. More- 
over, mushrooms will not grow — I am speaking in a com- 
mercial sense — in a dry locality. There have been many 
instances in our own neighbourhood of practical gardeners 
being tempted to grow them owing to our success and a 
market having been created for them, but their efforts have 
been comparatively futile. 

As some of you are aware, we have had to suffer the 
presence of a blight, which might have discouraged many. 
For some years we have been contending against it, groping in 
the dark both as to its cause and its remedy. At present we 
have the promise of a cure. Able experts have been devoting 
a great deal of time to its investigation, and Mr Malthouse 
will tell you the result of his labours. Our success as mush- 
room growers naturally attracted the attention of all interested 
in the subject, both botanically and otherwise. When we 
began business fourteen years ago, the mushroom trade depended 
largely on French importations, and found an easy market. 
At the present time it would be as difficult to find French 
mushrooms on the market as it was to find English ones at 
that time. A comparison of any sample of French production 
with our ordinary crop will easily explain the reason. Our 
output is large, but we have a good market for all we pro- 
duce. We have created a local traffic which is as steady 
as potatoes ; and but for the blight which has done us so 
much harm, we would no doubt have had " a guid conceit 
o' oorsels." 

It may be as well to say here — unless I am encroaching on 
Mr Malthouse's preserves — that the blight is not in any way 
caused by the conditions under which we grow mushrooms. 
If that had been so, we would have been compelled to retire 
beaten. We are satisfied that the blight has been introduced 
into the tunnel from the outside, and, having found a favourable 
resting-place, it is difficult to remove it. 

VOL. iv. 

1 82 A Mushroom Disease. [Sess. 


(Read Feb. 27, 1901.) 

I was asked last summer to examine the mushroom beds in 
Scotland Street Tunnel, Edinburgh, as they were attacked by 
a " blight." From the appearance of the mushrooms I felt con- 
vinced that the " blight " was due to the attacks of a fungus, 
and subsequent investigations have proved that this idea was 
correct. Mr Paton informed me that the disease first made 
its appearance in 1893, and since then it has spread through- 
out the whole tunnel, the loss caused by it being enormous. 
A year or two ago the Scottish Mushroom Company com- 
menced to grow crops in Law Tunnel, Dundee, but in a very 
short time the disease broke out in that place also, and it was 
recently closed for a time. The rapidity with which the 
fungus spread in such congenial surroundings was so alarming 
that the advice of experts was sought on every hand, and 
several recommendations for disinfecting the tunnel were 
made, but none have proved effectual up to the present time. 

The appearance of the disease in Law Tunnel, Dundee, is a 
point of great interest, for it illustrates in a very striking way 
how easily fungoid diseases like the one under notice can be 
spread. It is quite evident that the disease was carried to 
Dundee from Edinburgh by workmen who had been employed 
in Scotland Street Tunnel, and who took tools with them from 
Edinburgh. The tools and boots of the workmen would carry 
sufficient spores to give the fungus a good hold in the new 
tunnel as soon as operations commenced there. 

I have, as yet, been unable to work out the complete life- 
history of the fungus, and therefore only propose to describe 
the form in which it appears on the diseased mushrooms, and 
then give an account of the experiments made with fungicides 
with a view to stamping it out. The appearance of a bed of 
mushrooms attacked by this disease is very striking. Instead 
of the symmetrical form exhibited by sound specimens (fig. 1) 
diseased ones present many curious malformations (figs. 2-10). 
These malformations may be divided into three types : — 

1900-1901.] A Mushroom Disease. 183 

1. Mushrooms in which the stalk and cap are fully de- 

veloped, but are twisted and distorted, often appearing 
as if trodden upon. Fig. 3 is from a photograph of 
a clump of six mushrooms, and illustrates this type. 
In this type the stalk often splits open, and remains 
for a time after the cap is completely decayed 
(see fig. 4). 

2. In the second type the stalk and cap develop rather 

feebly at first, and growth soon ceases in the cap, 
but the stalk develops further and becomes con- 
siderably swollen, as in fig. 5. 

3. In the third type the mushrooms are completely hyper- 

trophied, there being no trace of stalk and cap, the 
mushrooms resembling round whitish balls, as shown 
in figs. 6 and 7. 
Although I have indicated three principal types of malformed 
mushrooms, there are a great many intermediate stages, as 
reference to figs. 8, 9, and 10 will show. The first and 
second types are combined in the clump shown in fig. 8. At 
the top is a mushroom belonging to type one, while all the 
others fall under the second category. Again, in fig. 9 the 
second and third types are represented on the left and right 
of the illustration. In fig. 10 there is a combination of all 
the forms. At the back one or two mushrooms of type one 
occur, the remainder of the mass coming into the third group, 
while in the foreground are some belonging to the second 

In addition to being malformed, all the diseased mush- 
rooms in the bed are covered with a felt-like coat which is at 
first white in colour, and which changes in a week or ten 
days to a dirty white or greyish hue (see fig. 9). Ultimately 
the whole mushroom becomes black and rots away. A very 
pungent odour is evident near beds containing many diseased 
specimens. The spawn when diseased has a very different 
appearance to healthy spawn. Fig. 11 is from a photograph 
of a patch of healthy spawn, and it has a characteristic thread- 
like appearance, preserving a sharp outline; but in fig. 12, 
which is diseased, the outline is not so sharp, the spawn 
being covered with the felt-like coat that is seen on the 
diseased mushrooms. Healthy spawn also forms a dense net- 

184 A Mushroom Disease, [Sess. 

work of filaments, whereas when diseased the branches are 
much fewer in number. 

When the beds begin to produce mushrooms there is no 
sign of disease, the crop being apparently healthy, and con- 
tinuing so for a period of from two to three weeks, but 
examination of the spawn reveals the presence of the fungus, 
and within a month distorted mushrooms begin to grow. 
The first of the diseased specimens are all of the first type, 
but as time passes a few may be seen, here and there in which 
development of the cap has commenced, and then growth has 
been arrested, the result being a stout, fully-formed stalk 
terminated by a small cap. Later in the history of the bed 
the last stage appears, and the mushrooms show no trace of 
differentiation into stalk and cap, but resemble clumps of 
puff-balls. It must be noted, however, that when a bed 
is completely overrun with disease apparently healthy mush- 
rooms develop here and there. The gradual transition from 
the fully developed but diseased type to the completely 
hypertrophied condition seems to indicate the struggle that is 
going on in the bed between the mushroom mycelium and 
that of the fungus. It seems as if the vigour of the mush- 
room spawn in the earlier period of the existence of the bed 
allows the mushrooms to outstrip the disease for a week or 
two, but that, owing to the gradual lowering of the tempera- 
ture of the bed, and the slightly diminished food-supply, the 
vigour of the spawn is not so great as at first, and it is more 
susceptible to the attacks of the fungus. The result is that 
perfect mushrooms become fewer, the disease spreads in 
those that are developing, it ultimately obtains the mastery, 
and the mushroom spawn is entirely killed out. 1 

Sections were made from mycelium, stalk and cap of 
diseased specimens, and examined either unstained or stained 
with bismarck brown or Loeffler's blue. When examined 
under the microscope thick hyphse with dense contents could 
be seen running through the tissue of the mushroom. These 
were usually more numerous in the stalk than in the cap, 
and with the blue or brown stain used they assumed a 
darker hue than the surrounding tissue (fig. 13). The 

1 Spawn from badly diseased beds failed to develop 011 sterilised stable manure, 
while healthy spawn from test-beds at Bangholm Nursery developed freely. 

1900-1901.] A Mushroom Disease. 185 

hyphas in sections taken from the thicker parts of the 
mycelium were invariably thicker than were the hypha? in 
the stalk or cap of the mushroom (see fig. 14). On making 
sections at the outside of the mushroom the hypha? could be 
seen growing out. When they reach the surface they assume 
a different form. The filaments (fig. 15«) are almost erect, 
more delicate than the hyph?e in the tissue of the mushroom, 
and produce from two to seven whorls of branches, all of 
which taper off gradually to a point, each bearing at the 
end a bud (conidiospore) (fig. 15&). The conidia are uni- 
cellular, and vary in size, the smallest being 4x l - 50ju, while 
the largest are 7 X 2*75//. 

I have previously stated that the beds produced apparently 
sound mushrooms. These, on examination, were found to 
contain a few hyphse of the fungus, and I therefore conclude 
that such mushrooms were formed from an exceptionally 
vigorous portion of mycelium, and although attacked by the 
disease they had outstripped it. 

The fungus is evidently a Verticillium allied to V. agari- 
cinum, Corda. . V. agaricinum has whorls of branches similar 
to the plant under notice, but these branches produce secondary 
whorls, a condition I have not observed in the species from the 
tunnel. Verticillium * is a form of the genus Hypomyces, and 
as I am at present growing the Verticillium under various 
conditions in the hope of obtaining the Hypomyces stage, I 
refrain from expressing an opinion as to the exact species. A 
disease due to a similar parasite has appeared on mushroom 
beds in England, 2 Austria, 3 France, 4 and Germany. 5 Cooke 
found a Mycogonc along with the Verticillium, the former 
being the chlaniydospore and the latter the conidial stage. To 
this he gave the name (under reservation) of M. alba. Stapf 
found the Verticillium alone in the Vienna specimens. This 

1 De Bary, Comparative Morphology of the Fungi, Mycetozoa and Bacteria, 
(trans. H. E. F. Garnsey), p. 245. 

2 Cooke in Gard. Chron., 3rd series, vol. v., 1889, p. 434. 

8 Stapf in K. K. Zool.-Bot. Gesells. in Wien., Bd. xxxix., 1889 ; Abh.,p. 617. 

4 Costantin et Dufour, Rev. gen. de botanique, tome iv., 1892, pp. 401, 462, 
549 ; Comptes Rendus de l'Acad. des sci., tome cxiv., 1892, p. 498 ; Bull, de la 
soc. bot. de France, tome xxxix., 1892, p. 143 ; Prillieux, Bull, de la soc. bot. de 
France, tome xxxix., 1892, p. 146. 

5 Magnus, Bot. Centralblatt, Bd. xxxiv., 1888, p. 394. 

1 86 A Mushroom Disease. [Sess. 

is similar to the Edinburgh plant. In diseased specimens 
from the Paris beds, Costantin and Dufour, and also Prillieux, 
found both Mycogone and Verticillium, the former having 
pinkish chlamydospores. This they referred to M. rosea, 
Link. Magnus established a new species from the Berlin 
specimens, Hypomyces perniciosus. In the few months I have 
had this species under observation it has shown considerable 
variation when grown in different media, and I am inclined 
to think that our plant may possibly be the same as that 
described by other writers, and that the production of the 
conidial stage ( Verticillium) only is due to the very favourable 
conditions under which the mushrooms are grown, and which 
are also well suited to the rapid development of the parasite. 
It is possible that starvation or other unfavourable conditions 
may induce the formation of chlamydospores. 

It was quite evident that the tunnel was swarming with 
the spores of the fungus, and that as new beds were made 
spores from the diseased mushrooms were carried to them. 
I made several tests of the condition of the atmosphere by 
exposing Petri capsules containing gelatine and brewer's wort 
or rice paste coloured with cochineal, and always had a 
plentiful crop of Verticillium in a few days. Samples of soil 
were shaken up with brewer's wort and allowed to settle, and 
from these sub-cultures were made in two days. The fungus 
invariably developed from all the soil cultures. I also took 
samples of the drip-water from the tunnel walls and made 
cultures in wort. Although growth was not so rapid owing 
to the smaller number of spores, they were present in almost 
all the samples taken. 

After I had ascertained the exact nature of the disease, my 
attention was turned to the finding out of some substance that 
could be used to disinfect the tunnel and destroy the spores 
remaining therein. Costantin and Dufour - 1 used lysol, thymol, 
boric acid, copper sulphate, iron sulphate, &c, and from 
their experiments they conclude that a 2 per cent solution of 
lysol is the most effective, and the next in value is thymol 
2 1 per cent, followed by copper sulphate 2 per cent. As 
spraying seemed to be the best means to employ in disinfecting 
the tunnel, I decided to experiment with such substances as 

1 Rev. gen. de botanique, tome v., 1893 ; p. 497 et scq. 


A Mushroom Disease. 


could be applied in liquid form. Accordingly I decided to 
make trials with (1) corrosive sublimate and (2) copper 
sulphate + carbonate solutions. The corrosive sublimate was 
made up of the following strengths: x^, -^itjU' Wtro- 
The second liquid was made up of 5 lb. copper sulphate, 4 lb. 
copper carbonate in a gallon of water, the precipitate being 
dissolved by the addition of ammonia; this mixture being 
diluted to 100 gallons. The following experiments were 
made : — 


Sixty tubes containing brewer's wort were sterilised ; of these 
fifty were sown with spores (each tube contained about 30 c.c. 
of wort), and were treated as follows : — 




No. of 







Corrosive sublimate 

11 n 

n 11 
("Copper sulphate "| 
-! Copper carbonate V 
I and ammoniaj 




No growth. 

Growth in four tubes. 

No growth. 

Ten tubes not infected remained sterile, while ten sown with 
spores, and not treated with the fungicides, showed growth of 
Verticillium in every case. 


Fifty tubes of brewer's wort were infected with spores, ten 
being kept uninfected. Eight days later, when growth was 
vigorous, they were treated as in experiment I. 

No. of 









Corrosive sublimate 

n 11 

n 11 
C Copper sulphate ^ 
-{ Copper carbonate J- 
L and ammoniaj 





Growth arrested. 

it 11 in eight tubes. 
11 11 in one tube. 

Growth arrested. 

The ten tubes untreated showed luxuriant growth after ten days. 

1 88 A Mushroom Disease. [Sess. 

It was quite evident that the fine mycelial threads growing 
on the top of the wort retained their vitality through the pres- 
ence of a thin film of air, the amount of disinfectant intro- 
duced being too small to drive it out and submerge the 
threads, yet, at the same time, it was possible that any 
conidia formed might be killed. I accordingly made sub- 
cultures from the tubes in which growth appeared to be 
arrested in experiment II. This was done as follows : The 
tubes were well shaken, to wash off as many conidia as 
possible, and a few drops of the liquid were transferred to 
sterile tubes. The results were as follows : — 

Sub-cultures from II. a showed no growth, in three weeks, 
ii it II.6 n ti n 

it ii II. c showed growth in one tube. 

ii it H.d no growth. 

The above experiments proved the efficacy of the copper 
solution and also the corrosive sublimate, when applied at a 
strength of xoVo" or TWoTJ' as a means 0I destroying the 
spores. The Scottish Mushroom Company have decided to 
use corrosive sublimate for disinfecting the tunnel, and prep- 
arations are being made for spraying the whole place with it. 

My thanks are due to the President of the Society, Drs 
Davies, J. Taylor Grant, and Mr G. T. West, for valuable 
suggestions made and assistance rendered during the time the 
investigations were in progress. 

Note, May 1901. — Since this paper was read the tunnel 
has been sprayed three times with corrosive sublimate, the 
strength of the solutions used in the three sprayings being 
Ywuo' TToVcJ' an< ^ 5TTo respectively. When the spraying was 
completed tests were made in various parts of the tunnel. 

1. Sterilized plates were exposed for periods of one, six, and 

twenty-four hours, and out of thirty plates only two 
showed any sign of growth in seven days. These were 
exposed at the mouth of the tunnel, and developed 
numerous bacteria as well as blue mould. 

2. Thirty samples of soil were selected, some from the 

surface, and others at various depths down to 12 
inches. These were treated in the same manner as 

PLATE XVIII.-A Mushroom Disease. 

PLATE1XIX.- AISMushroom Disease. 

BT life* M 

•-at ■-'■» 



PLATE XXI. -A Mushroom Disease. 

1900-190 1.] A MusJiroom Disease. 189 

soil which gave abundant growth of the fungus before 
the spraying, and there was no sign of the disease. 
3. I also examined the drip- water in the tunnel, and it 

proved to be quite free also. 
The results obtained from these tests lead to the conclusion 
that the disease is stamped out, and that if proper precautions 
are taken it will not reappear. 


Plate XVIII., Fig. 1. A collection of healthy mushrooms, comprising the 
three stages known to the trade as (a) buttons, (6) cups, and (c) flats : — 

(a) Very young mushrooms — in the centre. 

(b) Specimens in which the gills are exposed — on the right. 

(c) Fully developed specimens having a flat cap — on the left. 

Fig. 2. Part of a bed of diseased mushrooms in Scotland Street tunnel. 
There were no healthy specimens on this bed. 

Plate XIX., Fig. 3. Malformed mushrooms belonging to the first type. 
Stalk and cap fully developed, but stalk twisted and split open. 

Fig. 4: Other examples of first type. Cap almost lost, stalk split open. 

Fig. 5. Second type mushrooms, in which development of cap is arrested 
but stalk is normal. 

Plate XX., Fig. 6. ) These are all of the third type, there being no 
M 11 Fig. 7. ) trace of differentiation into stalk and cap. 

Fig. 8. At the back is one example of the first type, while at the front 
are two specimens of the second class. 

Plate XXL, Fig. 9. On the left are a few weak mushrooms, some of 
which belong to the second class ; others apparently sound, but all con- 
taining the disease. On the right side of the clump are eight forms of 
the third type. 

Fig. 10. At the back of the clump are a few fully developed but distorted 
examples. In the front are a few of the second class, the remainder 
belonging to the third type. 

Fig. 11. A patch of healthy spawn. Outline sharp. Branches numerous. 

Plate XXII. , Fig. 12. A patch of diseased spawn. Outline indistinct. 
Branches fewer in number. 

Fig. 13. Photomicrograph of section of stalk of diseased mushroom with 
hyphse of Verticillium running through the tissue, x 150. 

Fig. 14. Photomicrograph of section of mycelium of mushroom infested 
with hyphse of Verticillium. x 100. 

Fig. 15a. Conidial filaments of Verticillium with developing conidia. 
X 325. 

Fig. 156. Conidia of Verticillium. x 325. 

190 Orthochromatic Photography. [Sess. 



(Read March 27, 1901.) 

The word " orthochromatic," as applied to photography, is 
liable to some misapprehension. It means, in its strictest 
sense, the reproduction of an object in its true colours by 
means of photography ; but it has now come to be under- 
stood as the correct rendering of an object in monochrome 
by photography, so that the luminosity values of the differ- 
ent colours are correctly reproduced in monochromatic tones. 
To produce photographs in natural colours is an extremely 
difficult operation, which is now distinguished by the name 
of Trichromatic photography, and requires a person with 
considerable skill and experience in order to produce any- 
thing like a presentable result. Orthochromatic photography, 
on the other hand, as dealt with in this paper, is a compara- 
tively easy process, full of interest, and when taken up 
intelligently by any one accustomed to the use of dry 
plates, it is capable of affording very pleasing results with 
little extra trouble, and will be found by all who once 
study it to possess an attraction quite its own. It is my 
intention, to-night, to show what can be done in this way, 
— first giving, as briefly as may be, the why and wherefore 
of the process. 

In order to clearly understand our subject, it will be 
necessary to refer shortly to a few facts with regard to that 
mysterious agent, Light. The observed phenomena respect- 
ing light can be fairly well explained by assuming, in the 
first place, that all space, even that occupied by solid and 
liquid bodies, is permeated by a subtle something to which 
we give the name of Ether. Certain manifestations of force, 
such as intense chemical action, as we find it in the sun, 
are capable of setting up vibrations in the ether which are 
propagated in all directions. The vibrations, when inter- 
cepted by appropriate substances, can be made to yield 
energy in the form of heat, light, electricity, and chemical 

1 900-190 1.] Orthochromatic Photography. 191 

action. The light we receive from the sun is called white. 
Its passage through clear space is invisible, the presence of 
the vibrations producing it only becoming sensible to the eye 
when they either penetrate it directly or are reflected from 
some surface on which they fall. Tyndall, in order to 
demonstrate the invisibility of light rays traversing trans- 
parent media such as air, allowed a pencil of light to pass 
through a box, the interior of which was blackened. The 
path of the light was easily seen, being clearly marked out 
by the small particles of dust which were illuminated in its 
track. He then took a lighted spirit-lamp, which burns 
with a smokeless flame, and applied the flame to the stream 
of light passing through the dark box. The particles of 
dust in and around the flame were at once consumed, and 
the light, having nothing to reflect it, disappeared from the 
heated portion, the effect produced being the appearance 
as of thick black smoke arising from the smokeless flame. 
When a ray of light passes from a rarer to a denser 
medium, it becomes refracted or bent from its original course. 
In passing through a denser medium such as glass, if the 
sides of the glass are parallel, the ray on emerging from the 
other side is bent back again to a course parallel to its 
original direction and otherwise suffers no change. If the 
sides of the glass are not parallel, as in the prism, then we 
see that the ray of light, on leaving the second surface, is 
bent still more from its original course than at the first sur- 
face, and pursues an entirely different direction. If this 
refracted ray be now intercepted by a white screen, we shall 
see, not a spot of white light, but a somewhat lengthened 
coloured band — an old but beautiful experiment, showing 
that white light is made up of rays which give to the eye 
different colours according to their refrangibility (fig. 1) ; 
the least refrangible giving us the sensation of red, and, 
as the refrangibility increases, passing through orange to 
yellow, yellow -green to green and blue, indigo, and finally 
violet. Experiment has shown that the red rays have a 
longer wave-length, and the violet a shorter, the wave-length 
gradually decreasing from the red to the violet. Besides 
those rays that are rendered visible to the eye there are 
others beyond the visible limits of the spectrum. The infra- 


Orthochromatic Photography. 


red rays beyond the red end manifest themselves by the 
production of heat, and the invisible rays beyond the violet 
are evident by their powerful chemical influence. If our 
ray of sunlight be admitted through a narrow slit parallel 
with the length of the prism and be examined with a small 
telescope, narrow dark bands are seen to cross the spectrum 
at stated intervals, showing gaps as it were in the continuity 
of the light. These are the Frauenhofer lines. Their position 

Fig. I. — The Solar Spectrum. 

in the spectrum is fixed, and they can be used as reference 
marks. In the absence of actual colour we shall use these 
lines as our landmarks. 

It is with the chemical power of the various rays of the 
spectrum that we have to do this evening. Chemists soon 
discovered that the salts of silver, under favourable conditions, 
were strongly affected by light. The iodide, bromide, and 
chloride of silver are the salts usually employed in the manu- 
facture of photographic plates. Freshly precipitated silver 
chloride is white, but if it be exposed for some time to 
ordinary diffused light, it soon becomes dark in colour, and 
finally turns quite black — the chloride being decomposed, 
and the silver separating as a black powder. 

It is worthy of careful note here that the intensity of the 
action of light on the haloid salts of silver depends greatly 
on circumstances. Some substance must be present to 
absorb the liberated chlorine, bromine, or iodine, such as 
nitrate of silver, as in a wet plate, or some organic substance, 
as in the dry plate of to-day. If these substances are not 

1 900- 1 90 1 .] Orthocliromatic Photography. 


present the action of light becomes comparatively slight — 
so that you will observe that these haloid salts of silver 
really need a sensitiser for white light. This is worthy of 
particular notice, because we shall presently see that another 
sensitiser applied to these salts has a further effect in making 
them sensible to light rays in a yet greater degree. 

Now, when light acts on a photographic plate the silver 
salts contained in the film are modified, but the effect is 
not visible to the eye. Certain chemicals, however, when 
applied to the plate, cause a separation of silver from the 
portions affected by light, the amount of deposit depending 
upon the intensity of the illumination. Here is a plate 
which has been exposed in the camera to a picture of a white 
cross on a black ground. You see it appears to have been 
unaffected. Here is a duplicate plate which has been ex- 
posed to the same subject and developed and fixed. The 
part affected by light is now clearly seen, and you will 
observe that the white cross is represented by a black 
deposit. The white light from the cross has affected the 
silver salt in the film, and the developer has caused the 
silver to separate as a black deposit. This is a negative. 
The next slide shows a print from the same in the usual way. 

Now we must return to the spectrum. Having seen by 
the foregoing simple experiment that ordinary white light 
affects the photographic film, we may now inquire which 
of the various colours that go to make up white light have 
the most powerful effect. This diagram (fig. 2) is designed 

A B C E F 

H K u m 







'4j tub 

5 »« 

« 5 





* tfU 


Fig. 2. — Colour Effects in Photography. 

to give us the information we require. Here we see the 
spectrum drawn with its various colours in their proper 

194 Orthochromatic Photography. [Sess. 

proportions in the visible part, and also produced at each 
end to show the extent of the invisible rays — i.e., the infra- 
red and the ultra-violet. (The lines marked A, B, C, D, E, 
F, Gr, H are the Frauenhofer lines.) The upper curve re- 
presents the intensity of luminosity at any part of the visible 
spectrum. It is highest, as we see, in the yellow, and falls 
away rapidly at either side till it becomes quite faint in the 
blue, indigo, and violet, and also in the extreme red. Now, 
in order to represent these colours in monochrome, say as in 
an ordinary wash drawing, the bright yellow must be nearly 
white ; the orange as a grey turning to darkish grey in the 
bright red and nearly black in the deepest red ; the greens 
from light grey to darkish grey in the blue to dark grey, 
nearly black, in the indigo and violet. You will observe that 
it is impossible to represent difference in colour tint in mono- 
chrome, and that it is only the difference in luminosity that 
can be so represented. For instance, a dark blue and a dark 
red, though so different in colour, could only be translated, 
each of them, into a dark grey. A light green and an orange 
of the same degree of luminosity could not be represented 
otherwise than by the same light grey tint in a wash drawing. 
From all this we can easily infer that if a photographic plate 
is to give us a proper rendering in monochrome of the colours 
of the objects photographed, the amount of deposit of silver in 
the film would be correctly represented by a curve which 
coincides with that of the luminosity of the spectrum. But 
what do we find on actual trial ? This lower curve gives the 
answer. It shows the amount of deposit on the photographic 
film caused by the different coloured rays to which it has 
been exposed. There is practically no deposit under the 
yellow, the orange, and the red rays, so that these colours, 
especially the yellow and orange, which constitute the brightest 
part of the spectrum, are photographically represented as 
blacks. When we look at the other end of the spectrum 
we find under the very much less luminous rays, such as the 
blue, indigo, and violet, the plate has been powerfully affected, 
and the deposit very dense — so much so that these colours, 
as is well known, are generally represented as white by 
photography. In addition to this, we see that even beyond 
the visible limit of the spectrum there are rays that can 

1 900-190 1.] Ortliocliromatic Photography, 195 

affect the photographic film to a very considerable extent. 
Here is a photograph taken on an Imperial special-rapid plate 
of the spectrum of a Welsbach light (Plate XXIII. 1). You 
will see how closely it corresponds to the diagram just shown. 
The deposit does not extend beyond line F, where it abruptly 
terminates. The continuation beyond the visible violet rays 
is well seen. Now we can understand how it is that when a 
lady has her photograph taken, if she is wearing a nice blue 
blouse with white spots upon it, the whole garment shows 
as white, and the pleasing contrast which existed in the 
original is lost in the portrait. So again, a vase containing 
yellow daffodils and bluebells will show the bright yellow 
flowers as nearly black and the blue as nearly white in the 
photograph. Everybody knows how unsatisfactorily blue eyes 
are represented in portraits. FrOm these instances we can 
see that although in many things we can rely upon the 
photographic plate to give us pretty nearly absolute truth, 
yet when we come to bright colours in the subject there is a 
great falling off. 

The outcome of the experiment of photographing the spec- 
trum shows us that for the correct rendering of pure colours 
the ordinary photographic plate is practically useless. How is 
it, then, that we are able, as a rule, to obtain so many beautiful 
photographs in the ordinary way — photographs in which, as a 
rule, there is little that appears amiss ? The reason is plain. 
In nature pure colours are rare, and from every object which 
we see there is so much of white light reflected, that all the 
colours being more or less mixed with it, they affect the photo- 
graphic plate in some degree ; but whenever a particular colour 
approaches purity, like the yellows, reds, or blues, for instance, 
then we are able to observe that in a photograph they are far 
from correctly rendered. 

Means have at length been found by which the colour defect 
in the photographic plate has been in a measure overcome. In 
considering the effect of the spectrum on an ordinary photo- 
graphic plate, we saw in the slide shown that the yellow and 
red rays produced practically no effect. But as we find in 
the spectrum that heat rays pervade all parts, though the 
great mass of them are found in the red and infra-red portion, 
and as we also find with regard to the visible rays that they too 

196 OrtJwchromalic Photography. [Sess. 

are found in the greater portion of the spectrum, though most 
apparent in the yellow space and close by — may it not also be 
that, in the case of the chemical rays, they, too, are found 
everywhere, even in the yellow and red, though much more 
energetic in the blue and violet ? In order to test this an 
ordinary plate might be exposed to the spectrum, but the pre- 
caution taken that the blue and allied rays should be cut out 
by means of a piece of yellow glass, or a solution of chromate 
of potassium. Here is a plate (Plate XXIII. 2, Imperial 
special-rapid) that has been so exposed, and you see with what 
result. There is now a deposit even as far as the red, though 
in degree it is faint. To obtain this an exceedingly long 
exposure was necessary — one hour and forty minutes — and if 
the blue rays had not been cut out the plate would have been 
spoiled by halation and fogging caused by reflected blue light 
in that long time. This experiment shows that some approach 
to correct representation of colour luminosity may be obtained 
even with an ordinary plate by the artifice of interposing a 
properly coloured light filter, though for practical purposes it 
is quite useless, owing to the inordinate length of exposure 
required. If this faint sensitiveness of silver salts to the red, 
yellow, and green rays could be much increased, then ortho- 
chromatic photography would be a possibility ; for, by using a 
plate so sensitised, and cutting off the two active blues by 
suitable light-filters, the deposit on the plate could be made 
more nearly to follow the luminosity values of the different 
parts of the spectrum. 

In 1873, by a happy chance, some (collodion) bromide 
dry plates, prepared by Colonel Stuart-Wortley of England, and 
stained with some yellow substance, came into the hands of 
a man of observation. This was Dr H. W. Vogel of Berlin. 
He noticed that these plates gave a more correct rendering of 
green and yellow colours than any he had seen. He did not 
find this sensitiveness to yellow and green in the collodion 
bromide plates prepared by himself, and so judged there must be 
something in Colonel Stuart- Wortley's plates that was causing 
the difference. To test this he washed one of the plates in 
alcohol and so removed the yellow stain, and he found that 
after this treatment the plate was no longer as sensitive to 
yellow and green as before. The result of this experiment 

1900-1901.] Orthochromatic Photography. 197 

induced Dr Vogel to study the effects of various dyes in 
increasing the sensibility of the silver salts to the more 
luminous rays of the spectrum ; and so the first step in ortho- 
chromatic photography was taken. Vogel in that same year 
(1873) announced that if bromide of silver be dyed with 
certain yellow and red dyes, its normal sensitiveness to the 
yellow and green rays of the spectrum is thereby much 
increased. The work was taken up with energy and success 
by man)'- eminent scientists, as Eder, Abney, Carey - Lea, 
Becquerel, and Waterhouse. During the time of these 
investigations the gelatine bromide dry plates were introduced, 
and photographers everywhere were so absorbed by this new 
discovery that the beginnings of orthochromatic photography 
were almost forgotten. After a while, however, the effects of 
certain dyes were tried with much success on these new plates. 
In 1882-83 Tailfer & Clayton of Paris patented plates 
sensitised with eosin. J. B. Edwards & Co., in 1884, intro- 
duced their isochromatic plates, and many others followed in 
quick succession. In America Carbutt, Ives, Forbes, and 
Weustner produced isochromatic plates. In France the 
Brothers Lumiere of Lyons have recently introduced a series of 
colour sensitive plates selectively sensitised for various parts of 
the spectrum. Special mention should be made of the ortho- 
chromatic system introduced by Messrs Cadett & Neal in 
connection with their lightning spectrum plate. 

The true action of the different dyes employed in increasing 
the sensitiveness of the silver salts is not well understood. A 
combination appears to take place between the silver salt and 
the dye, but whether it is chemical or molecular only is not, I 
believe, determined even yet. The dyes themselves belong to 
the more complicated benzene derivatives — eosin yellow, the 
potassium salt of tetra-bromo-fluorescin, C 20 H 6 Br 4 O 5 K 2 ; eosin 
blue; the sodium salt of tetra-eiodo-fluorescin, C 20 H 6 I 4 O 5 Na 2 ; 
erythrosin ; the potassium salt of tetra - iodo - fluorescin, 
C 20 H (5 I 4 O 5 K 2 , and cyanin, C 28 H 25 N" 2 I, which is one of the best 
sensitisers for the orange and red rays. Malachite green, 
together with naphthalene blue, are used as sensitisers for red, 
yellow, and green rays. 

There are two ways of using these dyes. The first is to 
add the solution of the dye to the emulsion before the plate is 

vol. iv. p 


Orthocliromatic Photography. 


coated : this is the method usually followed by manufacturers. 
The second way of applying the dye is by soaking ordinary 
dry plates in the dye solution with certain precautions. This 
process may be practised with success by amateurs, but I do 
not purpose going into it to-night. This diagram (fig. 3) 
shows by curves the effect of two of these dyes on the colour 
sensitiveness of a plate — a, as exhibited on an ordinary plate ; 

A B C D 

H K u m 

1 — I — I 1 1 — Z^T — 



Fig. 3. — Effect of Dyes in Photography. 

0, the effect of cyanin ; and c, the increase of sensitiveness 
due to the use of erythrosin. I will now show you a series 
of photographs of the spectrum, taken by myself on various 
brands of orthochromatic plates without the intervention of 
any light-filter to modify their actual sensitiveness. The 
spectrum employed was that derived from a Welsbach gas- 
light C burner. The light was passed through a small direct- 
vision spectroscope, kindly lent to me by my friend Mr 
Stenhouse. The spectroscope was fixed in front of the 
camera, taking the place of the lens, the spectrum being 
focussed on the screen and means taken that every plate 
should register exactly in the same position. Foundation 
datuni marks were obtained from the sodium line D, and the 
potassium line K 2 , which was got by photography. The 
other lines were then obtained by comparison with a spectrum 
chart. I thought it best to take the Frauenhofer lines in this 
way rather than to attempt colouring the slides. The plates 
tested were — Ilford chromatic (Plate XXIII. 3), Edwards' 
isochromatic (Plate XXIII. 4), Lumiere A (Plate XXIII. 5), 
Lumiere B (Plate XXIII. 6), Lumiere C (Plate XXIII. 7), 
and Cadett spectrum (Plate XXIII. 8). You will notice the 
tendency to an insensitive gap in these plates between the 

1 900- 1 90 1 .] Orthochromatic Photography. 


lines E, F — i.e., about the region of the green rays. This is 
hardly at all apparent in the Cadett spectrum plate, which 
certainly shows a wonderful evenness in the deposit, and is 
really a remarkably fine plate. Though, according to these 
experiments, two of the Lumiere plates appear to push a 
little farther into the red than the Cadett, still the deposit 
on the Cadett plate in this region, if not quite so far, is much 
more dense. It is quite plain that in all cases the blue 
colours still have a predominant effect on the plates, and 
that there is a want, more or less, of sensitiveness in the 
green. "We can well see that in order to get correct, or fairly 
correct, results with these plates, the blue rays must be cut 
out to a great extent. 

If we are to get correct results with any of these plates, we 
must so arrange matters that the deposit in the yellow part of 
the spectrum is most dense, and much lighter in the blue and 
violet. We must, as it were, push back the summit of the 
curve, which still lies in the blue, back to the D line of the 
spectrum in the yellow. We can do no more with the dyes : 
resort must now be had to an artifice, the same as we employed 
in the case of the ordinary dry plate — a properly coloured light- 
filter must be interposed in the path of the rays, of such a tint 
that the red, orange, yellow, and green rays may pass through 
unimpaired in strength, while the blue, indigo, and violet are 
nearly cut out. The upper curve in fig. 4 shows the effect of 




F £ h L M N 



Fig. 4. — Effect of Light-filter in Photography, 
a, Plate treated with eosin. b, Plate treated with yellow screen. 

an eosin-dyed plate on the action of the spectrum ; the lower 
curve, the action on the same plate when a yellow screen is 
interposed. The summit of the curve is pushed back into the 
yellow, while the blues are much reduced in intensity. It will 

200 Ortkochromatic Photography. [Sess. 

be observed that with the yellow screen the curve is actually- 
higher in the yellow, and extends farther into the red. This 
is owing to the longer exposure, which gives these colours 
more time to affect the film. You will remember that we got 
something like this effect even with an ordinary plate, but in 
the case before us the exposure was very much less in dura- 
tion, owing to the plate having been orthochromatised with 
eosin. Here is a photograph of the spectrum on a Cadett 
spectrum plate which has been exposed to the spectrum, a 
yellow glass being interposed. The glass was not quite of 
the right tint, as we can see that the blue about the A line 
might have been reduced a little more with advantage (Plate 
XXIII. 9). 

We are now in a position to apply the principles which we 
have established as regards orthochromatic photography. It 
will be obvious that its most useful application is in the re- 
production of objects more or less definitely coloured. For 
this work a good brand of plates is essential. Those prepared 
by Lumiere Brothers of Lyons, and marked A, B, and C, are 
excellent. The Cadett spectrum plate is a remarkably good 
plate, and has also the valuable quality of rapidity — I judge, 
about four times that of the Lumiere plates. The Ilford 
chromatic is a good plate for ordinary work, but slow. The 
Edwards plate gives very good results. Bapidity in an ortho- 
chromatic plate, especially for outdoor work, is of the utmost 
value, because the use of the tinted light-filters prolongs the 
exposure. "With a good rapid plate and a lens that works 
well at open apertures, the difficulty of longer exposure can 
be fairly overcome. 

Tinted ray-filters are necessary if good results are desired. 
These can be purchased of various intensities, made out of 
optically worked glass, for a reasonable price. The prevailing 
tint is yellowish. I strongly recommend using the filters 
advocated by the makers of the plates; they are usually 
specially prepared to suit the various brands. Cadett & 
Xeal are particular in calling attention to their light-filters, 
and though I have not yet used them I intend doing so. 
Much judgment is required as to what grade of ray-filter shall 
be used. Suppose we wished to take a landscape with a blue 
sky having many light white clouds drifting. In an ordinary 

1 900-190 1.] Orthochromatic PJiotograpliy. 201 

way the sky would be so much over-exposed that the beautiful 
clouds would be entirely lost ; but if an isochromatic plate be 
used with a very light tinted ray-filter, the blue of the sky 
will be sufficiently held back for the clouds to make a fair 
impression on the plate. As a rule, the more colour in the 
subject the deeper the tint required in the ray-filter. In 
working by gaslight, as in taking microscopic photographs, 
the ray-filter is seldom required, because the light is already 
yellow, and if a ray-filter is used it need be only of medium 
tint. All these artifices will soon occur to those who prac- 
tise orthochromatic photography for a little while and care- 
fully examine their results. The length of exposure must be 
found by practice, and it is difficult to give directions. But 
with the use of an exposure meter " mixed with brains " 
very few failures need be feared. Light-filters can easily be 
home made, but I do not recommend them, for this reason : 
it is not easy to get the two surfaces perfectly flat and parallel, 
and unless this is the case distortion, if only in a small 
degree, must result, and it would be a pity to interfere in any 
way with the beautiful working of the excellent modern 
lenses now in the hand of the photographer. The light- 
filters can be placed either in front of the lens or at the back. 
Personally I prefer the front position, and have my ray-filters 
cut in circular shape, mounted in cardboard, and of such a size 
that they slip easily into the hood of the lens, where they are 
secured by a light spring made of wire. Where the lens has 
no hood they can be made in the form of a cap to fit in front. 
We have now all that is required for the work, and it only 
remains to remark in this connection that the development 
of orthochromatic plates needs some care. It must be borne 
in mind that they are sensitive to rays which do not affect 
the ordinary plate. It will not do to develop them in the 
full light of the dark-room lamp, or it will soon be found that 
they have a decided tendency to fog. Even in putting the 
plates into the dark slide, it is best to let no direct light of 
any kind reach them. In my own practice, when developing, 
I use just enough light to see that the developer is properly 
flowed over the plate, and immediately withdraw the dish so 
that no light of any kind can reach it. To watch the appear- 
ance of the image the tray is brought to the light for exam- 

202 Flora of the Shores of the Firth of Forth. [Sess. 

ination, but no nearer than absolutely necessary. Do not 
take the plate out of the dish, and on no account hold it up 
to the light to look through it. The time required for correct 
development can be easily judged by practice, and by work- 
ing with a small clock in the dark room. The density can be 
fairly judged by turning the plate over and looking at the back 
when the time is nearly up. All white light must be care- 
fully excluded, even after the plate is put into the fixing bath. 
In photographing coloured pictures it is a good thing to 
have a strip of paper half black and half white, say at the 
foot of the subject. It will be found a great help in de- 
velopment to enable one to judge the correct density for the 
whites if there should happen to be none in the subject. Two 
photographs are shown in Plate XXIV. of Gilbey & Her- 
mann's advertisement card for their coloured poster inks. 
The card was highly coloured. No. 1 is a photograph taken 
on an ordinary Paget xxx plate, and No. 2 one taken on a 
Cadett spectrum plate, through a yellow ray-filter. These two 
illustrations are a study in the photography of colour, and in 
many parts the one is the actual reverse of the other. 

[Many slides were exhibited of photographs of coloured 

subjects, such as flower -studies, &c, taken with ordinary 

plates, and also with orthochromatic plates, in order to show 
the advantage in using the latter.] 


By Mb MARK KING, Honorary Member. 
(Read April 24, 1901.) 

The flora of Edinburgh and its vicinity has engaged a good 
deal of my attention during a number of years, although 
latterly I have confined my observations to the banks of 
the Forth from high-water mark to about a score of paces 

PLATE XXIII.— Orthochromatic Photography. 

1 900-190 1.] Flora of the Shores of the Firth of Forth. 203 

beyond. With that end in view I have made various ex- 
cursions between North Berwick and Bo'ness on the south 
side of the estuary, and between Elie and North Queens- 
ferry on the north side. It may be as well to state at the 
outset that I have no new or rare species to note. Yet it 
seems to me that the absence or abundance of common forms 
in a locality is interesting, in so far as that has relation to 
the distribution of species, with their altitude and area. 
The flora of the Forth, in my opinion, belongs to a very 
ancient period in the physical structure of our country. 
There is probably little or no difference as regards the plants 
now found on both shores and those present before the 
estuary ploughed its way up the land. Similarly, to take 
as an example that narrow strip of sea, the Strait of 
Gibraltar, which separates the continents of Europe and 
Africa, European forms are found on the opposite or 
African shore. 

In order to be more precise, I shall now refer to the 
locality and duration of a few typical species. Black 
mustard (Sinapis nigra, L.) flowers and fruits abundantly 
on Inchkeith, and also on the Leith shore. Last summer I 
saw a specimen growing on waste ground near Leith gas- 
works, a short distance from the spot where I had gathered 
it eighteen years previously. Another Inchkeith plant that 
is abundant on the south side of the island is the Scottish 
lovage (Ligwsticum scoticum, L) Additional habitats are 
Inchcolm and the opposite rocky shore near Aberdour, 
where it has been apparently long established. Stray 
specimens may also be found on the south shore between 
Longniddry and Cockenzie. A specimen that I brought 
from Inchkeith in 1883 and planted in my garden has 
produced seed every season since then. The spread of the 
species is slow, the progeny growing near the parent. Last 
year a seedling came up twenty yards distant from the parent 
— the plant I now exhibit. The henbane (Hyoscyamus niger, 
L.) is abundant on one or two spots on Inchkeith, and I have 
also gathered specimens on Leith sands and at G-ranton. The 
sea tree- mallow (Lavatera arborea, L.) was at one time plenti- 
ful on the Bass Bock. The celebrated botanist John Bay 
(1628-1688), during his travels through Great Britain, 

204 Flora of the Shores of the Firth of Forth. [Sess. 

noticed this plant growing on the Bass. Dr Walker, Pro- 
fessor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh, 
says that he found it " in great plenty " more than a hundred 
years after Ray's time. The rue (Thalictrum minus, L.) is 
abundant at Caroline Park, and also at North Queensferry 
and Dysart. The common gooseberry {Bibes Grossularia, 
L.) grows on the sandy coast at Buckhaven and also at 
Bo'ness, sparingly, but producing fruit in abundance. My 
idea is that this species may be taken as a true native of 
North Britain. The bloody crane's-bill (Geranium sanguineum, 
L.) grows plentifully among the sand near Aberlady, illumin- 
ating a bare place with its purple and crimson corolla. The 
dove's-foot crane's-bill (G. molle, L.) and the stinking crane's- 
bill (G. Robertianum, L.) are common on both sides of the 
Firth. The stork's-bill (Eroclium cicutarium, Sm.) is plenti- 
ful where it does occur. I came on a large plot of it opposite 
Fidra, most of the plants with white flowers. At a short 
distance from the same place I saw various plants of the 
local oyster-plant (Mertensia maritime/,, Don), but the foliage 
was scanty, from the browsing of the rabbits by which the 
place is overrun. The viper's bugloss (Uchium vulgare, L.) 
is growing on the shore at Fisherrow Links, and also at 
North Queensferry. The tuberous comfrey (Symphytum 
tuberosum, L.) grows on a damp spot near Cramond : this 
form has not been recorded for the north side of the Firth. 
The creeping toad-flax (Linaria repens, Ait.) I noticed several 
years in succession growing among debris at high-water mark 
between Morrison's Haven and Prestonpans. This is the 
only station for this form that I noticed on the margin of 
the Forth. The ivy-leaved toad-flax (Linaria Cymbalaria, 
Mill) grows on a wall near Dysart, and is plentiful on the 
railway embankment east from Burntisland. There is a 
small patch on a wall near Cramond. The wild teasel 
(Dipsacus sylvestris, L.) is found at East Wemyss and Dysart, 
but it is not a common plant anywhere on the banks of the 
Forth. The devil's-bit scabious (Scabiosa succisa, L.) is 
found near North Queensferry. 

I shall now notice shortly a few additional species. The 
sea starwort (Aster Tripolmm, L.) is interesting as the only 
British form of the genus : it is plentiful on the Aberlady 

1900-1901.] Flora of the Shores of tlie Firth of Forth. 205 

shore, also at Morrison's Haven, growing in similar abundance. 
It is not again found until near South Queensferry. Then it 
appears at Bo'ness, and on the opposite shore at Kincardine. 
The common scurvy grass {Goclilearia officinalis, L.) is very 
common on both sides of the Forth : it is particularly abund- 
ant at South Queensferry, North Queensferry, and Morrison's 
Haven : from the last only a few scattered specimens are 
seen on to the mouth of the Esk. Then scarcely another 
plant will be found until reaching the grassy bank at North 
Leith old churchyard, where it grows abundantly. 

Among the grasses found on both shores of the Firth may 
be mentioned the creeping couch-grass (Triticum repens, L.), 
the meadow soft-grass (Holcus lanatus, L.), the wall barley 
(Hordeum murinum, L.), and the barren brome-grass (Bromus 
sterilis, L.) Amongst the twenty reputed species and varieties 
of Atriplex, several are found on the shores of the Forth. 
It may be well to notice here the important part played by 
various plants as agents of reconstruction. Of this class there 
are several species plentiful here and there on the margin of 
the Forth, such as the whitlow-grass, the dyer's rocket, the 
rest-harrow, Trifolium arvense, Astragalus hypoglottis, and 
Epilobium obscurum (plentiful at Bo'ness). 

In conclusion, on traversing the shores of the Forth from 
North Berwick upwards, the observer will note the absence of 
shrubs or trees near its margin. From North Berwick to 
opposite Fidra the ground is partially level : after that there 
is no vegetation to be met with for some distance — only 
huge mounds of sand, made up of thousands of tons. Near 
the Longniddry shore arborescent vegetation again begins to 
appear, weather-bitten and scant of foliage, making evident 
the force of the gales which blow across the German Ocean. 
Not far distant, and near to the water's edge, the elder grows 
luxuriantly — a hint to proprietors that this is an excellent 
shrub to plant in exposed situations. After the elder comes 
the whin and the bramble ; while the sea-buckthorn grows 
luxuriantly a little beyond South Queensferry. On the north 
shore arborescent forms begin a little lower down. 

2o6 Fern Varieties. [Sess. 


By Mr S. ARCHIBALD, Tomatin, Inverness, 
Corresponding Member. 

{Read April 24, 1901.) 

In 1882 I contributed a paper on this subject, 1 in which I 
described briefly the circumstances which led me to search for 
varieties, and the district — a tolerably good one for the 
purpose — in which I was then located. About twenty more 
or less distinct varieties were exhibited and described. Since 
then I have added a few to my collection, and extended my 
knowledge of the distribution of some of the others, and now 
have the pleasure of placing these before you. 

But first of all, one correction must be made in the list of 
those previously sent. The fern there called Lastrea dilatata, 
var. Brownii, proved on closer inspection to be an attenuated 
form of its near ally, Lastrea spinulosa, that form being the 
result of its habitat — in a hedge on the face of a low retaining 
stone dyke. All the other varieties were, to the best of my 
knowledge, correctly named. 

The first variety I will notice is a very pretty form of the 
graceful little Bladder Fern (Cystopteris fragilis), the points 
of the fronds being bi-, tri-, or multi-fid. It was found on 
the banks of the Carity, near Kirriemuir in Forfarshire, and 
the character is quite permanent, as I have had the plants in 
pot for over a dozen years, and the fronds exhibited are last 
year's growth. The next specimen is from the famous Den of 
Airlie. It is a variety of Polystichum aculeatum, in which 
the pinnules are narrow, distant, acute, and pointing forwards, 
the upper pinnules next the rachis being much larger than the 

Last summer I noted some small plants of Blechnum boreale 
at the roadside near this place, in which most of the fronds 
were bifid. (There were only barren fronds on the plants.) 

In my collection of 1882 there was a very distinct variety 

1 See ' Transactions,' vol. i. pp. 78-SO, " List of a Few Ferns and Fern- 
Varieties collected chiefly in the Parish of Kilmalcolm, Renfrewshire, 1881-82." 

1900-1901.] Fern Varieties. 207 

of Athyrium filix-foemina named denticulatum, having, as its 
name implies, long sharp teeth at the end of each pinnule. 
Here is what seems to be an allied variety, named uncum, but 
with shorter, claw-shaped teeth. Both varieties are small, 
but they differ in this — uncum is of normal outline, whereas 
denticulatum is very broad in the middle compared with its 
length, and narrows upwards very abruptly to the point, with 
a concave curve. Both were found near Kilmalcolm in Ben- 
frewshire. In the same district the larger forms of Athyrium 
grow in profusion, and in great variety of form in the way 
that the pinnules are divided and subdivided, — from the normal 
bipinnate form, through tripinnatum and decompositum, to 
Arranense, a large lax variety, with fronds eighteen inches or 
more across, and each pinna resembling a complete miniature 
frond, narrowing downwards from the middle to the rachis. 
Var. rhoeticum was also frequent. In it the edges of the 
pinnules are recurved, giving them a curious narrow or shrivelled 
appearance. Tripinnatum and rhoeticum are frequent over the 
country, and so is a red- stalked variety similar to one in the 
Botanic Garden from Killarney. 

Lastrea filix-mas, var. paleacea-crispa, is frequent. It is a 
large-growing variety, distinguished from the normal type by 
its very robust appearance, upright habit, dark-green and 
thick leathery foliage, the pinnae and pinnules being crowded 
and crisped or waved. Of Lastrea filix-mas the vars. incisa 
and Borreri are frequent, and producta is quite common. In 
Borreri the chief character is the large lobe at the base of 
each pinnule, which is narrow in the upper part. In incisa 
the pinnules are narrow and distant. Broducta is a very large 
variety, immensely developed in all its parts ; pinnae and 
pinnules not distant, often close ; pinnules with large teeth, 
and the ones next the rachis often much longer than the others. 

To those who may not have given much study to Fern 
varieties, the foregoing notes and the specimens submitted 
may help to show that, even in our cold northern clime, there 
is a wide field open in this department. Of course most of 
the extraordinary varieties and monstrosities are confined to 
the southern and warmer parts of our island. But Scotland 
can claim to have produced at least one wonderful and very 
beautiful variety, the var. Victoriae of Athyrium filix-foemina, 

208 Recent Observations in Natural History. [Sess. 

in which each pinna is divided at a short distance from the 
rachis, one branch growing upwards at an angle of about 
45°, the other downwards at about the same angle, the 
branches crossing each other and forming a lattice. If Scot- 
land has produced that one, what may not be in store for 
the diligent searcher ! 


(Read April 24, 1901.) 

Stalking a Seal. 

Many of you will have read recently in the newspapers a 
description of the scenery which is now opened up by the 
Mallaig Eailway. Irrespective of its wild and picturesque 
nature, this district has attractions to many from its being 
associated with memories of Prince Charlie and the Eebellion 
of '45. Jacobites will here find classic ground ; while lovers 
of nature will revel amid an ever- varying panorama of mountain 
and lake scenery, unsurpassed by anything to be witnessed in 
the fjords of Norway. It is not, however, the natural beauty, 
nor yet the historical associations, of the district that I desire 
at present to bring under your notice, but an observation 
in natural history showing the intelligence animals often 
display in noting the disturbed movements of other wild 
creatures, though themselves unaware of the source of the 
danger, and the consequent defeat of the intruder who 
threatens to destroy them. 

Being retained by several of the proprietors of the ground 
intersected by the Mallaig Eailway, with the view of giving 
evidence in their behalf at a reference, I spent a few days 
last summer in the district. Eesiding in the Kinloch Aylort 
Hotel, I received that motherly hospitality from Mrs Macnab 
with which all who stay under her roof are familiar. Sunday 

1 900-190 1.] Recent Observations in Natural History. 209 

seemed abnormally long, there being no church in the district 
save a Eoman Catholic chapel, the waves of the Reformation 
never having reached that locality. Taking a walk along the 
shores of Loch Aylort, I observed a number of seals, and 
having admired a beautiful sofa blanket of sealskin in the 
hotel, I resolved to make an early start the following morning 
with the endeavour to secure a seal. Having arranged with 
Mr Head's keeper to meet me at the boat-house at 4 A.M., he 
was there punctually, his rifle with him. It was a beautiful 
morning, and as we rowed down the placid lake amid the wild 
mountain scenery, I thought that anything more picturesque 
could scarcely be conceived. It was broad daylight, and as 
the boat silently glided on, no sounds were heard but those of 
nature — chiefly the screaming of seafowl. Carefully scanning 
the rocks with the telescope, I was for long disappointed in 
getting sight of a seal. After rowing several miles, the 
keeper's eyes proved better than mine, he knowing where to 
look for them, and he asked for the glass. His English was 
not very good, but he quickly ejaculated " big fellow." He 
then rowed on as before. After getting behind an island we 
pulled ashore, and the wind being right, we started to stalk 
the seal. There was little difficulty in stalking, and we soon 
got behind a knoll, from the top of which we would be within 
a hundred yards of the object of our pursuit. I examined the 
rifle and saw it was a Mauser, but unfortunately the bullets 
were solid ones, which necessitated hitting the head or neck, 
otherwise he would be certain to struggle into the deep, and, 
though perhaps mortally wounded, would, as far I was con- 
cerned, be lost for ever. Crawling cautiously to the top of 
the hill, I first noticed a pair of what I took to be immature 
tufted ducks sporting themselves in a small bay. Paying no 
attention to them, however, we crawled a yard or two farther, 
and looked down on the seal at a distance of between seventy 
and eighty yards. He was, as the keeper had said, a " big 
fellow," and as we knew he had no suspicion of danger, we 
waited for a time to watch his movements. He lay like a log 
of wood on a bed of seaweed which covered the rock, and 
periodically moved his head from side to side. I was in the 
act of shifting into a position in which to get a lean, in order, 
as I thought, to put the bullet through his head, when the 

210 Recent Observations in Natural History. [Sess. 

two ducks referred to took wing and flew across the water. 
They uttered no sound, but had a Boer " Long Tom " been 
fired it could not have better demonstrated to the seal, " The 
Philistines be upon thee, Samson ! " The tide had receded a 
short distance from where he lay, and his violent struggles to 
reach the water were most amusing. The ducks had seen 
us, and thought it prudent to shift their quarters ; but doubt- 
less there exists a species of wireless telegraphy among those 
denizens of Loch Aylort, with the result already mentioned. 
As he struggled towards the water I could have put several 
bullets into his huge body, but as his head was mostly away 
from me, and his erratic movements made it difficult to hit 
such a small target, I refrained from firing. I fully expected, 
after he found himself safe in the water, that he would put up 
his head and afford a shot, but he evidently knew there was 
real danger about, and never did so. 

Perhaps you will think I was disappointed. In my 
younger days I would have been ; and not only so, but the 
chances are that the seal would have escaped with a Mauser 
bullet through his body, to pine and die amid the caverns of 
the deep. As it was, I received an object-lesson as to how 
human ingenuity may be baffled by the watchful instincts of 
wild animals, and I returned homewards with a light heart. 
If I had not succeeded in bagging a seal, I at any rate found 
a splendid appetite for breakfast, and highly appreciated my 
morning sail amid the beauties of nature. 


It was in a hunting district in Berwickshire. I was spend- 
ing a week-end with a friend. Taking a saunter after break- 
fast, I witnessed a fox enter a ploughed field and search about 
for a place to rest in for the day. Why he was so late afoot 
is difficult of explanation, unless he had been disturbed else- 
where. He appeared to have some difficulty in getting a 
resting-place congenial to his taste, as he shifted again and 
again, but eventually settled down in a furrow. To " catch a 
weasel asleep " is to defy human ingenuity, and yet a friend 
in Fealer forest thus once caught a fox and carried it home in 
his game-bag. The idea, therefore, immediately struck me 

1900-1901.] Recent Observations in Natural History. 211 

that I might try my luck in catching a fox asleep. Waiting 
for a considerable time till I thought he might be indulging 
in an unconscious snooze, I started on my somewhat difficult 
enterprise. I had no intention of capturing him, but, prompted 
by curiosity, I was anxious to see if I could get near enough 
to do so if I desired. Approaching by a side wind in order 
to avoid going straight up the furrow in which he was lying, 
but taking care to keep sufficiently leeward to avoid him 
detecting my presence by scent, I stealthily approached him. 
Walking perfectly upright, I could see his back, the top of his 
head, and his ears distinctly, but his eyes were beneath the 
line of vision. If his eyes were closed I felt almost certain 
that I would get near him, though that I would get sufficiently 
near to catch him — had I wished to do so — was problematical. 
When within eighty yards, I observed that a couple of peweets 
would be a barrier to my success. They were not exactly in 
the way, but too near it to allow me to pass without taking 
wing. Halting for a while in the hope that the birds would 
move a little or become aware that they were not threatened 
with danger, I saw with chagrin that they had no intention of 
leaving, but, with their heads up, kept eyeing me in a most 
suspicious manner. Standing motionless, I could not help 
reflecting on the words of that great observer of nature who 
wrote — 

" Thou green-crested lapwing, thy screaming forbear." 

Moving a step or two, the birds took wing, but, alas ! they did 
not forbear to scream. " Peweet " seemed scarcely to have 
emanated from the throat of one of the birds, when in the 
twinkling of an eye reynard was galloping up the furrow at 
racecourse speed. I am certain that he never saw me, or he 
would not have been so scared. Deer, as is well known, are 
much more frightened when they scent than when they see 
the clanger. Eeynard understood by the scream of the birds that 
he was in proximity to an enemy. His mind must have been 
made up what to do when he lay down, as he took no time to 
look round or consider. To me the scream of the bird and 
the bound of the fox appeared to be simultaneous. 

I have — now many years ago — seen a fox lying in a grass 
field. The late Earl of Wemyss's pack had drawn all the 

212 Recent Observations in Natural History. [Sess. 

covers blank and started for home. Passing within fifty yards 
of the animal to make certain that it was a fox and not a 
hare, I pretended not to see him. Had I stopped and looked, 
doubtless he would have bolted. I ran to the top of the 
Tweed bank and halloed. A number of people on Norham 
Bridge halloed also, and in a few minutes the entire field 
cantered back. Hurriedly telling his lordship the exact spot 
where reynard was lying, I hastened to a point of vantage to 
see the sport. The fox, doubtless, saw the approaching horse- 
men and hounds, but, evidently in the hope of being passed 
unperceived, he lay still till the pack was within five yards of 
him. This to my mind demonstrates that, like deer, the fox 
is much more frightened by an invisible than by a visible 

Grouse sitting on Teees. 

Eecently, while driving in a moorland district in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, I observed birds sitting on two willow-trees in 
close juxtaposition by the roadside. On getting near, I saw 
they were a pair of grouse, the cock sitting on the one tree and 
the hen on the other, both being about twenty feet from the 
ground. This may not be very uncommon, but it is only the 
second time in my experience that I have witnessed it. On 
the other occasion I was shooting in Berwickshire ; and on a 
small bit of moor at Max Mill, a detached part of the Lady- 
kirk estate, a covey of grouse was espied. Standing behind 
a knoll, five birds were driven past me, and I shot a brace. 
The remaining three flew only a short distance, and then 
settled on a thorn-tree. 

Books deserting a Bookery. 

The tenacity with which rooks adhere for generations to 
nesting in particular trees has long occupied the attention of 
naturalists. Before the imposition of the gun tax every village 
had its " sportsmen " who annually sallied forth for " a day at 
the craws." Despite the persecution to which rooks are 
subjected, they year after year build their nests in the same 
trees, or at least in the same plantation. In many country 
districts it is believed that by ceasing to shoot them they will 

1900-1901.] Recent Observations in Natural History. 213 

desert the trees, but the fact of them breeding in towns, as in 
Blacket Place in Edinburgh, demonstrates this to be a fallacy. 
At the same time, they are gradually leaving the rookery at 
The Inch, where they have bred in large numbers for very 
long, though they have not been shot for ten years. This 
year only one nest was built, and that was commenced on the 
15th of April, and has since been deserted after completion. 

A Peculiarity of the Magpie. 

The magpie is an interesting bird, and in very considerable 
numbers breeds around Edinburgh. While a good many 
make their nests at Craigmillar, I generally destroy most of 
them, as I should be sorry to see them increase in numbers. 
They are merciless tyrants among the nests of other birds, 
robbing the eggs and devouring the young. 

It is a well-known fact that the magpie, like many other 
predatory birds, does not appear to mourn for long the loss of 
a mate. I have repeatedly shot one off her eggs, and within 
a few days a second one shared the same fate. There appears 
to be a registry for unmarried magpies somewhere, as no sooner 
is one shot than within a day or two another mate is secured, 
and domestic arrangements go on as before. 

Last year a pair of magpies nested in a tree in the wood at 
the back of the garden at The Inch. When the process of 
hatching was commenced I had the bird disturbed and shot as 
she flew off from the nest. Early the following morning a 
number appeared, and a great deal of hilarious chattering 
around the nest indicated to my mind that, in " piet " 
language, a wedding was going on. The hilarity was brought 
to a sudden termination by a shot from the centre of a holly 
bush, when they quickly dispersed, minus one which fell to 
the ground. This continued in the early mornings for a week, 
when no fewer than six magpies were destroyed. 

Growth of Eoots in a Sewer Drain. 

A drain at The Inch having been choked, we had it lifted 
in order to ascertain the nature of the interruption and have 
it rectified. The contractor who laid the drain had scamped 

VOL. iv. Q 

214 Experiments on the Growth of Yeast. [Sess. 

it, the flanges not being properly caulked and cemented. The 
result was that the roots of a chestnut-tree which grew near 
had found their way into the pipes and ran along in a most 
remarkable manner. The exact distance the roots extended 
in the pipes was unfortunately not measured, but it is safe to 
put it at over a dozen yards. So effectually had they filled 
the drain that some of the pipes could not be removed without 
breaking them, when there was revealed a cylindrical mass 
of matted roots, showing in a perfect manner the formation 
of the flanges of the pipe. It would have been interesting 
to have had the entire length taken out intact, but as the 
labourers were anxious to save the pipes, the roots were cut 
asunder at every three feet. So solid had they become that 
even a three-feet length was a considerable weight, resembling 
pretty closely a " divot " without the green grass on the out- 
side. One would have liked to ascertain how far the roots 
would have travelled along the drain had they been allowed 
to remain. Personally I am of opinion they would have 
grown a long distance. Thinking it might be interesting, I 
have brought the " tail end " of the growth for exhibition here 
to-night. I am aware that in narrating this case I am re- 
iterating a simple statement of a well-authenticated fact, but 
though the fact is well known, it is seldom that an illustration 
is brought under the notice of others than contractors and 
their labourers. 


By Mr W. C. CRAWFORD, F.R.S.E., and Dr A. E. DAVIES. 
(Read April 24, 1901.) 

At the meeting of the British Association last year, after Major 
Eoss had given a lecture on Mosquitoes and Malaria, in which 
he traced the life-history of the heemamoeba from man through 
the tissues of its other host, the mosquito, and back again to 

1 900-190 1.] Experiments on the Growth of Yeast. 215 

man, one of the audience asked naively what effect the 
parasite had on the mosquito ? There was a little laugh 
when Major lioss answered that he had not studied that point. 
It was, notwithstanding, a very philosophical question. 

Much has appeared lately in the newspapers about the 
poisoning of beer-drinkers by arsenic contained in the beer, 
but hardly any one asks the far more significant question, 
What effect has a poison like arsenic on a simple growing cell 
like yeast ? It is one of a number of questions of extreme 
biological interest, as we shall presently show. For field 
naturalists — that is, people who occupy themselves with nature 
studies — there is no way of advancing these studies like 
trying to grow organisms in new and definite conditions. 
Bonnier took plants of the plain far up the Alps or the 
Pyrenees and planted them in a garden there, and they 
assumed an alpine form. A Jerusalem artichoke, for example, 
ceased to have a tall stem, its leaves became crowded together 
and hairy, and lay close to the ground. Nageli grew hawk- 
weeds — of all plants those in which species are most difficult 
to distinguish. He had 2500 in the Botanic Gardens at 
Munich. He studied them for thirteen years to see if changes 
arising from culture were permanent, and he got negative 
results. Maupas grew rotifers at definite temperatures, and 
found how at a higher temperature numbers of male eggs were 
produced, like drones amongst bees. 

In order to test the effect of arsenious oxide on the growth 
of yeast, it was necessary to ascertain the amount of glucose 
converted into alcohol in solutions of definite strength and 
containing known quantities of arsenious oxide. For this pur- 
pose the following solutions were prepared : (1) a solution of 
commercial glucose containing 125 grammes in one litre of 
water, this strength being such that 80 c.c. of the solution 
mixed with 20 c.c. of water gave a 10 per cent solution of 
glucose ; (2) ten solutions of arsenious oxide of such strengths 
that 20 c.c. added to 80 c.c. of water would yield solutions 
containing the following proportions of arsenious oxide : (A) 1 
in 500; (B) 1 in 1000; (C) 1 in 2500; (D) 1 in 5000; 
(E) 1 in 10,000 ; (F) 1 in 20,000 ; (G) 1 in 30,000 ; (H) 1 
in 40,000 ; (I) 1 in 50,000 ; and (K) 1 in 60,000. 

The mode of conducting the experiments had next to be 

216 Experiments on the Growth of Yeast. [Sess. 

settled. Several processes by which the rate of growth of 
the yeast, or, in other words, the conversion of the glucose into 
alcohol and carbon dioxide, could be ascertained were available, 
— as the periodical direct determination of alcohol or carbon 
dioxide formed, or the diminution of the amount of glucose in 
the various solutions, due to its gradual conversion into these 
substances ; or, again, by measuring the pressure of the evolved 
carbon dioxide, as adopted by Schultz and others. After full 
consideration, we concluded that there were objections to all 
these methods, and that for our purpose the simplest and 
most accurate process would be to ascertain, by weighing, the 
actual amount of carbon dioxide evolved from day to day. 

With this object twelve flasks, each having a capacity 
of about 200 c.c, were taken and so fitted that the carbon 
dioxide produced by the fermentation was allowed to escape 
freely after passing through strong sulphuric acid to retain 
moisture, the entrance and final exit tubes of the apparatus 
being protected by tubes containing potassium hydrate and 
calcium chloride, to prevent absorption of moisture, &c, from 
the atmosphere. The flasks were numbered 1 and 2 and A, 
B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and K Into each flask 80 c.c. of the 
solution of glucose were introduced. Nos. 1 and 2 each 
received in addition 20 c.c. of water, and to each of the 
others was added 20 c.c. of arsenical solution, so as to give 
proportions of arsenious oxide ranging from 1 in 500 to 1 in 
60,000, as already indicated. To No. 2 and A, B, C, D, E, F, 
G, H, I, and K was added 20 c.c. of brewer's yeast, No. 1 
being left without. The flasks were then very carefully 
weighed, the potassium and calcium tubes being, of course, 
previously removed. The weighing was repeated daily at 
(with one exception) the same hour until the conclusion of the 
experiment, the loss of weight representing the amount of 
carbon dioxide evolved, and indirectly, of course, the amount of 
glucose converted by the process of fermentation into alcohol 
and carbon dioxide and the rate of growth of the yeast, from 
which the effect of the arsenious oxide in retarding or 
accelerating growth can be at once seen. 

We do not publish our weighings and calculations in detail: 
we have represented them in curves, which show our results 
at a glance. Plate XXV. is to compare the C0 2 given off by 

1900-1901.] Experiments on the Grozuth of Yeast. 217 

yeast in a solution of glucose alone, and in similar solutions of 
glucose containing weak, medium, and strong doses of arsenious 
oxide. The quantity of C0 2 given off is shown by the 
ordinate, and the time is indicated along the abscissa. Simi- 
larly, in Plate XXVI. a curve is given for each flask. Plate 
XXVII. shows at the end of each day the action in the 
different flasks. 

Now, as to the things to be noted from our experiments, we 
would mention several. It is too early to draw conclusions. 

1. It must strike every one that a simple organism — an 
organism consisting of a single cell like yeast — can live in a 
very strong arsenical solution, while a minute dose would 
poison a man. The beer which poisoned those who drank it 
at Manchester contained 1*4 grains per gallon — i.e., 1 in 
50,000. Some of the poisoned drank more than a gallon per 
day, others did not take more than a pint. 1 If we consider 
2 or 3 grains as a certainly fatal dose for man, and a man 
weighs, say, 200 lb., - 5 o\> °^ Bls we ight is a poisonous dose. 
If we consider yeast to be roughly of the same specific gravity 
as water, — and in one of our experiments we used a solution of 
1 in 500, so that yeast can live in -g^ of its weight of 
arsenic, that is a thousand times as much as a man, — that 
was to be expected. In the complex tissues of the higher 
animals drugs affect certain cells or tissues more than they 
do others. That is the case with arsenic, and we believe we 
are right in saying that it is the basis of medicine. 

2. Some curious and exceedingly interesting experiments 
were made a dozen years ago by Hugo Schultz on simple 
animal and vegetable cells by treating them with exceedingly 
dilute solutions of virulent poisons. The experiments are 
recorded in Pfliiger's ' Archiv ' for 1888. Schultz used cor- 
rosive sublimate, iodine, formic acid, arsenious oxide, chromic 
acid, and some other reagents, and he found the activity of the 
organism at once increased. He measured the quantity of 
carbon dioxide given off by manometers of simple construction, 
and he made readings after the addition of the poison every 
two hours, if we remember correctly. The advantage of using 
his method is that results are easily read off. 

Eeaction to a stimulus — an irritation — is the most character- 

1 ' Nature,' 4th April 1901. 

218 Experiments on the Growth of Yeast. [Sess. 

istic property of living matter. Let us take a simple example of 
what is meant. Tight hoots increase corns. The boot presses 
on the foot : Nature resents the injury, and directs a company 
of cells to place a patch of leather on the irritated part. Simi- 
larly, the yeast-cells are stimulated by the poison, which is 
sufficiently weak to irritate and not to poison them, and in- 
creased action goes on. 

Our results were read at too long intervals to show this ; 
but one of the curves (Plate XXVI., at end of fourth day), the 
one of 1 in 50,000, has a curious fall after a prominence. 
The fall we take to be due to the exhaustion after the 
effort to get rid of the poison. It is interesting to note 
how unexpected results record themselves mechanically in a 

Since Hugo Schultz a number of other observers have 
made analogous observations. Effront in 1894 or later 
found picric acid, salicylic acid, and formaldeh) 7 de, besides 
hydrofluoric acid, to have a stimulating action. Other observers 
found that carbon dioxide made the protoplasmic movements 
in Elodca more rapid. There are, lastly, a number of very 
suggestive researches on the etherification of cells, such as 
spirogyra or seeds. We need hardly mention the effect of 
tea or tobacco or alcohol in man. 

3. At present the most striking, the most inexplicable, re- 
sult of our experiments is the almost insignificant effect of what 
we have called moderate quantities of arsenious oxide on the 
vital activity of yeast — quantities of 1 in 20,000 or 30,000 or 
40,000 of water (Plate XXV.) No doubt a probable answer 
will occur to some. It is well known that yeast as used by 
brewers, in this country at all events, is a mixture of organ- 
isms. It is also known that some kinds of fermentation 
are produced by two organisms acting together — a symbiosis 
like a green alga and a fungus in a lichen. The ginger-beer 
plant is such a symbiotic union, and kephir is obtained from 
milk by the mutual action of a butyric acid bacterium and 
a yeast. The arsenious oxide may be more injurious to some 
organisms in common brewer's yeast than it is to others ; but 
this is not the place to enter into such a discussion, even 
if we were qualified to do so. Judging from the present 
trend of speculation on these matters, it is very likely to 

PLATE XXV.-Growth of Yeast. 


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PLATE XXVI.-Growth of Yeast. 



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1900-1901.] Haunts of the Venus' Fly-trap. 219 

suggest itself, although its satisfactory proof would be a much 
more difficult matter. 

We have made these investigations from a purely biological 
point of view. When one begins an investigation of this 
kind, many other problems arise out of it. We may have 
gone over ground which has been already traversed by 
brewers' chemists : it would be surprising if it had not been. 
We have, however, not met with any such investigations. We 
propose to take up some other aspects of the question in other 
series of experiments. 


By Dr J. M. MACFARLANE, Honorary Member. 
{June 24, 1901.) 

A special meeting of the Society was held on the evening of 
June 24, when Dr J. M. Macfarlane, a former member of the 
Society, now Professor of Botany in the University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, U.S.A., delivered a lecture on " Camp- 
ing in the Haunts of the Venus' Fly-trap." A large number 
of the members and their friends were present to welcome 
Dr Macfarlane, after an absence of ten years, and to listen to 
the interesting address he gave. In the absence of the 
President in Switzerland, Mr A. B. Steele, Vice-President, 
occupied the chair, and spoke of the good work Dr Mac- 
farlane had done when a member of the Society, more 
especially in the microscopical section, and of the pleasure it 
gave the members to meet him again. Dr Macfarlane then 
proceeded with his lecture, which was illustrated by a large 
number of beautiful lantern slides. 

In imagination the lecturer and his audience journeyed in 
early April from Philadelphia to Wilmington, North Carolina, 
500 miles south, remarking on the wonderful changes experi- 

220 Haunts of the Venus' Fly-trap. [Sess. 

enced by the way as regards climate and vegetation, — frost 
being on the ground and slight showers of snow in the air on 
starting, while an almost tropical heat with floral luxuriance 
greeted their arrival. It was explained that a waggon drawn 
by two mules was generally hired for these camping expeditions, 
— a tent being included in the baggage, and a cook added to 
the party. It was thus an easy matter to live in the forests for 
weeks, shifting the scene of operations frequently. Wilming- 
ton, though only some twelve hours' railway journey from 
Philadelphia, was characterised as a typical Southern city, 
with its large coloured population living in frame-houses quite 
apart from the whites, its broad streets lined with rows of 
trees, and its handsome public buildings in the business 
quarter. In the slides attention was drawn to the evergreen 
or live oak (Quercus virens), which was the tree commonly 
found on each side of the wide thoroughfares at Wilmington. 
On this tree a fern akin to the British common polypody lives 
and thrives. Another growth also found frequently on this 
oak is the native mistletoe, which thus differs from the 
European form, that is seldom seen on oaks in Britain. So 
serious are the ravages of this parasitic plant in the Southern 
States, that unless it is cleared off the trees they frequently 

Arrived at the camping-ground, — a beautiful spot named 
the Mill Pond, — a feature which at once attracted attention in 
the lantern slides was the presence of the so-called Florida 
moss (Tillandsia iisncoidcs), hanging in long waving festoons 
from the branches of the swamp cypress (Taxodium distichum). 
The strange, weird effect of these festoons, as they were swayed 
with the breeze, was graphically described. Several views of 
the cypresses were shown, in which the trees were either 
dead or dying — smothered by the growth of the Florida moss. 
This epiphytic plant is now being largely used for stuffing 
mattresses and for other purposes. Though so like the lichen 
Usnca, it is in reality a flowering-plant, belonging to the 
natural order of the Bromeliacese, to which the pine-apple 
also belongs. 

Before passing from the swamp cypress, several views were 
shown on the screen of the remarkable aerial roots by which 
this tree is often surrounded. Growing as it usually does in 

1900-1901.] Haunts of the Venus' Fly-trap. 221 

wet ground, where there is little oxygen supply, these surface 
roots are an effort made by the tree to procure from the atmo- 
sphere what it cannot sufficiently extract from the soil — namely, 
oxygen. The appearance presented by these trees with surface 
growths, two or three feet high, around them, was fantastic 
in the extreme. 

Another tree which claimed notice was the long-leaved or 
southern pine (Pinus palustris or P. australis). In itself a 
magnificent tree, attaining a height of from 60 to 70 feet, it is 
valuable as furnishing large quantities of what are known as 
" naval supplies " — namely, tar, pitch, resin, and turpentine. 
The method of extracting the resin by tapping or " slashing " 
the trees was minutely described ; and the destruction of the 
tree by forest-fires was deplored. 

The presence of large numbers of the trumpet plant (Sarra- 
cenia flaoa) in this district was next dwelt upon, the pond banks 
and swamps being often bordered by this curious insectivorous 
form, only to be seen in Botanic Gardens and a few private 
establishments in Britain. As regards this plant, the lecturer 
said that when the type botanic garden in connection with 
the university at Philadelphia was being formed, a number of 
Sarracenias were procured from their native habitat and planted 
in the garden. The result was that they were so abundantly 
visited by moths and other insects of the district, that at the 
end of the season the pitchers were found stuffed with their 
dead bodies, while the plants themselves perished. When 
another lot of Sarracenias was procured, the precaution was 
taken to plug the pitchers after planting. 

The camping-ground was next shifted to Silver Lake, some 
eight miles farther south. Of the insectivorous plants, three 
species of butterworts were here found — namely, Pinguicula 
lutea, P. pumila, and P. elatior. But the great feature of 
this locality was the Venus' fly-trap (Dioncea muscvpula). It 
occurs in such numbers that from thirty to forty plants may 
be counted in a sod a few inches square. In fact, so abundant 
is it that there is little fear of its becoming exterminated 
through the scientific ardour of botanists, the chief danger being 
from forest-fires, which often cause great havoc. To adequately 
describe this plant, which might be termed, the lecturer said, 
the most wonderful plant in the world, would require a 

222 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

volume. Much had already been done in order to elucidate 
its physiological structure. 1 The lecturer said he would only 
mention two of its curious characteristics — namely, its response 
to stimuli, that corresponds to muscular action in animals ; and, 
in connection with that phenomenon, the evidence which the 
plant gives of possessing memory response. A concise account 
of the observations on these points was then given, when it was 
stated that, in order to cause the lobes of the leaf to fold over, 
either two hairs must be touched or one hair must be touched 
twice. If the interval between successive stimuli was too great, 
no response followed, the leaf seeming to retain sharply the 
memory of the first stimulus for about 140 seconds only. 
When the stimuli continue to act at proper intervals, say 
by an insect, the leaf becomes firmly interlocked on its 
halves, and a secretion which is acid to litmus paper pours 
over the insect. This secretion, analogous to the peptic juice 
of the human stomach, soon digests away the soft parts of 
the insect. Want of time only, the lecturer added in closing, 
prevented him from pursuing this interesting theme further. 

Dr Macfarlane's address was followed throughout with the 
closest attention, and at its close, on the motion of Mr Syming- 
ton Grieve, a very hearty vote of thanks was accorded the 


By Mr JAMES RUSSELL, Convener. 

The members of the section decided to follow up during this 
session their studies of the previous session, and to devote 
their attention to the consideration of some of the smaller 
Crustacea. The sub-class chosen was the Entomostraca. The 
name is derived from two Greek words — ivrojiov, an 
insect, and oarpaKov, a shell, and thus signifies " insects in 
shells." Prof. Thomas Eupert Jones, F.E.S., thus defines the 

1 For a notice of Dr Macfarlane's investigations on Dionsea see ' Transactions,' 
vol. iii. p. 62, " Eecent Work by Dr J. M. Macfarlane," by Dr Watson. 

1900-1901.] Report of the Microscopical Section. 223 

Entoraostraca : " Animal aquatic, covered with a shell or 
carapace of a horny consistency, formed of one or more pieces, 
in some genera resembling a cuirass or buckler, and in others 
a bivalve shell, which completely or in great part envelops 
the body and limbs of the animal." 

The text-book followed was Baird's ' Natural History of 
the British Entomostraca,' and one species was studied under 
microscopical dissection from each of the following genera, and 
in the order stated — viz., Apus, Argulus, Daphnia, Cypris, 
Cyclops, Canthocamptus, and Diaptomus. 

Apus. — The genus Apus belongs to the Apodidse, a family of 
the large legion of the Branchiopoda, or branchial-footed animals. 
The species which engaged attention was the Apus cancriformis, 
Schaeffer, a comparatively large crustacean inhabiting stagnant 
waters. The length of this species, inclusive of the tail 
appendages, is about an inch and a half. The head and 
thorax are covered by a carapace in the form of a shield, 
with a deep indentation at the posterior end. It is of a tough 
flexible nature, and is composed of three layers. The outer 
layer is chitinous, of a light-brown colour, and very trans- 
parent ; the median layer is spongy, of a bluish-grey colour ; 
while the innermost is composed of an extremely thin, trans- 
parent membrane. The carapace externally is convex, rising 
to a central longitudinal ridge. In the median layer on each 
side of this longitudinal ridge are three or four well-marked 
lines running obliquely in an arched form, thus following the 
contour of the' outer edge of the carapace. Each of these lines 
is reflexed or bent back upon itself, thus forming a series of 
loops, the one inside the other, like a nest of test-tubes. The 
older writers regarded these as blood-vessels ; they are now 
called the shell glands. They are very clearly seen by the 
naked eye if the carapace be removed and laid upon its back. 
From the anterior part of this median layer spring the muscles 
which actuate the mandibles. These mandibles are very power- 
ful, being upwards of one-tenth of an inch in length, and each 
armed with eight strong teeth. 

The outer layer of the carapace covers the whole of the 
tergal aspect of the head, and, extending over the snout, turns 
backward on the ventral aspect, and forms the covering of a 
membrane which extends to the mouth, and from which the 

224 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

upper labrum springs. The antennre spring from the edge of 
this membrane, one on each side of the labrum. 

The Apus has two compound eyes, situate on the tergal 
aspect of the head. They are of a cuneiform shape, and are 
composed of several separate crystallines of a bluish-black 
colour. They appear like a bramble-berry cut in two longi- 
tudinally. They are covered by the outer layer of the cara- 
pace, which, as mentioned above, extends over the head, but 
at the parts covering the eyes this layer loses its brownish 
colour and is quite clear. 

The mouth is on the ventral aspect of the body, and is par- 
tially covered by the large upper lip or labrum mentioned 
above. The most prominent organs of the mouth are the 
mandibles, which have been already referred to, and the first 
pair of jaws (there are two pairs), consisting of two plates 
strongly ciliated and toothed. As the food of the Apus con- 
sists of the smaller entomostraca, these ciliated plates may be 
looked upon as strainers. 

The feet are very numerous, packed closely together, and 
extend from the mouth downwards along each side of the 
body, decreasing in size. The first pair of feet are situate 
immediately behind the mouth, and are for the purpose of 
locomotion ; the others serve the purpose of respiration, and 
are called branchial feet. The general character of these 
branchial feet is a stem from which spring many finger-like 
appendages, strongly ciliated, a triangular plate finely ciliated, 
and another of an oval shape. As they descend the body these 
feet become modified, until at last they are merely rudimentary. 
The tenth branchial foot, however, deserves attention : it is 
modified so as to form a kind of ovarian pouch or capsule, and 
consists of two circular plates — the triangular and oval plates 
above mentioned modified to a circular form — the one a little 
smaller than the other, bound together at one edge by a strong 
muscle, forming a hinge-like joint, enabling the smaller to be 
closed upon the larger like the lid of a capsule. In this cap- 
sule are contained the eggs, small dark-brown specks. In the 
one examined there were seven eggs. By a little delicate 
manipulation the two plates can be separated, the smaller being 
folded back upon its hinge, thus enabling the internal structure 
to be examined. 

1 900-190 1.] Report of the Microscopical Section. 225 

From the caudal extremity of the Apus are given off two 
long appendages composed of a great numher of articulations. 
Indeed, the outstanding feature of the creature is the immense 
number of its articulations. " Latreille says that we may 
safely take them to be not less than two millions ! " It is 
needless to add that we did not attempt to verify this 

The Apus has not been found in Britain for many years, — 
not since before Baird's time, — but it occurs in various places 
in Europe. 

Argulus. — The Argulus, which next claimed attention, is 
a parasite of various fresh-water fishes, being found upon 
the stickleback, carp, roach, and some others. The name 
of the order, Siphonostoma, in which it is placed by Dr 
Baird, is founded upon the peculiar siphon-like tube with 
which the mouth is furnished to enable the creatures to suck 
the juices of the hosts upon which they live ; while the name 
of the tribe, Peltocephala, is founded upon the shield - like 
covering of the head. 

Compared with the Apus, the Argulus is a small crustacean. 
It is of an oval form, measuring about one-fourth of an inch 
in length. The body is covered by a carapace which in the 
tergal aspect stops near the commencement of the thorax, but 
in the lateral aspects is prolonged for a considerable distance. 
This carapace is very transparent, and, like that of the Apus, is 
composed of three layers. In the median layer of the lateral 
portions is seen a system of opaque tubes, arising from a single 
branch which springs from the stomach. They seem to fulfil 
the same purpose as the shell glands in the Apus. The two 
eyes are situate in the anterior part of the tergal aspect of 
the head, and are sunk in the thickness of the shell. They 
appear like two small dark spots, and are areolar. 

The apparatus of the mouth is somewhat complex, the most 
prominent part being the siphon or sucking-tube, on which the 
name of the order is founded. This sucking-tube is enclosed 
in a sheath which is a prolongation of the lip. The antennas 
are situate one on each side of this tube, but are completely 
covered, when viewed from the tergal aspect, by the carapace. 

But besides the appendages just referred to, there are what 
Dr Baird describes as the second and third foot-jaws, the 

226 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

anterior pair of which are of a very peculiar construction. 
This pair is so modified that each foot-jaw forms a short 
hollow cylinder fitted at the extremity with a horizontal rim, 
furnished round the margin with strong sette. Attached to 
the inside of these cylinders are seen four strong muscles, by 
which they are actuated. These cylinders, with their rims 
and strong setae, act like suckers, and enable the animal to 
fasten itself securely to its host. 

There are four pairs of swimming feet by which the Argulus 
can move about in the water when it is not attached to a fish. 
These feet serve also for the purpose of respiration, and are 
fringed with beautiful plumose setae. 

Unlike the Apus, the Argulus has no external ovisac, but in 
a gravid female the eggs may be seen in the cavity of the 
thorax, between the two lateral prolongations of the carapace. 
The abdomen is by some described under the name of the tail. 
It consists of a bilobed plate, in the bifurcation of which is 
situate the anus. 

The other Entomostraca studied were of much smaller size. 
We shall take them in their order. 

Daphnia. — The Daphnia is one of the genera belonging 
to the family Daphniadae, and of the order Cladocera, so 
called from their antennae resembling somewhat the branched 
horns of a stag. The species studied was the Daphnia pulex, 
or water-flea. This name appears to have been given to it on 
account of its form somewhat resembling the parasite in ques- 
tion, and also from its jumping motions through the water. 
Daphnia pulcx is sometimes common in ponds and ditches 
of standing water. During its life the creature moults very 
frequently, this moulting taking place every ten days or a 
fortnight, according to the warmth of the weather. Viewed 
externally, the Daphnia appears to consist of two very distinct 
parts — the head, which carries the eyes, antennae, and the 
apparatus of the mouth ; and the thorax and abdomen, which 
bear the branchial legs, and are covered by a very transparent 
shell. The head is also covered with a shell of somewhat 
harder consistency than that which covers the thorax and 
abdomen. The prolongation forward of this covering of the 
head forms a point somewhat resembling the beak of a bird. 
Beneath this beak are the superior antennae, consisting of a 

1900-1901.] Report of the Microscopical Section. 227 

few short setae ; while the inferior antennae, which spring from 
the sides of the head, are large and much branched, each branch 
being finely plumose. 

The Daphnia belongs to the class of what are called Mon- 
oculi, or one-eyed animals. The eye is compound, consist- 
ing of about twenty separate crystalline lenses, and has a 
slightly rotatory motion, actuated by two sets of powerful 
muscles. This motion is very well seen if the animal is 
examined by a low power of the microscope in a live-box. 
In this position, owing to the transparency of the shell, 
the motions of the branchial plates can also be well seen. 
In female Daphnia the ovaries are, according to Baird, 
situated along the sides of the abdomen ; and, in moderately 
young individuals, their position may be made out by the 
small, round, pellucid globules they contain. At the back of 
the shell, and behind the ovaries, is the brood-pouch into 
which the eggs are discharged from the ovaries, and where 
the young Daphnia may be observed in different stages of 
development. These eggs are sometimes spoken of as summer 
eggs, and a considerable number of them may occasionally be 
found in the brood-pouch at one time. But eggs of another 
kind, called ephippial eggs, — also known as winter eggs and 
as resting eggs, — may under certain conditions be produced. 
The number of ephippial eggs produced by Daphnia is usually 
two. They appear, when nearly developed, as dark-brownish 
objects at the back of the shell. The part of the shell in 
which these eggs are enclosed becomes thickened, and is by- 
and-by thrown off with the enclosed eggs, floating or sinking 
amongst the mud till conditions favourable for the develop- 
ment of the eggs occur. 

Cypris. — The Cypris is one of the genera into which the 
family of the Cypridse is divided. It belongs to the order 
Ostracoda, of the legion Lophyropoda. The species studied 
was the Cypris tristriata, Baird, now Cypris virens (Jurine). 
It is one of the Monoculi, or one-eyed animals. The eye is 
not compound — that is, there are no traces of separate 

The whole body of the Cypris is enclosed in an oval shell 
like that of a small mussel, the two halves of which are 
attached to each other by a strong ligament which acts like a 

228 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

hinge, thus allowing the shell to be opened and shut at the 
will of the creature. The shell is thickly studded over by 
small dots, which on close examination by a high power of the ' 
microscope appear as protuberances crowned by a minute hair. 
The shell is very brittle, and seems to be covered by some 
substance which repels the water : it may be that the 
protuberances in question are of use in this respect. 

The mouth is situate on the under surface of the anterior 
lobe of the body, and consists of a superior and inferior lip, 
a pair of mandibles bearing each a palpus, and two pairs of 
jaws. The mandible is a powerful organ for such a minute 
animal: it consists of two parts — the mandible proper, 
terminated at one end by a sharp point and at the other by 
four or five pretty strong teeth ; and the palpus, which springs 
from about the middle of the mandible proper, and consists of 
three joints and several seta?. The use of these palpi is 
understood to be to cause a current in the water for the 
purpose of carrying its food to the mouth of the animal. 
There are two pairs of antenna; : the superior pair, springing 
from the head immediately below the eye, are branched and 
beautifully plumose. 

Cypris is more or less common in ponds and ditches of 
fresh water where the water is stagnant but not putrid. 

Cyclops. — The Cyclops is classed under the Cyclopidae, one 
of the families of the order Copepoda or oar-footed animals. 
It is also a one-eyed animal, and is found in fresh water, 
in ponds, lakes, &c. The species studied was the Cyclops 

The Cyclops is a pretty little creature, about the one-tenth 
of an inch in length, including the appendages of the tail. 
Viewed externally, it appears to be divided into two distinct 
parts — the thorax and abdomen. The thorax is divided into 
four segments, of which the anterior is equal in size to the 
remaining three : the abdomen is divided into six segments, 
but in the female the second and third are so united as to 
appear but one. The shell of the various segments of the 
thorax is open on the ventral aspect of the animal, to give 
passage to the feet, the organs of the mouth, and the antennae. 
The single eye is situate in the anterior part of the first seg- 
ment of the thorax, between the superior antennae. These 

1900-1901.] Report of the Microscopical Section. 229 

antennae are of considerable size, comprised of numerous 
articulations, and are covered with setae. The inferior 
antennae are much smaller. 

There are five pairs of feet, which spring from the thorax 
— a pair from each of the segments ; the fifth pair is small, 
and almost rudimentary. The first four thoracic pairs are 
alike. Each foot consists of two branches, springing from 
a common base : each branch has three articulations, and 
is provided with numerous plumose setae. Arising from 
the root of the base of each foot is a long, finely plumose 
seta. These two setae incline inwards towards each other, 
and nearly, if not altogether, meet. The tail consists of two 
pieces, each terminated by four finely plumose setae. The 
plumose setae of the tail and thoracic feet are extremely 
pretty objects when seen under the microscope. 

The shell of the thorax is so transparent that with a good 
light the eggs may be seen in the ovaries : these ovaries 
are situated in the middle line, and give off an oviduct on 
each side of the thorax. There are two ovisacs, one on 
each side of the first segment of the abdomen, and attached 
to it by a slender tube. These ovisacs may frequently be 
seen. They are of various colours, and seem each to contain 
about thirty eggs. 

Canthocamptus. — The Canthocamptus is a genus belonging 
to the same order as the Cyclops. The generic name is 
derived from the long flexible spines of the tail. The species 
studied was the Canthocamptus minutus of Baird, an inhabitant 
of fresh-water ponds and ditches. 

The shell consists of ten segments, gradually decreasing in 
size towards the tail, but the thorax and abdomen are not 
distinctly separated as in the Cyclops. The body between 
the fourth and fifth articulations is very flexible, so that 
the hinder part can be turned up at right angles to the 
anterior part. 

The antennae, compared with those of the Cyclops, are com- 
paratively short, and are furnished with setae ; but, on the 
other hand, the feet are much longer than those of the 
Cyclops, and are beautifully plumose. In those which were 
dissected the striated muscles were clearly seen under the 

VOL. IV. e 

230 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

The Canthocamptus has only one ovisac, which is attached 
to the first segment of the abdomen, and usually contains a 
large number of eggs. From the caudal extremity there issue 
two very long flexible spines with serrated edges, and it is 
from these appendages that the generic name is derived. 

Diaptomus. — The last genus studied was the Diaptomus, 
one of the genera included by Baird in the family Diaptomida?, 
but now removed to the family Centropogidae, and belonging, 
like the two preceding genera, to the order Copepoda. The 
species chosen was the Diaptomus castor. 

The Diaptomus is a one-eyed animal, the large single eye 
being situate at the anterior extremity of the first segment of 
the body. The shell consists altogether of ten segments, of 
which five belong to the cephalo-thoracic portion and five to 
the abdomen. The antenna? are very large, their length being 
equal to that of the body ; they are divided into a great number 
of articulations, and are furnished with strong seta?. 

There are five pairs of legs : the first four pairs much 
resemble the corresponding pairs of the Cyclops, but are much 
longer. Each of these legs consists of two branches springing 
from a common base, and each branch of the second, third, 
and fourth pairs of legs consists of three articulations furnished 
with very fine plumose seta?. The terminal seta? of the 
branches are very long, and form a beautiful microscopic 
object. The fifth pair of legs is somewhat differently formed. 
The tail consists of two parts, each terminated by five seta? 
finely plumose. In a specimen which was steeped for some 
hours in liquor potassse the outer covering was removed, and 
the skeleton was laid bare, showing in a beautiful manner the 
antenna?, legs, and tail. The female has one ovisac of a com- 
paratively large size attached to the abdomen, containing a 
large number of eggs. 

The Diaptomus is a very pretty creature, and its move- 
ments through the water, especially when it is disturbed, are 
rapid in the extreme. Its generic name seems to be founded 
upon this rapidity of motion, being derived from the two 
Greek words signifying " through " and " to fly," as if it seemed 
to fly through the water. The words of Jurine in this re- 
spect may be quoted : " Son port est elegant ; sa maniere de 
s'elancer dans la liquide est noble et hardie ; ses mouvements- 

"1900-1901.] In Memoriam : Mark King. 231 

sont libres et faciles ; tout enfin annonce chez lui une superi- 
ority qui caracte^'ise la grandeur de l'espece a laquelle il 

The foregoing remarks upon some of the organisms studied 
during the session are necessarily limited by the space at my 
disposal. In conclusion, it may not be amiss to state the 
medium which was found most suitable for mounting the 
more delicate parts for examination under the microscope. 
After trying several media, it was found that the following 
gave excellent results, allowing the fine plumose setae to be 
clearly seen : Glycerine, 1 part ; alcohol, 1 part ; distilled 
water, 2 parts. Gold size should be used for making the 
cells and for sealing them after the cover- glass has been put 
on, and when dry a coat or two of good asphalt cement should 
be added. 

My best thanks are due to Mr T. Scott, F.L.S., Naturalist to 
the Scottish Fishery Board, and an Honorary Member of the 
Society, for revising the classification in the above Report. 

In ffltmortam : mark king (ms-woi). 


At the concluding winter-evening meeting of the Society for 
the present session, on April 24, a paper was read by one of 
our honorary members, Mr Mark King, on " The Flora of the 
Shores of the Firth of Forth." In submitting his communica- 
tion, the writer said that he had hoped to make it more worthy 
of the subject, but that he found his years of threescore and 
thirteen were not equal to the task. This paper, which is now 
published in our ' Transactions,' 1 is a valuable contribution to 
a large and important subject, and betokens much labour and 
careful observation, conjoined with botanical skill, on the part 
of the writer. Shortly after this communication was made to 

1 See ante, p. 202 et seq. 

232 In Memoriam : Mark King. [Sess. 

the Society, the members were 'startled by the announcement 
that the writer of it had died suddenly, on the 9th of May. His 
tall, straight figure, and striking individuality, are still fresh in 
our memories, and we can hardly yet realise that he has gone 
from our midst. 

Mark King was born at Lilliesleaf, Roxburghshire, on De- 
cember 28,1828. He was the eldest of five sons, all of whom 
left their rural home early in life — as is still the custom with 
village youths, often to be afterwards widely scattered. Two 
of these brothers are now in positions of influence in Van- 
couver, British Columbia, while a third is pushing his fortunes 
in South Africa. Mark chose the occupation of a gardener, no 
doubt from his love of flowers, and served his apprenticeship 
in the Earl of Minto's gardens at Minto House, Hawick. On 
leaving this place as a young journeyman, he proceeded to 
Yorkshire, where two or three years were passed ; and he then 
returned to Scotland, spending some time at Stanwell Nur- 
series, Leith, under his lifelong friend Mr Hugh Fraser, now an 
honorary member of this Society. Having a great desire to 
learn something of chemistry, Mr King seized the opportunity 
of becoming an assistant in the chemical works of the late 
Anthony Laird, at Magdalene Bridge, Musselburgh. This, how- 
ever, cut him off too much from his botanical studies, and it 
was soon given up. In 1865 he became gardener to the late 
William Kinghorn, Esq., of The Grove, Bonnington, Leith, in 
whose service, and that of his successor, he remained until 
he retired on a pension a few years ago. Here much of his 
leisure was devoted to the pursuit of field botany, and many 
miles were often walked on a Saturday afternoon to collect 
some botanical rarities, which would be planted in a special 
part of his garden, to be tenderly watched and cared for. One 
of his favourite hobbies was the observation of " weeds " which 
had found their way into gardens, fields, or nurseries from 
foreign countries, or to the ballast - heaps of our shores. 
With these he had an intimate and wide acquaintance. On 
two different occasions during the past session he exhibited to 
the Society wild-flowers gathered on the South African veldt. 
These were collected by his youngest brother, Robert, during 
hours of enforced waiting with the hospital train, of which he 
was the engine - driver, and sent on to the plant - loving 

1 900-190 1.] Exhibits in Natural History. 233 

brother at home. Strange to say, when, last May, Eobert 
returned to this country on a short furlough, after eighteen 
years' absence, the first news he heard was the announcement 
of his eldest brother's death. 

So far back as March 1884 Mr King contributed his first 
paper to the Society, on " Some American Plants worth Notice." 
This was followed in February 1885 by "Notes on the 
Genus Lamium," and by " Veronicas in the Neighbourhood 
of Edinburgh" in January 1886. In January 1891 he read a 
very interesting paper on " Plant Multiplication," and in 
December 1895 another on "Poisonous Plants." This last 
paper was very favourably noticed in the ' Gardeners' Chronicle ' 
and in ' Nature ' on its publication in the ' Transactions' of our 
Society. He was also a member of the Scottish Horticultural 
Association, and contributed to its ' Proceedings.' He was a 
man of sterling probity, well read in many subjects, and greatly 
esteemed by all who knew him. 


At the winter-evening meetings during the past Session a 
number of interesting objects in Natural History were shown 
by members of the Society. The following were amongst the 
number : The President, Mr W. C. Crawford, exhibited a 
pure culture of fresh-water algae made by Professor Chodat, 
Geneva; also specimens of gold-bearing quartz from the 
Transvaal, and a sample of pioggie di sangue or blood rain from 
Naples, which last was also shown from Dumfriesshire by Dr 
Watson. The Secretary exhibited a nest of the weaver-bird 
from Assam, while Miss Mitchell showed a nest of the hum- 
ming-bird from Jamaica. A yellow-coloured mavis, captured 
in Dalmeny Park, was shown by Mr C. Campbell, as also 
skins of a pied variety of mole from the same locality. Mr 
G. A. Harrison exhibited a nest of the trap-door spider, and 
Mr Adams a death's-head hawk-moth caught at Dunfermline. 
A small collection of fungi was shown by Mr Calder, and a 

234 N attire Study. [Sess. 

number of wild plants, insects, and fruits from South Africa by 
Mr King. Miss Edith M. H. Gray exhibited a cone from an 
Araucaria imbricata grown at Hollybush, Ayrshire. A large 
number of microscopic slides were also shown by members 
throughout the session. 


By Mr W. C. CRAWFORD, F.R.S.E., President. 

(Read Oct. 23, 1901.) 

Three years ago you elected me your President : I can hardly 
believe it was three years ago, the time seems so short. I 
have greatly valued the honour : it has given me very much 
pleasure to preside over a society where goodwill and kindness 
uniformly prevail, and where many kindred spirits meet 
together. And now in retiring for the third and last time, — 
for we, the office-bearers, retire every year, and you have re- 
elected me twice, — I should like to talk to you on a subject to 
promote which is the chief aim of this and of similar societies 
— and of these societies there are a great many, not only in 
this kingdom but in other countries. The subject is Nature 

A witty Frenchman, I think it was, once said, " There are 
no such things as facts — there are only points of view " ; and in 
discussing human affairs, where the facts are multitudinous and 
confusing, the point of view may be as important as the facts 
themselves. Is not every theory a point of view ? And so 
the field naturalist from his point of view should be able to see 
clearly the significance and the trend of nature study. 

Nature study is greatly talked about at present : it is being 
introduced into schools, — and it is no easy matter to introduce 
radical changes into national institutions. I do not intend to 
say much about that aspect of the matter. Several of our 

> ! 

1900-1901.] Nature Study. 235 

members with far more knowledge and experience than I have 
are incomparably better qualified to speak of nature study in 
schools, and the practical difficulties to be overcome before it 
can be successfully taught there. What I am going to say will 
apply to young people both at school and in their homes ; and 
home influences, to my mind, are the most important part of 
all true education, because they have the greatest influence on 

It has always seemed to me that the defects or failures 
of school education were largely due to the fact that the 
British parent has no clear idea of what he wants when 
he sends his children to school. " You shall educate me," 
says Emerson, " not as you will, but as I will." What the 
aim of education should be is one of the most difficult 
things to determine. The aim of nature study is to bring 
us into sympathetic touch with our surroundings. The 
nature student uses books as guides to nature, like so many 
Baedeker's or Murray's handbooks, to direct him to what is 
most worth notice, and to tell him how to reach the best 
points of view in the shortest time. Nature study is the 
beginning of what receives later the name of original research. 
Nature study and research are pervaded by the same spirit. 
We cannot all be discoverers of new truths and publish our 
results, and it is well for our fellows that we cannot ; but we 
can all learn to some extent the habit of getting at the facts 
for ourselves, of thinking for ourselves. Those of us who have 
spent happy semesters at German universities know what an 
amount of research goes on there, and still there is less origin- 
ality about it than we might at first be inclined to believe. 
Students get a great deal of direction and advice from their 
professor or privat-docent, so that it is really the training in 
how to investigate for oneself that is the most valuable part 
of the higher education in Germany ; and this is just advanced 
nature study. The nature student, or for that matter the field 
naturalist, follows the same path which the race has pursued 
through the ages in acquiring scientific knowledge. His men- 
tal attitude resembles that of the early astronomers on the plains 
of Chaldea : considering that they depended simply on their 
own observation, they seem to have known a great deal ; and 
like them the nature student gains higher standpoints, and so 

236 Nature Study. [Sess. 

widens his intellectual horizon. Nature study accustoms us to 
look at things in the solid, and not in diagrammatic form as 
they are sketched for us by others. In nature study the 
acquiring of numberless facts is not aimed at so much as the 
cultivation of the power of observing facts within our imme- 
diate experience, and of building conclusions on that solid 

There are two ways of teaching, just as there are two ways 
of building houses. We may begin at the bottom, — -that has 
been the way the race has all but universally followed to 
shelter itself from wind and rain ; or we may begin at the top, 
if a well-devised, sufficiently rigid framework is prepared be- 
forehand. In America they do that : they construct a sort of 
Eiffel Tower, put a roof over it, and then build downward. Some 
of us here, I daresay, made our early acquaintance with the 
Latin tongue through a venerable grammar written in Latin ; 
and many of us were supposed to know a good deal about 
aorists and perfects before we knew a couple of hundred 
words of Greek. That was on the Eiffel Tower system ; and, 
as in the immense majority of cases the metallic framework 
was never filled in, there remains in after life a mental 
structure as valueless as so much old iron and old bricks. 

To continue my illustration from the study of languages : if 
we begin to learn a language new to us as a child does, — as, 
for example, is done in the so - called Gouin system, — we 
learn a great many words linked in natural associations, and 
we connect a word with an action, and so the action leaves its 
trace on the brain, and this becomes deeper and deeper by 
repetition. Naturally to get good results, whether in nature 
study or in the study of languages, our course must be 
arranged systematically, progressively, logically, to economise 

The psychological basis of nature study is inquisitiveness. 
It is natural for every child to be inquisitive, and to wish 
to find out the reasons of things around it. Systematic, care- 
fully thought - out nature study — the so - called heuristic * 
method — is an attempt to gratify intelligently this curiosity, 

1 From the exclamation of Archimedes when he discovered the specific density 
of gold, " Heureka," " I have found it ! " The word has been adopted by the 
Education Department. 

1900-1901.] Nature Study. 237 

and to exercise and develop the rudimentary faculties of 
research. The teacher directs the natural impulses, and tries 
to make them automatic so as to build up character, very 
much as the gardener prunes and trains the tree that it may 
bear good fruit. There is fine insight in what Shakespeare 
wrote : — 

" Yet nature is made better by no mean, 
But nature makes that mean : so, over that art, 
Which you say adds to nature, is an art 
That nature makes. . . . 
. . . This is an art 

Which does mend nature,— change it rather, but 
The art itself is nature." 

— " The Winter's Tale," iv. 3. 

"Feed the young growing human being," says Professor 
James, our present Gifford lecturer, " feed him with the sort 
of experience for which from year to year he shows a natural 
craving, and he will develop in adult life a sounder sort 
of mental tissue, even though he may be ' wasting ' a great 
deal of his growing time in the eyes of those for whom 
the only channels are books and verbally communicated 
information." 1 Sir John Gorst, in his address as president 
of the section of Education of the British Association, 
made some remarks worth remembering, coming as they 
do from so great an authority on educational affairs. "If 
children in village schools," he said, "spent less of their 
early youth in learning mechanically to read, write, and 
cipher, and more in searching hedgerows and ditch-bottoms 
for flowers, insects, and other natural objects, their intelli- 
gence would be developed by active research, and they 
would better learn to read, write, and cipher." 

Nature study has been made to play an insignificant part 
m our educational system, because the results cannot be 
mechanically determined by an examiner, — they cannot be 
readily quantified and paid for according to the method 
long in vogue. The same difficulties were felt long before 
the age of examinations and the compulsory teaching of the 
three E's. Our spiritual guides in the National Church 
tried to introduce soul-sifting machines, known as confessions 

1 ' Talks to Teachers,' by Professor James, p. 148. 

238 Nature Study, [Sess. 

and catechisms : it saved so much trouble to put a question 
and get the stereotyped correct answer ; and it was hard 
work indeed to teach in the concrete. There is some hope 
for improvements in the future, when an earnest attempt 
is being made to discontinue a system in which, to quote 
again from Sir John Gorst, " the children were not really 
educated at all — they were only prepared for examinations." 
Systems of national education, like human institutions 
generally, became in course of time hindrances to progress 
from their want of elasticity. They are like the crustacean 
exoskeleton : while it strengthens and protects the organism 
within, it must frequently be cast off, and the process is 
painful and dangerous ; still it is unavoidable, if the living 
organism is to retain its vigour and grow. All social 
systems must undergo ecdysis, for the institution was made 
for man, and not man for the institution. 

I have referred to payment by results, which is happily now 
likely to become a thing of the past, and I had fondly hoped 
that nature study was a territory still unexploited by the 
examiner, a region where the educational prospector had not 
marked off his claim. Of that I have lately had doubts — for 
habits, individual or social, are hard to eradicate. I attended 
a lecture or two of a recent course given by well-known 
scientific men to schoolmasters, to show how nature study 
might be taught. What I heard disappointed me, because it 
was academical and bookish in form. I had expected a shore 
walk, a basketful of the common objects, P and demonstrations 
from the living things : perhaps that was quite impracticable. 
Instead of it we had a number of magic-lantern slides, not 
taken from nature but from well-known book-illustrations, 
some of which had done duty for a couple of generations. 
Now man is a very imitative animal, and one may imagine 
the pedagogic audience repeating the lessons they had them- 
selves received after being diluted to suit juvenile digestion ; 
and the magic-lantern and the book illustrations will doubtless 
reappear in the primary or secondary school. Not only so, 
but this course of lectures ended, I heard, with the usual 
written examination to ascertain how far the schoolboy of 
mature life had imbibed the instruction imparted to him. 
If this is also to be repeated in the schools, it makes one 

1900-1901.] Nature Study. 239 

earnestly wish that nature study had been left untilled 

The Here and the Now are the categoricals of nature study. 
It is Thoreau who says that every hill may be an Olympus, 
where the gods may be seen by those who train their eyes to 
see them ; and you may remember the story of the old Greek 
philosopher, which impressed both Aristotle and Lessing. 
Heraclitus was visited by some friends when he was warming 
himself in a stable, and they hesitated to enter. " Come in," 
he said, " for here also are the gods." To illustrate what I 
mean, suppose we want to show an example of a synergid 
we need not exhibit a picture of the umbrella-like alga found 
in the Bay of Naples, and by no means common there, when 
I we can gather Vaucheria or Bryopsis in handfuls not far from 
our own doors. If we wish to illustrate the movement of 
leaves, it would be well to avoid a tropical Dcsmodium as an 
example for the lantern screen (although it is given in many 
German text-books, and so finds its way into ours), so long as 
similar phenomena may be seen in wood-sorrel or clover. 

There is another reason for teaching nature study in 
schools, besides that of attaining a higher educational ideal. 
Purely intellectual reasons are rarely if ever enough to bring 
about great reforms : some economic or social need must be 
present to give impetus to the movement ; and social and 
economic causes are at work to promote nature study. These 
have been recognised in America, where the people are more 
ready to adopt new ideas than they are in the old country. 
For some time there has been in America, as there has been 
in Europe, an extensive migration of country people into 
the larger towns. The population is increasing much more 
rapidly in the cities than in the country. In fact, the recent 
American census shows a decrease in population in some 
of the rural districts. The Americans have set themselves 
in a very far-seeing way to endeavour to increase the attrac- 
tiveness of the country by teaching the boys and girls — who 
will soon be themselves citizens, and ere long parents of a 
new generation — to see some of the beauties and interests 
of country life. In several States leaflets and pamphlets 
have been carefully prepared for the use of public -school 
teachers to help them to present to their pupils nature study 

240 Nature Study. [Sess. 

in an interesting way. A number of these lie on the table. 
I showed some of these tracts to a young lady, a member of 
this Society, who has studied very thoroughly Kindergarten 
methods, and her criticism of them struck me as particularly 
to the point. She said they were got up far too evidently 
to coach the teacher. This applies to English as well as 
American nature study tracts. The aim of the movement 
is most praiseworthy, but, it must be confessed, by no means 
easy to accomplish, because teachers in public schools on 
both sides of the Atlantic are already an overworked body, 
and teaching nature study above all things must be sympa- 
thetic and not mechanical, and for that a certain amount 
of leisure is essential. 

Here I should mention an article which appeared in Apple- 
ton's ' Popular Science Monthly' for February 1898, which 
showed that a good deal was being done in the way of what 
I might call economic nature study. I shall quote a few 
sentences from the article. "In 1890 there were nearly 
8000 school gardens — gardens for practical instruction in 
rearing trees, vegetables, and fruits — in Austria." " In France 
gardening is practically taught in 28,000 primary and ele- 
mentary schools, each of which has a garden attached to it, 
and is under the care of a master capable of imparting a 
practical knowledge of horticulture." Similar arrangements 
exist in Sweden. " Still more significant is the establishment 
of many school gardens in Southern Russia." Out of 500 
schools in one province, about one-half have school gardens of 
fully an acre each, and this movement has widely spread over 
Central Russia. 1 

To sum up what I have already said : nature study — or, 
to use the new word, the heuristic method — is the phylo- 
genetic method ; it is the path the race has pursued in ad- 
vancing from palaeolithic times to the present, from ignorance 

1 It is curious to note what a change in men's views of education has taken 
place in little more than a century. Dr Samuel Johnson thought education as 
needful for the " embellishments of life." " The truth is," he says, " that know- 
ledge of external nature and the sciences which that knowledge requires are not 
the great or the frequent business of the human kind" (" Life of Milton"). In very 
much the same spirit Rousseau wrote : " Le pauvre n'a pas besoin d'eclucatioD," 
— he means of books ; ' ' celle de son e"tat est f orcee ; il n'eu sauroit avoir 
d'autre " (' Emile,' i.) 

1900-1901.] Nature Study. 241 

to knowledge. It cultivates the habit of finding out things 
for ourselves : it is therefore the true ontogenetic method — 
the course to pursue for individual development. It is of 
great economic importance to make the country more attractive 
and prevent its depopulation. The difficulties which stand in 
the way of its introduction are the want of teachers, them- 
selves trained in the heuristic method ; the want of time 
in school hours ; and, chiefly, the results cannot readily be 
summed up for payment by examination. 

And now I must go on to speak of the subject as it concerns 
us mature men and women, and chiefly the real although almost 
unconscious devotees to nature study — the field naturalists. 
Most of us have unfortunately not had the advantage of good 
sympathetic direction in our nature studies in early youth, 
and much of our education might, I daresay, have been with 
advantage replaced by nature study : it would have saved us 
giving brain-room to a good deal of intellectual lumber. 

It is often noticed that people who spend much of their 
time in reading are not observant ; and our school education, 
which is mostly taken up by book study, leads to a like result. 
Some years ago a friend of mine and I were staying in a west 
coast village. It was a lovely summer afternoon an hour or 
so before sunset, when we saw a most interesting meteoro- 
logical phenomenon. It was a mock sun of great brilliancy. 
The phenomenon lasted a good half hour, and impressed us ex- 
ceedingly. One sees such things figured in books on the arctic 
regions, but I had never seen a parhelion before, nor have I 
seen one since, in this country. It was Sunday : the hour for 
evening service approached, and a hundred or two of people 
walked along the road to church. The sun was at the back of 
some on one road and on the right of others on another road, 
and somewhat hidden by a plantation, so that it was not straight 
before them. What struck us greatly was that none of the 
passers-by seemed to notice the phenomenon at all, except a 
few to whom we pointed it out. I asked several neighbours 
next day if they had seen the mock sun : not one of them had 
done so, and some greatly regretted that they had not. I have 
known people — educated people — who lived within two or 
three hundred yards of rocks on which were magnificent ice- 
groovings, and although they had passed these rocks every day 

242 Nature Study. [Sess. 

for a generation they had never noticed the ice-markings. 
Examples might be multiplied indefinitely. When the British 
Association was in Edinburgh last, I heard the late Professor 
Fitzgerald make some remarks which were so pithy that I have 
not forgotten them yet. He said that the study of Greek 
literature had made very little impression on us as a nation, 
because the thoughts were conveyed in an almost unknown 
language ; while Hebrew literature had had an enormous in- 
fluence on us, because the Bible had been translated into 
the vernacular. Nature study is the vernacular of the race, 
by the use of which it has made all its great discoveries; 
and when we prefer secondhand knowledge to nature study, 
we allow our powers of observation to become atrophied. 
We are much more impressed by observations made by 
ourselves than things we read about. The fact observed is 
like a scene in the sunlight ; the other is like a photograph 
which, however accurate, wants life and colour. Let me give 
an illustration or two from my own experience. Many years 
ago I visited Yellowstone Park, and amidst the many wonders 
of that region of geysers was one which made a great impres- 
sion on me. It was to see the water in the geyser basins of a 
beautiful blue-green colour, from the living algse it contained. 
The water was boiling — that is, it had a temperature of about 
180° Eahr., which is the boiling-point at the elevation where 
we were. I could not believe that it was possible for proto- 
plasm to live at that temperature, and my first impulse was to 
doubt that these delicate organisms were alive at all. Many 
years after, at a meeting of the Eoyal Society, I was delighted 
to hear Lord Kelvin express his wonder at finding similar 
organisms in the hot springs of Banff, in Canada. His in- 
ference was that living algse might exist on the earth when it 
was much hotter than it is, and supply the atmosphere with 
oxygen. Later, I found other cases of simple organisms living 
in most unexpected places, — for example, a mould growing in 
dilute sulphuric acid ; from which it may be concluded that 
the physical basis of life has powers of adapting itself to con- 
ditions as yet not dreamt of in our philosophy. 

But Yellowstone is in a far country, and not many of us 
wander thither. Let me take another illustration of the 
impressiveness of seeing things for oneself, and this from our 

1 900-190 1.] Nature Study. 243 

native country, the interest of which, for the field naturalist at 
least, is inexhaustible. Some years ago, in company with a 
geological party, I visited Mull. Naturally the Ardtun leaf-beds 
were the chief object of attraction. We went to them and 
dug out from underneath the sheets of basalt pieces of leaves 
of dicotyledonous plants, some of them resembling plane-tree 
leaves. The leaves are in considerable quantities : they have 
been blown, possibly by autumnnal winds, into some lake or 
stream, and have been there covered over by showers of 
volcanic ashes, and afterwards by enormous sheets of basalt 
from a neighbouring volcano. Like Pompeii and Herculaneum, 
they have been preserved through the ages, only unlike the 
old Italian towns they have had mountains of basalt — a 
Hebridean Pelion and Ossa — piled over them. Since these 
tender leaves grew, the fiord of Loch Scriddan and the valley 
of Glen More have been excavated through the sheets of 
volcanic rock ; all the valleys of the West Highlands, in fact, 
have been formed. The sight was very impressive, because it 
gave us some idea how long the Highland valleys had existed, 
and, judged by geological time, it was not so long ago after all. 
It was since plane-trees and cinnamon-trees existed, almost 
the same as those living now ; and these perishing trees have 
more enduring forms than the solid rocks on which they grew. 
Another point to be noticed is that living, growing, devel- 
oping objects are the most suggestive. Suppose we take 
this time an example or two from living things which we 
cultivate, — for a field naturalist can come into touch with 
nature best of all by growing things — by becoming for the 
time the developed gardener or shepherd. There are few 
things we may obtain more suggestions from, particularly 
about human society, than from domestic bees. I have 
kept bees for a very long time — not for their honey, but 
because a hive seems to throw much light on many and 
profound social problems. In my young days — it was 
before frame hives came into general use — we kept our 
bees in " skeps," and we often killed them in order to get 
the honey. It was the most foolish thing a beekeeper could 
do. I do not speak of its cruelty. The best, the most active 
of the bee colonies were killed off, because their hives con- 
tained the most honey, and the more backward — the inferior 

244 Nature Study. [Sess. 

— hives were preserved. It was an ideal way to deteriorate 
the race. In principle it resembles the human plan of 
settling international differences by war. You remember 
the average height of the French people was lowered by 
an inch after the Napoleonic wars. Another problem about 
the bee community is the number of drones maintained in 
the hive. In a large good hive there are some 20,000 bees 
and some 500 drones, whereas a dozen or two would seem 
to be enough : this means that the working members of the 
community have to pay 6d. per £ of income-tax — in many 
cases much more — to keep up the idle classes, — the leisured 
classes. There must be some reason for this. May I 
suggest a probable explanation ? The drones, whether from 
their leisure or celibacy, are the gifted members of the hive. 
The workers are sacrificed to work, and die early. The 
queen is wholly given to reproduction, and has the brain 
of an imbecile ; while the drones are the best endowed with 
organs of sense and with brains, — I mean, their nervous 
system is the most developed. The drones may therefore 
be a means of keeping up the intelligence of the race, and 
for this the workers submit to the income-tax I have men- 
tioned. I know that I am treading on dangerous ground, 
and that this is not the time to discuss such a problem, nor 
to suggest a solution not according to current Weismannian 
views. Beekeeping, however, means having a garden, and 
that is a luxury beyond the reach of many urban field 
naturalists. A great many interesting cultivations, however, 
may be made in an inverted bell-jar. In summer I had a 
boat lying on the shore in which there happened to be a 
good deal of rain water. On going to empty it, I found 
scores of the aquatic larvae of some gnat or mosquito floating 
on the surface, and others swimming rapidly through the 
water by sudden contortions, — you know what I mean. I 
gathered a lot into a tube and tumbled them into an 
aquarium : there was nothing in that. I have done the 
same thing before — we have many of us done it again and 
again, just as we plant out our geraniums or sow our annuals 
every year : we want to enjoy seeing them as often as we 
can. In that small glass vessel the whole drama of insect 
life was performed. The curtain rises and shows us on 

1900-1901.] Nature Study. 245 

the stage the active young larva? almost as transparent as 
glass. Three or four scenes of moulting succeed, then there 
is the great transformation scene of pupation, and lastly the 
emergence of the winged insect into a new element. The 
changes which have taken place in the organism before our 
eyes have been enormous — changes of the external organs, 
a sort of liquefaction and reconstruction of the internal, 
waste nitrogenous matter thrown off at each moulting — a 
curious way of obtaining and getting rid of our clothes ; 
and the great problems of heredity presented in an entirely 
new light. Whether we give a biological or a poetical 
interpretation to many things in metamorphosis — and the 
phenomena admit of both — we could not be spectators at 
a drama fuller of meaning than that of the life-history of 
a gnat. You remember Browning's 

" Fancy which turned a fear, 
Because the membraned wings, 
So wonderful, so wide, 
So sun-suffused, were things 
Like soul, and nought beside." 

— "Fifineatthe Fair." 

The want of a garden is no reason why we cannot still 
play the role of the developed, metamorphosed gardener. 
We can grow numbers of algae in a tumbler of water, and 
obtain from them a working model of the origin and evolu- 
tion of sex. Numberless other illustrations will occur to you. 
I know it will be said we have no time in this busy age 
for such studies. I would reply that we live in the richest 
empire the world has ever seen, and there is a great deal of 
leisure if we use it well. Laveleye, the economist, has a fine 
paragraph, which I copied out of one x>l his books (' Luxury ') 
a long time ago. Laveleye says, " When our rational wants 
are satisfied, what we need is not to create a superfluity for 
the satisfaction of spurious needs, but to employ our leisure 
in cultivating our minds, enjoying the society of our fellows, 
and fostering our love of the beautiful. The higher a man 
rises in culture and knowledge, the less he cares for fine 
clothes and sumptuous fare." This is only another version 
of Wordsworth's ideal — "plain living and high thinking." 

If nature study formed a part of education, and if our 
vol. rv. S 

246 Nature Study. [Sess. 

education did what all true education should do, organise 
habits of conduct, it would go far to work out Laveleye's 
ideal. There are few things more depressing in our social 
life than to observe how men spend their leisure. Look at 
the way our trades holidays are largely spent. Take a trip in 
a steamer on the Clyde during the Glasgow Fair Holidays, 
and you will see thousands of hard-working, respectable men 
and women who, when they have a few days' freedom from 
toil, do not know what to do with themselves. It is much 
the same in all our great cities. " What use will humanity 
make of its leisure ? " asks Maeterlinck (' The Kingdom of 
Matter '). " On its employment may be said to depend the 
whole destiny of man, and were it not well that his counsellors 
should begin to teach him to use such leisure as he has in 
a nobler and worthier fashion ? It is the way in which hours 
of freedom are spent that determines as much as war or as 
labour the moral worth of a nation. It raises or lowers, it 
replenishes or exhausts. At present we find in these great 
cities of ours that three days' idleness will fill the hospitals 
with victims whom weeks or months of toil had left un- 
scathed." I have quoted this passage — which seems to me 
entirely true — from the distinguished Belgian writer to show 
that the evil is international. 

It is not our working classes alone who do not spend their 
leisure well : look at the literary trash the average English 
traveller brings into a railway carriage to while away an 
hour. I was once in the desert of Arizona, and there I 
met an American artist. He had spent a long time in con- 
tact with the Red Indians, and, like many men in such places, 
he enjoyed intensely a talk with a stranger. He dilated on 
the Eed Indian's ideal of life, and on that of the white 
American, preferring much that of the Eed Indian. In tone 
it was exactly like a conversation with a Eed Indian chief 
given by Lotze (' Microcosmus,' ii. 240). "Ah, my brother," 
said the chieftain to his white guest, " thou wilt never know 
the happiness of both thinking of nothing and of doing 
nothing; this, next to sleep, is the most enchanting of all 
things. Thus we were before our birth, and thus we shall be 
after death. . . . Your people are like a fountain flowing from 
the rock, — they never rest. When they have finished reaping 

1 900-190 1.] Nature Study. 247 

one field, they begin to plough another ; and as if the day were 
not enough, I have seen them working by moonlight," and so 
on. And the great philosopher of Gottingen adds, " This is 
not the language of stupidity. On the contrary, if it were 
presented to us in Greek verse, we should admire in Latin 
commentaries the fineness with which it derides the perversity 
of the white men, of whom so many, in their haste to get 
forward, lose all remembrance of their goal." 

It is the Hindoo habit to give some time every day to 
tranquillity and meditation ; and it was Aristotle who said, 
" All work to which men submit is for the purpose of having 
leisure " ; and it seems to me that a man can have no greater 
material blessing than leisure and the power to use it well. 
From the invention of machines and the use of steam power 
every man in this country may be said to have the power of 
five or six men placed at his disposal, yet labour for the 
majority of men is not less incessant. One should hope that 
in the future labour will become less imperious, and that the 
concomitant leisure will make for human culture. If we take 
the power of using leisure well as the measure of culture, we 
may have grave doubts that we are making much progress in 
that direction. Eussell Lowell once expressed badly — which 
he did not often do — a thought at bottom right : he said, " A 
university is a place where nothing useful is taught." That 
may have a painful ring of truth about it to us old students, 
in a sense that was not intended. What Lowell intended to 
convey was, that a university was a place for obtaining a liberal 
education, and a liberal education is not an education in bread- 
and-butter making ; it is essentially an education in disinter- 
estedness. That seems to be the ideal towards which the 
higher education should continually approach : it is to be 
feared that it is not doing so at present. Culture for its 
own sake is what we need, and the method of nature study 
should be for many a convenient path towards it. 

Much more might be said about nature study as culture. 
Man is the terminal link of a long chain of organic forms. 
Since these plane-tree leaves of which I have already spoken 
grew in Mull, the mammalian brain has increased enormously 
in size. Will this brain development go on ? Will existing 
man develop into higher forms to whom we shall appear like 

248 Nature Study. [Sess. 

cave men ? We can hardly doubt it. And man is the only 
animal which can alter by foresight the destiny of his race. 
Karl Pearson ('The Ohanoei of Death ') gives us good ground 
Fur believing that human society is recruited chiefly from its 
inferior membera That is a depressing thought. By taking 
counsel together could we Dot do something to improve that 
immortal part of us which has been called posterity? That 
would be the ideal imperialism to create a better race. 

There is only one Other thing I would say here. Wo 
all at Some period Of our lives, when sorrow conies and 
when misfortune overtakes us, — we all need solace and 
sympathy; and the love of nature — an outcome of nature 
study will do inueh to help us in those hours of gloom. 

I did not road over what I had written until I had 
reached this point, and when I did do so I felt a good 

deal disappointed. I had tried to explain inueh that all 

real field naturalists know sub-consciously — "The impulse 

i.t' I, he vernal woods," — 

" Or to (i bat mei ihall we put 

Tin' wild-weed Sower thataunpl] blows j 
An<l ii there any moral iiiil 
Within the bosom of tbe roee I" 

I have not escaped the influence of the spirit of the time, 
and l fear I have tried unintentionally to measure spiritual 
things by the o mon standards of commercial value, and 

with the usual disappointing results. 

And now I must conclude by making a fow remarks about 
some mallei:; which more particularly concern this Society. 

Two or three years ago the Society began to offer an annual 
prize for the encouragement of the study of local natural 
history. It is an experiment, and whether it will accomplish 
its object remains to be soon. The intention was to encourage 
our members to nature study by taking ap some small field of 
it — for example, fresh-water alga:, water-fleas, lichens, minute 
life in fissures, and so on. The subject is changed from year 
to year. It is to be hoped that our members who undertake 
these special studies will by their oo-operation do much to help 
other members in nature study. If we and similar societies 
could get a number of our members to become specialists 

|l)00 K).l I I ,\ . I |.) 

in.' extent, field exouraiona would promote oultura muoh 
more than thej do A field naturalist exoursioa la not mereh 
.1 pleasant oouul rj ramble, an interesting goaaip wound ap with 
.1 looiable and refreahing tea. Theaa raaj be oonoomitanta ; 
the essentia] is togel some ne^ impressions a few fresh ideas 
about natural things; and there are few walka through tha 
woods, or along tha shore, or on tha cnountaina from whioh the 
receptive field naturalist doaa not bring home soma now 
thoughts particularly if the oompanj be small and oi kindred 
ipirita, Unless these natural history prises lead to oo-opera 
Hon Mich iis I have indioated, thej will bea failure. Thai sxa 
I minute form of endowment of research of whioh wa heal 10 
muoh at present Research to diaoover now trutha oannot 
ba overestimated, and yet it has a dark side the sua rob for 
endowment That evil we need not fear, Thii leads ma to 
:.;i\ .1 word nbout original work in societies Like this in suob 
looietios really original work plays a verj subordinate roVs, 
mi. I if we look at our ' Transactions ' I do not think that this 
looietj oompares unfavourably with its neighbours, [a Edin 
burgh, several old and chartered societies exist Tha Royal 
Physical, for example, virtually i natural bistorj society, was 
sstabli shed long ago in the anoien r4giiM t when Linnsoua and 
Buffon wore still alive Tha Botanical Sooietj took It 
al... in ili.' anoien regime of botanioal loianoe, when botanists 
■till studied nature out of doors, and before laboratory methods 
and stains had banished from among us the spirit of nature 
itudy. Then there is the Geological Society, tha youngest of 
tli.' three, and the one whioh haa apparently best fulfilled the 
promises of ils youth in cultivating nature stud) the most: 

■i\ that is due to ils Item;; less ucudcmie than l.he othett 

In s cii\ where suoh societies exist, neturallj and properh ani 
original papers will bo attracted to them. Besides, ws do not 
desire in anj waj to be a competitor with these societies. If 
I mi, lake not, we had oui origin Ln a desire not to oompeta 
with them, but to supplement them, to do what the] oould 
not well undertake. Ihia Sooietj wai originall] a field olub 
It had no winter meetings; it was Intended i<> maks the 
w.ui of the older societies mors praotioal, to make exi art loni . 

and so bring the members of these societies more into living 

toueh with the things which they talked about at then- winter 

250 Nature Study. [Sess. 

meetings. It was essentially a club for nature study, and that 
I believe to be our chief function still. 

The originality which we and societies like us should culti- 
vate is the habit of reasoning from ultimate facts. We want 
to read the book of nature for ourselves, and are not satisfied 
with any commentary thereon. " What is originality ? " said 
Emerson. " It is being one's self, and reporting accurately 
what we see and are." The originality which we students of 
nature seek is not so much to write original papers for our 
' Transactions,' — there are far too many of such publications ; 
and a society, like a nation, may be the happiest which has 
no history : the originality for us is the habit of getting new 
ideas from natural things, and letting these sink like rain 
on thirsty ground, or rather scattering them like seed on the 
fertile soil of our sub-conscious selves, — our subliminal con- 
sciousness, — where they will in time bear a plentiful harvest. 

In this Society we have a microscopical section, and I must 
say a few words about it. The section, as you know, meets 
once a fortnight in winter — not in a public room, but at the 
house of the convener of the section. Out of a Society of 
two hundred members, we are not likely to have more than a 
score or so of regular attenders at the microscopical section. 
Should the number increase, we may need to change our 
quarters. At present we can all find places in the dining- 
room — I was going to say round the hospitable board — -of the 
convener of the section. Similarly, after our excursions in 
summer there is an informal meeting at the house of another 
of our members, to name some of the things we have found, 
and to discuss any points connected with them which may 
arise. This way of meeting at the houses of some of our 
members, if they are so kind as to have us, is admirable. 
These members have very serviceable libraries of books on 
natural history and microscopy, which can be referred to ; 
they have microscopes and other instruments at hand to aid 
us should they be wanted, — and that is very much better in 
every way than to meet in a public room with a bare table 
and a score of chairs. Besides, these meetings show a most 
praiseworthy spirit of enthusiasm and co-operation. 

As to the subjects studied at the microscopical section, it 
has been our custom to take up a group of plants or animals 

1900-1901.] Nature Study. 251 

alternately. "We had, for example, Algee one winter and 
Crustacea another. The section has resolved, and I think 
wisely, this winter to take the memoirs on " Typical British 
Marine Plants and Animals " issued by the Liverpool Marine 
Biology Committee, taking one memoir after another, having 
demonstrations, and making microscopical sections. The aim 
of the section is to help each other to use the microscope with 
skill, so as to increase our knowledge of natural things, — to 
extend, in short, our mental horizon. I would emphasise the 
word use. It would be a waste of time for us to try to follow 
recent elaborate researches on the cell, but we can all have 
glimpses, and very impressive glimpses, into nature's work- 
shop. We do not expect to see centrosomes or to follow their 
mystic dances, but we can all see for ourselves the movements 
of living protoplasm in Tradescantia. It is quite easy to 
fertilise Echini in spring and follow the early stages of the 
building up of an animal, and by the not undue use of the 
scientific imagination we can understand that fertilisation is 
intimately connected with osmosis or electrolysis. Then occa- 
sionally we may be able to show to each other an example to 
illustrate some spirit-stirring new discovery, such as double 
fertilisation in plants. In a word, our aim is to use the 
microscope rather as an instrument of culture than one of 
research, and there is no instrument which serves that end 
better than a microscope. 

I am glad the number of our members keeps up, for we 
never canvass for recruits, — we employ no commercial tra- 
vellers. We know a little — a very little — of the wonderful 
universe into which it has been our privilege to be born ; we 
want to know more of it, and we should like others to know 
more of it too. 

The undertone which runs through this address may be 
well summed up in a few lines from Bussell Lowell, with 
which I shall conclude : — 

" For a cap and bells our lives we pay, 

Bubbles we buy with a whole soul's tasking ; 
'Tis heaven alone that is given away, 

'Tis only God may be had for the asking. 
No price is set on the lavish summer ; 
June may be had by the poorest comer." 

— " The Vision of Sir Launfal." 

252 Nature Study. [Sess. 

At the close of the above address Mr Hewat, who during 
its delivery had occupied the chair as senior Vice-President, 
conveyed to Mr Crawford the sincere thanks of the Society, 
not only for his able address, to which they had listened with 
great enjoyment, but also for his three years' service as 
President. Mr Crawford's services to the Society had been 
ungrudgingly rendered, and the members owed him a deep 
debt of gratitude for the numerous and varied ways in which 
he had sought to promote its welfare. The vote of thanks to 
Mr Crawford was carried with acclamation. 

A large number of books and pamphlets on Nature Study, 
several of them from America, were shown by Mr Crawford 
in illustration of his address, and these were examined with 
interest by the members of the Society before they separated. 
For the benefit of teachers and others who take an interest in 
the subject of Nature Study, Mr Crawford's List of these 
publications is here appended : — 


(Restricted to those of which I have personal knowledge. ) 

1. Books for Field Naturalists. 

Of these there are not many modern and really good ; nearly all relate to 
insects. The following three are admirable : — 

' The Natural History of Aquatic Insects, ' by Prof. L. C. Miall. London : 

Macmillan & Co. 1895. 6s. 
' La Vie des Abeilles,' par Maurice -Maeterlinck. Paris : Charpentier. 
1901. 3 frs. 50 c. English translation, by A. Sutro. London: 
Allen, Ruskin House. 1901. 5s. net. 
'Alternating Generations. A Biological Study of Oak Galls and Gall 
Flies,' by Dr Hermann Adler. Translated by Straton. Clarendon 
Press, 1894. 10s. 6d. net. 
To these may be added a book which has been much admired in Germany — 
' Spaziergiinge eines Naturforschers,' von Prof. William Marshall. 2nd 
ed. Leipzig, 1890. Bound, 10 marks net. 

For a long time new works have been greatly wanted to take the place of 
Gosse's charming books, 'A Year at the Sea-shore' (1877), and others; or 
Lewes's 'Seaside Studies' (1860); or Quatref ages' 'Rambles of a Naturalist,' 
published in 'La Revue des Deux Mondes' about fifty years ago (Eng. trans., 
1857). (Now quite antiquated.) 

"Memoirs on Typical British Marine Plants and Animals," published by 
the Liverpool Marine Biology Committee. London : Williams & 
Norgate. 1899, &c. Energetic field naturalists will find splendid 
materials for study in these memoirs. Is. to 2s. each. 
'Life by the Sea-shore. An Introduction to Natural History,' by Dr 
Marion Newbigin (London : Sonnenschein, 1901), will be most 
useful. 3s. 6d. net. 

1 900-190 1.] Nature Study. 253 

' Commom Objects of the Sea-shore,' and others, by J. G. Wood, although 
very cheap and very popular, has done yeoman service to generations 
of beginners. London : Routledge. Is. ; coloured, 3s. 6d. 
'Ponds and Ditches,' by M. C. Cooke (London: S.P.C.K., 2s. 6d.), is 

good. It is chiefly about microscopic objects. 
' Life in Ponds and Streams,' by Furneau. London : Longmans. 6s. net. 
Some well-written books on our commonest plants from the biological 
point of view are wanted, most of all popular books founded on such works 
as Wiesner's 'Biologie der Pflanzen' (Wien, 1889), or Costantin's ' Les 
Vegetaux et les Milieux Cosmiques' (Paris, 1898), and making use of our 
common wild flowers as illustrations. 

' Romance of Wild Flowers,' a companion to the • British Flora,' by 

Edward Step, is good. London: Warne. 1901. 6s. 
The following are good American books, all very well illustrated : — 
'Insect Life,' by J. H. Comstock, Professor of Entomology in Cornell 

University. New York : Appleton. 1901. $1.50. 
' Life-Histories of American Insects,' by C. M. Weed, Professor of Zoology 
and Entomology, New Hampshire College of Agriculture. New York : 
Macmillan & Co. 1897. $1.50. 
' Tenants of an Old Farm. Leaves from the Notebook of a Naturalist,' by 
Dr H. C. M'Cook. New York : Fords, Howard, & Co. $1.50. 
Also — 

'Directions for Collecting Insects,' by Riley, Smithsonian Institute, Wash- 
ington, D.C. Free. 
'Talks Afield,' by L. H. Bailley. New York: Macmillan & Co. $1 

(and other works by the same author). 
' Wild Animals I have Known ' (with 200 drawings), and ' Lives of the 
Hunted, containing a True Account of the Doings of Five Quadrupeds 
and Three Birds' (with 200 drawings), by E. Seton-Thompson, Natural- 
ist to the Government of Manitoba. London: Nutt. 1901. Each 6 s. 
Both of these are beautifully got up books, well suited for school 
' The Amateur Aquarist,' by Mark Samuel, Columbia College, N. Y. New 

York : The Baker and Taylor Co. 1894. $1. 
Some interesting plants for aquaria are sold by H. Henkel, Kunstgartner, 
Darmstadt, Germany. 

A great number of seeds and plants of scientific interest, not readily 
obtained in this country, may be got at very moderate prices from Haage 
u. Schmidt, Handelsgartner, Erfurt, Germany. 

2. For the Instruction of the Young. 

' Nature Study and the Child,' by C. B. Scott, Instructor in Nature 
Study, State Normal School, Oswego, N.Y. London : Isbister. 
1901. 6s. 

' Outdoor Studies. A Reading Book of Nature Studies,' by J. G. Need- 
ham. New York : American Book Co. 40 cents. 

' Nature Study in Elementary Schools.' A Manual for Teachers, by Dr 
Lucy L. W. Wilson. New York : Macmillan & Co. 1900. 90 cents. 

'Handbook of Nature Study,' by D. Lange. New York: Macmillan 
& Co. $1. 

' Art out of Doors,' by Mrs Van Rensselaer. New York : Scribner & Sons. 

' A Course of Nature Study for use in the Public Schools,' by Louise 
Miller. (Bulletin 63, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture.) Free. 
This is an excellent pamphlet. A more extended and advanced 
course is being prepared for teachers. . 

254 Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea. [Sess. 

' Nature Study Reference Library. ' A list of books on Nature Study. 

(Bulletin 64, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture.') Free. 
'Leaflets on Nature Study.' Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana. 

1898. Free. 
' Pennsylvania State College Correspondence Courses in Nature Study.' 

By G. C. Watson. State College Centre Co. , Pa. Free. 
' Nature Study Leaflets (numerous), published by Cornell University, 

Ithaca, N.Y. Free. 
' Nature Knowledge.' Teachers' Leaflets, published by the Agricultural 

Education Committee, 10 Queen Ann's Gate, Westminster, London, 

S.W. Id. each. 
1 Heuristic Method of Teaching. ' Education Department. Printed for 

H.M. Stationery Office. 3d. 

3. Spirit-stirring Books. 

Thoreau : Selections from, by Salt. Eversley Series. London : Mac- 
milllan & Co. 5s. 

Wordsworth : Selections from, by Matthew Arnold. Golden Treasury. 
Macmillan & Co. 2s. 6d. net. 

' Obermann,' par de Senancour. Paris : Charpentier. 3 frs. 50 c. 

' The Friendship of Nature, ' by Mabel 0. Wright. New York : Mac- 
millan & Co. 50 cents. 
To these might be added such books as — 

'The Naturalist in La Plata,' 1892 ; and ' Idle Days in Patagonia,' by W. 
H. Hudson. London, 1893. 

' Studies of Wild Life and Scenes in Many Lands, ' by Brehm. Trans, by 
Mrs Thomson. London: Blackie & Son. 1895. 5s. (reduced). 

'Animals at Work and Play,' by Cornish. London: Seeley. 2nd ed., 
1897. 6s. 
And many other works of naturalist-travellers. v 


The President, at the close of his valedictory address, referred 
in general terms to the prize which had been offered for the 
best collection of fresh-water Crustacea. He then read the 
report of the adjudicator recommending that the prize be 
awarded to the collection bearing the motto " Perseverance." 
On opening the sealed envelope bearing this motto, it was 
found that the collection had been made by Dr and Miss 
Sprague. After the form of the prize has been decided upon, 
it will be presented at one of the meetings of the Society. 

1900-1901.] Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea. 255 

The following is the list of Crustacea collected, with a note 
thereon by the adjudicator: — 

Collected in Mid-Lothian in the Years 1900 and 1901, and Mounted 
as Microscopic Objects by Dr and Miss Sprague ; and for which 
thf^ Society's Prize, Value £5, was Awarded on 23rd October 

( The numbers refer to the slides. ) 


1, G. pulex, Penn. 

Cobbinshaw Reservoir June 22, 1900. Very common. Has been 
met with most plentifully in running water. 

. „ Isopoda. 


2, A. aquaticus, Linn. 

Marchfield Pond, July 7, 1900. Very common. 



3, 4, 5, D. gracilis, G. O. Sars. 

Ravelston Quarry, Aug. 2, 1900. Bavelaw Burn, June 28, 1900. 
J c ° lo * r 0f * hls creature was bluish, and the ends, but not the 
tips, of the antenna red. This species is common in clear water 
and where it occurs is often very plentiful, especially in sunny weather 
It varies considerably in size and colour. 

6, 7, C. strenuus, Fischer. 

Marchfield Pond, June 17, 1900. Very common. Easily recognised 
by the long and divergent stylets of the furca and short tail- bristles. 
o, V. bicuspidatus, Glaus. 

Quarry in Corstorphine Wood, Jan. 13, 1901. Common. Most 

SLr C a °nd m b ^ the Shape ° f the reC6 P tacle (receptaculum 

rT V,? m 7 n 6 ° Umer ° US miDUte d0ts 0n the furca ™* other 
parts. Schmeil calls them cup-shaped depressions. 
9, C. languidus, G. O. Sars. 

rJ£r d >A ear Ty * ehead ' March 30 > 1901. Uncommon. Seems to 

10, P C re ve r rnafis, Eht. ** ^^ * *» ****** «*««• 

Pond on west side of Bonaly golf-course, Jan. 2, 1901. Common 

vThhT 8 M m ! Care ,^° distin S uish i4 from C. bicuspidatus or a small C. 

the rece tecTe Fea dlstm g uished b y th * fifth foot and the form of 

11, C. bisetosus, Rehberg. 

Pond on House-of-Hill Farm, Aug. 21, 1900. Uncommon. Some- 
sTaller sTze lmdlstm g ulshable from O. bicuspidatus except by its 

12, C. viridis, Jurine. 

Granton Quarry, July 14, 1900. Very common. Distinguished by 
its very large size and the form of the fifth foot. y 

256 Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea. [Sess. 

13, C. fuscus, Jurine. 

Ravelston Cottage Quarry, May 21, 1900. Common. Easily recog- 
nised by its dark indigo colour, especially in the furca, and by the 
serrate membrane attached to the last joint of the antennae. 

14, C. albidus, Jurine. 

Ravelston Cottage Quarry, June 27, 1901. Very common. Dis- 
tinguished by the dark furca, the dark joints (2nd, 3rd, 9th, and 10th) 
of the antennas, and the 5th foot (which, however, is the same as in 
C. fuscus). There is a conspicuous membrane, which is not serrate, 
attached to the last joint of the antennae. 

15, C. serrulatus, Fischer. 

Granton Quarry, July 26, 1900. Very common everywhere. 
Varies greatly in size and colour. Most easily recognised by the 
serration on the outer margin of the furca, and by the widely 
divergent egg-bags (ovisacs). 

16, 17, C. affinis, G. 0. Sars. 

Elf Loch, June 30, 1900. Ponds in Penicuik Grounds, Aug. 25, 
1900. Uncommon. Never lies straight under a cover -glass, but 
always twists its tail round. 

18, C. nanus, G. O. Sars. 

Auchencorth Moss, April 9, 1901. Uncommon. Seems to prefer 
high ground. Best recognised by the 11-jointed antennae, the form of 
the receptacle, and of the 5th foot. It is easy, however, to mistake the 
form of the latter, as the uppermost spine appears at first sight to 
spring from the 5th thoracic segment. We are not aware of any 
published figure of this animal. 

19, 20, C. fimbriatus, Fischer. 

Pond, House-of-Hill Farm, Aug. 27, 1900. Pond near Carswell, 
May 18, 1901. Common. Most easily distinguished by the short 
very plumose antennae. Only a few specimens were ever obtained 
by us at one fishing. 

21, C. phaleratus, G. O. Sars. 

Marl pit, Davidson's Mains, June 7, 1900. Common. Much com- 
pressed from back to front. We have observed that it is in the habit 
of crawling out of the water if the slope of the vessel in which it is 
placed is not too great. The distinctive features are the very short 
10-jointed antennae and closely adpressed egg-bags. Only a few speci- 
mens were found in any single catch. 

22, C. wquoreus, Fischer. 

Bock pool on Cramond Island, July 6, 1901. This is a brackish- 
water species, of which we obtained many specimens in the only brackish- 
water pool ive visited. We know of no other such pool in Mid-Lothian. 

23, 24, H. fulvus, Fischer. 

Bock pool on Cramond Island, July 6, 1901. The pool was swarming 
with the species. 

25, 26, C. staphylinus, Jurine. 

Elf Loch, Sept. 15, 1900. Granton Quarry, Nov. 3, 1900. Very 

27, C. northumbricus, Brady. 

Edinburgh, Jan. 6, 1901. Never found by us except on this occasion, 
when we got two specimens. 

28, C. pygmaeus, G. O. Sars (Attheyella cryptorum, Brady). 

Marfield Loch, April 9, 1901. Uncommon. Easily recognised by 
the tail-bristles and the 5th foot. 

1900-1901.] Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea. 257 



29, C. ophthalmica, Jurine. 

St Margaret's Loch, Aug. 18, 1900. Common. Easily recognised 
by the very compressed reniform valves. An unusually transparent 
species. Conspicuously punctate. 

30, C. serena, Koch. 

Lower Elf Loch, Nov. 24, 1900. Very common. Recognised 
chiefly by its small size. 

31, C. fuscata, Jurine. 

Elf Loch, Jan. 26, 1901. Uncommon. Distinguished from C. 
incongruens by the reticulation on the shell, the duller brown colour", 
the absence of the crenate border on the anterior margin of the right 
valve, and by the slenderer caudal rami. 

32, C. incongruens, Ramdohr. 

Pond, House-of-Hill Farm, Aug. 21, 1900. Common. Has no 
reticulation on the shell ; is of a bright brown colour ; has crenate 
border on anterior margin of right valve. 

33, C. virens, Jurine. 

Marchfield Pond, July 7, 1900. Very common. Generally of a 
decided green colour. 

34, C. obliqua, Brady. 

Craigleith Quarry, Feb. 2, 1901. Rare. Only one specimen found. 
In general appearance resembles C. fuscata, but the brown colouring is 
in places tinged with green. There is no reticulation, and the caudal 
rami are different. 

35, I. biplicata, Koch. 

Elf Loch, Sept. 15, 1900. Rare. Easily recognised by the general 
shape and the well-marked punctation of the shell. Light brown 

36, H. reptans, Baird. 

Marl pit, Davidson's Mains, June 5, 1900. Very common. 

37, C. aculeata, Lilljeborg. 

Cramond Island, July 6, 1901. As regards frequency, see remark to 
Cyclops Eequoreus. One specimen, however, was got from a pond at 
Westbrook, Balerno, on Jan. 19, 1901. 

38, P. vidua, Midler. 

Granton Quarry, July 26, 1900. Very common. Easily recognised 
by its inflated ovoid form and by the three black bands on the white 

39, C. Candida, Miiller. 

Low pond, Penicuik, Dec. 1, 1900. Very common, but does not 
leave the bottom of the pond. 


40, D. brachyurum, Lie>in. 

Marfield Loch, Sept. 21, 1901. Rare. All the specimens found 
were males. 

258 Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea. [Sess. 


41, C. reticulata, Jurine. 

Elf Loch, Sept. 15, 1900. Bright pink. Easily distinguished from 
the other species in our collection by the teeth on the under surface of 
the terminal claw. 

42, C. scitula, Herrick (?). 

High pond, Penicuik, Sept. 7, 1901. Uncommon. Distinguished 
from the foregoing by the absence of teeth on the terminal claw, and 
from C. quadrangula by its larger size, more strongly marked reticula- 
tion, the form of the antennules and of the post-abdomen. We found 
one male. It had a bluish shell. 

43, C. quadrangula, Midler. 

Duddingston Loch, June 21, 1901. Uncommon. There are small 
dots, perhaps very short bristles, within the meshes of the reticula- 

44, S. mucronata, Midler. 

Ravelston Cottage Quarry, July 17, 1900. Uncommon, but found in 
large numbers where it occurs. 

45, S. vetulus, Midler. 

Ravelston Cottage Quarry, June 13, 1900. Very common. Seems to 
thrive best where the water is not too clear. 

46, D. pulex, De Geer. 

Marl Pit, Davidson's Mains, June 2, 1900. Very common. Seems 
to thrive best where the water is not too clear. 

47, D. lacustris, G. O. Sars. 

Hurley Cove, Penicuik, Dec. 1, 1900. Common. Met with in large 
sheets of clear water. 

48, D. galeata, G. O. Sars. 

Granton Quarry, Sept. 1, 1900. Uncommon. The young form is 
easily recognised by the helmet-shaped head ; the mature form by its 
protuberant forehead. 

49, 50, D. hamata, Brady. 

Granton Quarry, Sept. 1, 1900. Rare. All our specimens are young, 
and have three or four teeth on the shoulder. 

51, 52, B. longirostris, Midler. 

Ravelston Quarry, Aug. 2, 1900. Cobbinshaw Reservoir, June 22, 
1900. Uncommon, but occurs in large numbers when it is found. 
Prefers clear water. 

53, M. laticornis, Jurine. 

Pond in Queen's Park, June 16, 1900. Rare. Found only one 
specimen ; this was in a mixed gathering taken from Duddingston, 
Dunsappie, and St Margaret's lochs. Easily recognised by the post- 
abdomen and by the anterior antenna?. 

54, A. curvirostris, Midler. 

Marfield Loch, Sept. 21, 1901. Rare. We have found it in no 
other locality. 

55, I. sordidus, LieVin. 

Elf Loch, Jan. 26, 1901. Uncommon. Easily recognised by its 
bright red colour. 

1 900-190 1.] Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea. 259 


56, G. testudinarius, Fischer. 

Elf Loch, Aug, 9, 1901. Rare. Easily recognised by the general 
form, well-marked reticulation, and the three or four teeth at the lower 
back corner of the shell. 

57, E. lamellatus, Miiller. 

Duddingston Loch, Aug. 18, 1900. Rare. 

58, A. guttata, G. 0. Sars. 

Elf Loch, June 1, 1901. Rare. Best recognised by the form of the 
post-abdomen. The small spots on the shell, from which the specific 
name is taken, are not always well marked. 

59, A. tenuicaudis, G. O. Sars. 

Duddingston Loch, Aug. IS, 1900. Rare. 

60, A. quadrangularis, Muller. 

Duddingston Loch, June 21, 1901. Common. 

61, A. affinis, Leydig. 

North Esk Reservoir, May 18, 1901. Common. 

62, A. rostrata, Koch. 

Cobbinshaw Reservoir, Aug. 13, 1900. Rare. We have found only 
one specimen. 

63, A. exigua, Lilljeborg. 

Marfield Loch, April 9, 1901. Rare. Easily recognised by the single 
conspicuous tooth at the lower back corner of the shell. 

64, A. nana, Baird. 

Marfield Loch, April 9, 1901. Rare. Appears to like high ground. 

65, 66, A. harpse, Baird. 

Granton Quarry, July 26, 1900. Very common in summer. 

67, 68, A. elongata, G. O. Sars. 

Marfield Loch, May 25, 1901. Rare. 

69, 70, P. trigonellus, Muller. 

Marchfield Pond, June 21, 1901. Uncommon. 

71, P. truncata, Baird. 

High pond, Penicuik, Sept. 7, 1901. Rare. Found only on one 

72, C. sphsericus. 

Very common. During eighteen months the males were only 
observed in one gathering made on 31st May 1901 at House-of-flill 

Note. — Nos. 22, 23, and 24 are excluded as being obtained from brackish 
water. No. 27 was excluded from this list as having been collected from 
a pond not available to other competitors : it has, however, been recorded 
from Duddingston Loch by Mr Thomas Scott, F.L.S. 

260 Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea. [Sess. 

Note on the foregoing List. 
By Mr Thomas Scott, F.L.S. 

The specimens are carefully and very neatly mounted, and 
a few of the characters which serve to distinguish the species 
are in general fairly well shown. But it would have added 
to the value of the collection had there been separate prepara- 
tions of at least a few of the more important appendages, as it 
is only in this way that the specific characters of many of the 
species, especially of the Copepoda, can be correctly exhibited. 

The list will form an interesting addition to the litera- 
ture on the crustacean fauna of the county of Mid-Lothian. 
The discovery of such species as Cyclops nanus, Macrothrix 
laticornis, and Alonclla rostrata is of much interest, and is 
an indication that further research may lead to further 

No. 18, Cyclops nanus, was added to the British fauna 
by the writer of this note in 1899, but not figured by 
him (see 17th Annual Beport of the Fishery Board for 
Scotland, pp. 172-182). C. languidus was also, about the 
same time, added by him to the Scottish fauna. 

No. 40. This species has frequently been referred to 
Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Lievin ; but Lilljeborg, in his 
recently published work, places it doubtfully under Diaph- 
anosoma Lcuchtenbergianum, Fischer. Should it turn out to 
be really identical with Fischer's species, Baird's name, being 
the older, will have to be restored : in that case the name 
would be Diaphanosoma Wingii, Baird. 

No. 42. This looks very like C. rotunda, G-. 0. Sars. 

Nos. 47 and 48. Prof. Lilljeborg, in his great work lately 
published, ascribes both these species to Daphnia hyalina, 
Leydig. But these so-called species of Daphnia are so ex- 
ceedingly liable to variation, that only a lengthened study 
of them can enable one to come to anything like a satis- 
factory decision about them. In these circumstances I 
give Lilljeborg's finding, without venturing an opinion as 
to whether it is right or wrong. 

Nos. 49 and 50. I have scarcely any doubt that these are 
immature specimens of No. 48. The crest on the back of 
Daphnia is not of much value as a specific character. 

1900-1901.] Annual Business Meeting. 261 


After the valedictory address of the President had been de- 
livered {ante, p. 234) and the prize for the collection of fresh- 
water Crustacea awarded (ante, p. 254), the Annual Eeports 
were submitted to the Society. The Secretary made the 
following statement : — 

During the winter session 1900-1901 six evening meetings (exclusive of 
twelve meetings of the Microscopical Section) have been held. On the 
evening of 24th June 1901 a special meeting was held, when a lecture was 
delivered by Dr J. M. Macfarlane, Professor of Botany at the University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Dr Macfarlane is now one of our Honorary 
members, and when he was resident in Edinburgh a number of years ago 
he was a very valuable member of the Society. 

For the summer session twenty meetings were arranged. The season 
was very favourable for our excursions, but notwithstanding this, the 
attendances have been a little disappointing. There was an aggregate of 
335, or an average of about 17 at each meeting, which is somewhat below 
the figure of last year. 

The membership of the Society continues about the same figure as last 
year. 19 members resigned, and 23 new members were admitted. Three 
or four names will have to be removed from the Register for failure to pay 

During the year we have lost by death one of our hon. members — Mr 
Mark King — who was so well known to the Society. 

Mr Russell, Convener of the Microscopical Section, held at his house 
meetings for the study of the Entomostraca. These were duly notified in 
the billets. The subject of study for this season is the Ascidian and 
Codium, based on the Liverpool Memoirs, and Mr Russell has again kindly 
offered the use of his house for these meetings. 

The preparation for the Microscopical Section entails considerable labour 
and expense on the part of two or three of our members ; the only reward 
they seek is that more may become interested in the section, and avail 
themselves of the opportunity for microscopical study which it affords. 

The general prosperity of the Society has been maintained, and it is 
hoped that at the end of the new session it will show an advance. 

Attention was then drawn to the printed balance-sheet, 
showing the income and expenditure of the Society for the 
past year. From this it was seen that the finances of the 
Society were still in a flourishing condition, the balance, after 
paying all accounts for the year, standing at £49, 18s. lid. 

The election of Office-bearers was next proceeded with. 
The following is the complete list, the members whose names 

VOL. IV. t 

262 Annual Business Meeting. [Sess. 1 900-1 901. 

are printed in italics being those elected to fill up vacancies : 
President — Arch. Hewat, F.F.A. ; Vice-Presidents — A. B. 
Steele, Jas. EusselL, David Gloag ; Secretary — W. William- 
son; Treasurer — G. Cleland ; Editor of 'Transactions' — J. 
Lindsay ; Auditors— E. C. Millar, C.A., and J. T. Mack ; and 
the following Councillors : Dx Davies, Wm, Forgan, A. Murray, 
A. E. Calder, Jas. Fraser, Major Grahame, Miss I. Elliot, Mrs 
Maxwell, Robert Watson, Miss Spraguc, Miss E. A. Townsend, 
and Allan A. Pinkerton. 

Mr Crawford now vacated the chair in favour of Mr 
Hewat, who was received with applause. In a few well- 
chosen remarks, Mr Hewat thanked the Society for the honour 
done him in unanimously calling him to this important posi- 
tion, and promised to do all in his power to promote the welfare 
and success of the Society. After some formal business the 
meeting closed. 

22 NOV. 1902 



Dr Robt. Brown \ 

(deceased), J 
MrR. Scot SkirvingI 

(deceased), J 

Mr WM. CtORRIE ( 1S74_1Q77 

(deceased), \ 1874-1877 

Rev. R. F. Colvin | 

(deceased), ] 18 ' 7 ~ 1S79 

Mr John Walcot, 1879-1882 

Mr A. B. Herbert, 1882-1885 

Mr Symington Grieve, 1885-1888 

Dr William Watson, 1888-1891 

Dr Sprague, 1891-1895 

Dr Davies, 1895-1898 

OFFICE-BEARERS, 1900-1901 

W. C. Crawford, F.R.S.E. 

A. Hevvat, F.F.A. 

T. Laidlaw. 
C. Campbell. 
Miss Oxley. 
Dr Watson. 
Dr Davies. 
W. Forgan. 

► ice - ^resibcitts. 

A. B. Steele. 


A. Murray. 
A. R. Calder. 
James Fraser. 
Major Grahame 
Miss I. Elliot. 
Mrs Maxwell. 

(ibitor of 'transactions.' 
John Lindsay. 

W. Williamson. 

George Cleland. 

R. C. Millar, C.A. ; J. T. Mack. 

J. Russell. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. 1900-1901. 

pouorarg iflcmbers. 

Fraser, Hugh, 17 Cambridge Gardens, Leith. 

Henderson, Prof. John R., M.B., CM., The College, Madras. 

Herbert, A. B. , Sunnyside, Mitcham, London. 

Macfarlane, Prof. J. M., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

Scott, Thos., F.L.S., 3 Menzies Road, Torry, Aberdeen. 

Walcot, John, Craiglockhart Hydropathic, Slateford. 

Corresponbing ^embers. 
Archibald, Stewart, Dalarossie Schoolhonse, Tomatin, Inverness. 
Cruickshank, T. M., South Ronaldshay. 
Hobkirk, Charles P., 9 Parish Ghyll Road, Ilkley, Yorks. 
Hossack, B. H., Craigie Field, Kirkwall. 

List of Members, 1 900-1 901. 

(©rbinarg Pcmbcrs. 

(As at October 15, 1901. ) 

Adams, James, Comely Park, Dun- 

Anderson, Miss M. G., 18 Mont- 
gomery Street. 

Anderson, R. , 67 Princes Street. 

Banks, William, 2 Kilmaurs Road. 

Belfrage, Wm. Christie, Durham 
House, Durham Rd., Portobello. 

Bell, A., 9 Henry Street. 

Bird, George, 38 Inverleith Place. 

Blacklock, William, 19 Bruntsfield 

Bogie, D., M.A., 8 Blackwood Cres. 
10 Bonnar, William, 8 Spence Street. 

Braid, Mrs, 12 Wilton Road, Craig- 

Brotherston, George M., 16 Comi- 
ston Drive. 

Brotherston, Mrs G. M., 16 Comi- 
ston Drive. 

Brown, Miss Cecilia, 65 Warrender 
Park Road. 

Bryce, George F. , 2 Albyn Place. 

Bryden, Miss, Linksfield, Aberlady. 

Bryden, Mrs, Linksfield, Aberlady. 

Buncle, James, 93 Shandwick Place. 

Burnett, Robert, 10 Brighton Ter., 
•20 Butchard, J. W., 10 Inverleith Gar- 

Calder, A. R., 2 James St., Porto- 

Campbell, Alexander, 62 Marchmont 

Campbell, Bruce, British Linen Com- 
pany Bank, St Andrew Square. 

Campbell, Charles, North British 
and Mercantile Insurance Com- 
pany, 64 Princes Street. 

Carey, Walter T., 12 Comely Bank 

Carter, Albert, Selville Cottage, 

Chapman, M., Torbrex Nursery, St 
Ninians, Stirling. 

Clapperton, Miss Mary E., 10 Green- 
hill Terrace. 

Clapperton, Mrs W. , Stamford Hall, 
30 Clarke, William Eagle, 35 Braid Rd. 

Cleland, George, Bank of Scotland, 
61 Leith Walk — Treasurer. 

Coats, William, 10 Duddingston 
Crescent, Portobello. 

Cockburn, A. Myrtle, M.A., 10 
Braidburn Crescent. 

Cowan, Alex., Woodslee, Penicuik. 

Cowan, Charles Wm., Valleyfield, 

Craig, Archibald, 38 Fountainhall 

Crawford, Francis Chalmers, 19 
Royal Terrace. 

Crawford, Miss Jane C. , 1 Lockharton 
Gardens, Colinton Road. 

Crawford, Mrs, 1 Lockharton Gar- 
dens, Colinton Road. 
40 Crawford, W. C, 1 Lockharton Gar- 
dens, Colinton Road — President. 

Crocket, Wm. , 10 Gillespie Crescent. 

Davidson, Miss M. E. , Dairy House, 
Orwell Place. 

Davies, Dr, Tweedbank, West Savile 

Day, T. C, 36 Hillside Crescent. 

Denson, E. , 83 Comiston Road. 

Deuchar, Mrs, Harlaw, Hope Ter- 

Dewar, John F., Hamilton Lodge, 

Dickie, James, 40 Princes Street. 

Dowell, Miss, 13 Palmerston Place. 
50 Dowell, Mrs, 13 Palmerston Place. 

Duncan, James Patrick, 3 Cobden 

Durham, Frederick W., 2 Argyle 
Crescent, Portobello. 

Eaton, F. A., 207 Dalkeith Road. 

Edward, John, 99 Newbigging, 

Elliot, Andrew, 3 Palmerston Road. 

Elliot, Miss E., 39 Colinton Road. 

Elliot, Miss I. , 39 Colinton Road. 

Ewart, James, 1 Dundas Street. 

Fairley, Captain J. H., 58 Colinton 
60 Farquharson, John K., 100 Thirle- 
stane Road. 

Fish, D. S., Royal Botanic Garden. 

Forgan, John, S.S.C., 20 George St. 

List of Members, 1 900- 1 90 1 . 

Forgan, William, 3 Warriston Cres- 

Forrest, John L., 8 Glengyle Ter- 

Fraser, James, 1 8 Park Road, Leith. 

Gartshore, Miss Murray, Ravelston 
House, Blackhall. 

Gibson, John, M.A., 19 Bernard 

Gibson, Mrs, 4 Colinton Road. 

Gloag, David, 9 Barnton Terrace. 
70 Goodchild, J. G., 2 Dalhousie Ter. 

Grahame, Major G., 2 St Bernard's 

Gray, Miss Edith M. H., 59 George 

Grieve, Sommerville, 21 Queen's 

Grieve, Symington, 1 1 Lauder Road. 

Grieve, Mrs Symington, 11 Lauder 

Hamilton, G. R., 14 Caledonian 

Hawkins, Wm. , 33 Comely Bank 

Harrison, H. J., 10 Cluny Place. 

Harvie - Brown, J. A., Dunipace, 
SO Heggie, John, 149 Warrender Park 

Hetherton, Miss M., 13 Sciennes 

Hewat, Arch., 13 Eton Terrace. 

Huie, Miss Lily, Hollywood, Colin- 
ton Road. 

Humphries, John, Easter Dudding- 
ston Lodge. 

Hunter, John, 1 Straiton Place, 

Hutton, Mrs, 27 Gardner's Cres. 

Jamieson, J. H., 54 Bruntsfield 

Johnson, W. H., Tweed Villa, 
Relugas Road. 

Johnson, John, Royal Botanic Gar- 
90 Johnston, J. A., 7 Annandale St. 

Kerr, Thomas, 15 Gilmour Road. 

Kilgour, Thos. W., 22 Nile Grove. 

Laidlaw, Thomas J., 2 Oxford St. 

Laing, Rev. G., 17 Buckingham Ter. 

Law, Mrs, 41 Heriot Row. 

Lewis, David, Roselea Villa, Grange. 

Lindsay, John, 43 James St., Pilrig 
— Editor of ' Transactions. ' 

Lindsay, William, 18 South St 
Andrew Street. 

Macadam, Prof. W. Ivison, Slioch, 

Lady Road, Craigmillar Park. 
100 Macdonald, J. J., Commercial Bank, 

M'Donald, J., 9 Brunstane Gardens, 

MacDougall, R. Stewart, M.A., 

D.Sc, Royal Botanic Garden. 
M'Gillivray, Wm., 4 Rothesay PI. 
M'Intosh, James, 42 Queen Street. 
Macintyre, John, 175 Morningside 

Mack, J. T., 101 George Street. 
M'Kean, Miss Minnie, 7 Montagu 

Terrace, Golden Acre. 
M'Gregor, Donald, The Palace Gar- 
dens, Dalkeith. 
MacLauchlan, J. J., 19 Coates 

110 Macvicar, Miss K., 34 Morningside 

Malcolm, C. A., S Keir Street, 

Malthouse, G. T., Royal Botanic 

Mason, J. Gordon, S.S.C. , 51 Han- 
over Street. 
Maxwell, John, 125 George Street. 
Maxwell, Mrs, 61 Braid Road. 
Menmuir, W. Henry, L.D.S., 

R.C.S.E., 47 Comely Bank Road. 

Millar, R. C, 6 Regent Terrace. 

Millar, T. J., 27 Albany Street. 

Millar, W. F., 22 Howard Place. 

120 Miller, R. Pairman, 12 East Preston 

Mitchell, Miss M., 153 Warrender 

Park Road. 
Morison, Peter, 24 Great King St. 
Morrison, Hew, Librarian, Public 

Library, George IV. Bridge. 
Mossman, Robert C, 10 Blacket 

Muir, John, 24 Barnton Terrace. 
Munro, John Gordon, 7 Howe Street. 
Murray, Alister, Royal Blind 

Asylum, Craigmillar Park. 
Nesbit, John, 162 High Street, 

Nisbet, Alex., 2 Bruce Street. 
130 Normand, J. Hill, of Whitehill, 

Oliver, C. M., 13 Fountainhall Road. 
Oliver, John S., 12 Greenhill Park. 
Osier, Alexander, 7 Tanfield. 
Oxley, Miss M. E., Dairy House, 

Orwell Place. 


L ist of Members, 1 900- 1 90 1 . 

Parkes, C. W., Inland Revenue, 

Paton, John, Scotland Street Tunnel. 

Paul, Rev. D., LL. D., Carrielee, 
Fountainhall Road. 

Paulin, George Alex., 6 Forres St. 

Pentlaud, Miss, 73 Inverleith Row. 
140 Pierce, W. J., 16 Forrest Road. 

Pillans, Hugh H., 12 Dryden Place. 

Pinkerton, Allan A., 39 Viewforth. 

Pittendrigh, T. M., 29 Comely Bank 

Pyatt, W., M.A., Fettes College. 

Rae, M. J. , 94 Thirlestane Road. 

Raeburn, Harold, 32 Castle Terrace. 

Ranken, William, 11 Spence Street. 

Ranken, William Ford, 11 Spence 

Reid, Andrew, 1 Laverockbank Ter- 
race, Trinity Road. 
150 Richardson, A. D. , Royal Botanic 

Richardson, Mrs Ralph, 10 Magdala 

Ritchie, William, 75 Morningside Rd. 

Robertson, Dr W. Aitchison, 26 
Minto Street. 

Robertson, W. , 35 Polwarth Gardens. 

Roriston, James G. , 8 Dalziel Place. 

Rose, Miss, 3 Hillside Crescent. 

Rowe, Miss C, 19 Great Stewart St. 

Russell, James, 16 Blacket Place. 

Sanderson, Mrs H. , 95 Shandwick 
160 Sarah, H. A. P., 19 Braidburn Cres- 

Sconce, Colonel, 18 Belgrave Cres. 

Semple, Dr Andrew, Caledonian 
United Service Club, 14 Queen 

Sharp, Henry J., 7 Rosebank Ter- 
race, Bonnington, Leith. 

Sime, David, 27 Dundas Street. 

Slight, G. A., 1 Royston Terrace. 

Smith, Harry W., 23 Nelson Street. 

Smith, Dr James, 4 Brunton Place. 

Smith, Rupert, 51 Minto Street. 

Smith, Thomas J., care of Messrs 
Watson & Sons, 313 High Hol- 
born, London, YV.C. 
170 Speedie, M. H., 2 Alford PL, May- 
field Terrace. 

Speedy, Tom, The Inch, Liberton. 

Speedy, William Hogg, Braeside, 

Sprague, Dr T. B., 29 Buckingham 

Sprague, Thomas Archibald, 36 
Bushwood Road, Kew Gardens. 

Sprague, Miss, 29 Buckingham Ter- 

Steele, A. B., 41 Regent Street, 

Steele, Mrs, 41 Regent Street, Porto- 

Stevens, Dr John, 2 Shandon Street. 

Stevenson, Miss, 2 Albert Place. 
180 Stewart, Robert, S.S.C., 7 East 
Claremont Street. 

Story, Colin, 41 Dick Place. 

Tait, John Scott, C.A., 3 Albyn 

Terras, James, B.Sc, 21 Teviot PI. 

Thacker, T. Lindsay, care of Messrs 
T. Nelson & Sons, Parkside. 

Thomson, John, 20 York Place. 

Thomson, Lockhart, Derreen, Mur- 

Townsend, Miss E. A., 20 St Cath- 
erine's Place, Grange. 

Traquair, Dr, 8 Dean Park Crescent. 

Urquhart, Arthur E., Royal Botanic 

190 Walker, Alexander D., 1 St Vincent 

Wanless, Miss, 12 Wilton Road, 

Wardlaw, George, 14 St John's 

Watson, John, B. A. , Comiston Drive. 

Watson, Robert, M.A., 12 Chal- 
mers Street. 

Watson, Dr Win., Waverley House, 
Colinton Road. 

Watson, Mrs, Waverley House, 
Colinton Road. 

Wear, Sylvanus, 17 Dudley Gardens, 

Weir, James Mullo, S.S.C., 5 W. 
Brighton Crescent, Portobello. 

Welsh, Mrs, Ericstane, Moffat. 
200 Wilkie, W. F. Rollo, 122 George 

Williamson, Wm., 4 Meadowbank 
Terrace — Secretary. 

Wilson, Rev. D. W., Stobhill Manse, 

Wilson, Wm., 8 Claremont Terrace. 

Wood, T. A. D., Viewforth, Brun- 
stane Road, Joppa. 

Wright, J. P., 6 Grosvenor Cres. 

Wright, Thomas, 12 Brunton Ter- 
207 Young, David E., 60-62 High Street. 

, VOL. IV. PAKT IV. ft 


t§>|p ^binfiurg^ FM& JQflfuralisfs' anb 
JiTBirposropiral jSoripfg 

SESSION 1901-1902 



I. Tea: Its Cultivation, and Preparation for the Market. —Mr W. 

Williamson, 263 

II. The Teeth of Fishes contrasted with those of other Orders.— Mr W. 

H. Menmuir 272 

III. The Birds of Ballinluig, Blair Atholl, and Fossoway. — Mr B. 

Campbell {with Two Plates), 277 

IV. The Squirrel.— Mr T. Speedy, 283 

V. The Squirrel as a Pet.— Dr W. A. Robertson (with Two Plates), . 294 

VI. The Daisy and the Dandelion.— Dr W. Watson 300 

VII. Notes on the Entomostraca of Mid -Lothian.— Dr T. B. Sprague and 

Miss B. Sprague (with Two Plates) ". . . 305 

VIII. Fortrose and Rosemarkie.— Mr S. Archibald, 322 

IX. The Folk-Lore of Natural History.— Mr C. Campbell 328 

X. Notes on some Foreign Birds I have kept.— Mr G. M. Brotherston, . 344 
XI. A Winter in Cornwall.— Mr A. Craig (with Six Plates), ... .349 
XII. An Outline of the Geological History of the Coast of Fife between 

Aberdour and Kirkcaldy.— Mr J. G. Goodchild 367 

Report of the Microscopical Section.— Mr J. Russell 376 

Presentation of Prize for Collection of Fresh-water Crustacea, . 382 

A North American Raspberry at West Linton.— Mr J. Lindsay, 383 

Exhibits in Natural History, 385 

Presidential Address.— Mr A Hewat, F.F.A., F.I.A 386 

Annual Business Meeting 395 

Index, 398 

List of Members, 1901-1902 xxi 

Rules of the Society (Revised 1902), At tnd 

^ufcligfjeti for tfje j&octetg 




Price to Noru-Members, Four Shillings. 

SESSION 1901-1902. 


By Mr WM. WILLIAMSON, Secretary. 
(Read Nov. 27, 1901.) 

Some time ago the home-coming of a gentleman connected 
with tea-planting in Assam suggested to me that some inter- 
esting information might be obtained regarding the tea-plant, 
so as to form the subject of a communication at one of our 
evening meetings. The gentleman to whom I refer is Mr T. 
M. Elliot, who has been in Assam for a number of years. 
When the subject was mentioned to him, he very cordially 
agreed to give what help he could, and this he has done by 
giving me a considerable amount of information of a practical 
nature. With the exception of the theine and tannin and the 
Chinese and Kangra Valley tea, all the exhibits have come 
from India specially for our use, and have been furnished by 
Mr Elliot, as well as the specimens of manufactured tea, 
which he obtained from the London market for us. Without 
the aid he has so freely and courteously given, I would not 
have undertaken to make the communication. 

The subject can be conveniently divided into four sections, 
of which the first deals with the cultivation of the tea plant 
and the manufacture of the commercial article. The second 
deals with the insect and other pests which attack the tea 
plant, and against which the planter has to contend. The 
third section relates to the extent of the tea industry, both in 

VOL. IV. u 

264 Tea : Its Cultivation, &c. [Sess. 

regard to India and the other tea-producing countries. This 
information, as well as some interesting statements dealing 
with the consumption of tea, I obtained from a Report on Tea 
Culture in Assam for 1900, and a Eeturn made to the House 
of Commons in August 1900. Both of these documents were 
courteously placed at my disposal by the Commercial Intelli- 
gence Branch of the Board of Trade in London. In the 
fourth section is a brief narrative of the discovery of tea and 
its subsequent developments. For this I have drawn on 
some literature I had access to. 

When the tea plant is cultivated with a view to its com- 
mercial use, it is grown in tracts of well-cultivated land. 
These are termed gardens, and vary in size from two or three 
hundred to two thousand acres. Most of the Assam tea is 
grown in the valleys, rich soil and a hot moist atmosphere 
being necessary for its full development. When the Govern- 
ment gave land to the early planters on condition of their 
clearing it and sowing it in tea, the seed was sown so 
indiscriminately that plants were sometimes very scattered 
and sometimes very crowded. Experience has taught that 
plants for their wellbeing require a certain amount of free 
space, and they are now planted at regular intervals of about 
four to four and a half feet apart. 

Although the tea plant in its uncultivated state attains 
the dimensions of a tree, in its cultivated state it is a bush 
no higher than about 2h feet, and is kept pruned down to 
that size for convenience in plucking. It is three years old 
before the leaf is plucked for manufacture, and full bearing of 
leaf does not take place till the bush is six to eight years old. 
From about the middle of December the work of pruning is 
done, and this is commenced practically as soon as the bushes 
have stopped throwing out new shoots. The purpose of prun- 
ing is to promote the growth of young shoots, and to do it so 
that there will be as large a yield as possible. The lighter prun- 
ing is done by women, the heavier by men, who also do the 
hoeing and other heavy work connected with the cultivation. 

With the advent of the rainy season in March, the bushes 
begin to throw out shoots. The top part of the shoot only is 
plucked, and includes the bud and one or two of the young 

1901-1902.] Tea: Its Cultivation, &c. 265 

leaves. The plucking of these shoots goes on once a week for 
nine months of the year — viz., from the middle of March to 
the middle of December. This work, being light, is done by 
women, who can pluck about 24 lb. of leaf in a day, repre- 
senting about 6 lb. of the manufactured article. The plucked 
leaf is gathered together in baskets, and kept as much as 
possible in the shade to prevent deterioration. After being 
weighed it is passed on to the withering house, and the process 
of manufacture commences. 

To facilitate withering, the leaves are spread out in thin 
layers on platforms in open sheds. When properly withered, 
which may take from twelve to sixteen hours, according to its 
condition when brought in from the garden, and also to the 
state of the weather, the leaf is still green but very soft and 
pliable. Leaf which has not been left long enough to wither 
yields a poor quality of tea. Left too long, it becomes dry 
and brittle, breaking up during the rolling process, and also 
yielding an inferior quality of tea. From the withering sheds 
the leaves are taken to the tea house to be rolled. The pur- 
pose of rolling is to give a twist to the leaf and also to break 
the leaf cells. When the cells are broken the sap exudes, and 
by the continued rolling it is spread all over the surface of the 
leaf. The rolled leaves are then taken to the fermenting 
house — a dark cool place — and spread out thinly to ferment, 
or oxidise as the process is also called. 

During the fermentation, which may take about three 
hours, the leaves have changed from a green to a copper 
colour, and have possibly lost some of the twist given by 
the first rolling process. To remedy this, the leaves are again 
taken to the tea house and rolled for a quaiter of an hour. 
The rolled tea is then taken to the firing machinery, where 
it undergoes two operations. In the first operation, the tea is 
dried over a current of hot air for about half an hour. This 
completely arrests the process of fermentation, and all the 
moisture is driven off. When the first firing is completed, the 
rough tea, as it is now called, is taken away to be sorted by a 
rotary sieve driven by machinery. The different grades are 
known as broken orange or broken Pekoe, composed chiefly of 
tips and youngest leaves — Pekoe, young leaves and very little 
tip — Pekoe souchong, and broken tea, from coarser leaves, &c. 

266 Tea : Its Cultivation, &c. [Sess. 

There is no arbitrary rule for naming teas, each garden having 
its own standards. The different grades of tea are then fired 
for the second time. This operation is of short duration, and 
is intended to drive off any moisture which may have been 
absorbed during sorting. 

The manufacturing processes are now concluded, and the 
tea is packed up in boxes for shipment to the London market. 

The second section of this communication refers to the pests 
of the tea plant. These are numerous, and are dealt with at 
some length in the report by Dr "Watt published at the 
Government printing-office at Calcutta in 1898. 1 The subject 
is too large to be dealt with here, so we shall confine our 
attention to those pests of which we have specimens. 

Eed spider {Tetranychus hioculatus, Wood Mason). — The red 
spiders are very small insects, living together in colonies on 
the leaves. The red spider, or tea-mite as it is also called, 
injures the leaves by sucking out the sap. As a result the 
leaves take on a bronzed appearance, and eventually fall off. 
The vitality of the bush is reduced, and the yield of tea 
correspondingly affected. 

Mosquito (Helopeltis theivora, Waterhouse). — This insect 
inserts its proboscis through the epidermis of the leaf or shoot 
and sucks the juice. A pale brown spot, from £ to ^ inch in 
diameter, with a darkened rim and a spot in the centre, marks 
the area of depredation. In time the colour deepens and 
becomes dried up and blackened. The mosquito pays its 
attention to the very young leaves and buds, the ones specially 
wanted by the planter for manufacture. If the mosquito is 
too abundant, the leaf crop is seriously affected, and the yield 
of tea much diminished. 

Orange beetle (Diapromorpha melanopus, Lacord). — This is 
a small orange-coloured beetle with hard pitted wing-cases. 
It is a grass-eater by nature, but has taken to tea plants. 
Orange beetles, like the mosquitoes, confine their attention to 
the portion of the tea plant most desired by the planter. 
They scrape away the green stem of a shoot fit for plucking, 

1 The Pests and Blights of the Tea Plant, being a Report of Investigations 
conducted in Assam, and to some extent also in Kangra, by George Watt, M. B., 
CM., CLE. Calcutta: 1898. 

1901-1902.] Tea: Its Cultivation, &c. 267 

below the Pekoe or Souchong leaves, and eat perhaps half-way 
in or more. In a day or so the shoot has withered and fallen 
off. This insect is sometimes confounded with the lady- 
bird, which is quite distinct. The colours are different ; the 
elytra of the ladybird are smooth ; and it is carnivorous, 
while the orange beetle is a vegetable eater. The chief food 
of the ladybird is the black aphis found on the leaves. 

Caterpillars and Cocoons. — The caterpillars eat the leaves 
and bark, but can be easily caught and destroyed before much 
harm is done. One of the specimens seems to be the faggot 
worm, and the other the bag worm. The faggot worm nips off 
short lengths of twigs and fastens these parallel to one another. 
In Assam these cases average from 1-| to 3 inches long and \ 
to 1 inch diameter. The entrance to the case is closed by a 
little lid hinged at the top. The bag worm makes its case of 
one or two leaves fixed down for their whole length to the 
case. It has no lid such as the faggot worm has. 

Thread blight (Stilbum nanum, Massee). — In the early part 
of the season this blight can be seen on the lower part of the 
stem. The name is very descriptive — a soft white woolly 
thread lightly attached to the bark. Generally the thread is 
to be seen on the branches. On the young twigs it forms 
slight thickenings at the joints, from which offshoots go to the 
leaves. On reaching the leaf, the fungus follows the course of 
the midrib, from which it develops a soft felted layer, covering 
the whole of the under side of the leaf. The leaves fade and 
gradually become brown, slowly bending over till they touch 
the stem. They then gradually drop off, and as the thread 
forces its way to the buds, the vitality of the twig is slowly 
but surely extinguished. 

From a Eeturn to the House of Commons (Aug. 1900) 
relating to tea and coffee, some interesting information relative 
to our third section — viz., the extent of the tea industry — 
can be obtained. Only four countries produce tea on a large 
scale. These are China, Japan, British India, and Ceylon. 
Their exports were in 1899, China 217,467,000 lb.; British 
India, 159,806,000 lb.; Ceylon, 129,662,000 lb.; and Japan 
for 1898 (no figures being given for 1899), 61,532,000 lb. 
China shows a very considerable decrease in the amount of 

268 Tea : Its Cultivation, &c, [Sess. 

its exports, though it is still the largest exporter : the other 
three countries show a considerable increase, that in the case 
of Ceylon being rather remarkable. In 1884 its exports 
only amounted to 2,393,000 lb.; now they are nearly 
130,000,000 lb. The other places producing tea are Java, 
which in 1898 exported 12,000,000 lb., and in 1899, 
12,800,000 lb.; and Natal, which in 1899 had an esti- 
mated yield of 1,000,000 lb. Each year since shows an 
estimated increase of 300,000 lb., and it is expected that be- 
fore long Natal will produce all the tea required in South Africa. 

A small quantity of tea is produced in the Caucasian 
provinces of Eussia, and also in the United States. From 
the report of the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture for 1900 I 
learn that, under the auspices of the Department of Agri- 
culture, experiments have been conducted at Summerville, 
South Carolina, with the view of ascertaining if the cultiva- 
tion of tea in the United States was practicable. An im- 
portant factor is the labour question, but this has been so far 
met by employing negro children. At the gardens, schools 
are established, and there the children, in addition to an ordinary 
school education, are taught the work of a tea garden. The 
Americans are satisfied that they can grow tea, such crops as 
they have raised being disposed of at a fair profit. A com- 
pany with a capital of $50,000 is being organised to grow tea 
when a situation having the necessary soil and climatic condi- 
tions is secured. Special attention is to be given to pure green 
tea, to which, according to the report referred to, British planters 
are turning their attention, as they are beginning to recognise 
their inability to bring Americans to use black instead of 
green tea. The economical use of machinery for plucking, &c, 
is receiving the careful consideration of the Department. 

Most of the Indian and Ceylon teas are sent to the United 
Kingdom. The bulk of the Chinese tea goes to Eussia, though 
some is sent to America, where also most of the Japanese 
production is sent. 

The per capita consumption of tea is interesting, and I give 
it so far as I have figures relating to the year 1899 : United 
Kingdom, 5*98 lb.; German Empire, 011 lb.; Holland, 139 
lb.; France, 5 lb.; United States, 0-96 lb. (a decrease from 
1-55 lb. in 1897, a tax of 10 cents per lb. having been im- 

1901-1902.] Tea: Its Cultivation, &c. 269 

posed in June 1898); Australasia, 7'70 lb. (partly estimated) ; 
Dominion of Canada, 4 - 72 lb. The latest figure for Russia 
is 0*82 lb. in 1898. Of the per capita consumption in this 
country, approximately 3 lb. are Indian tea, 2 lb. Ceylon tea, 
and the remainder is foreign — principally Chinese. 

The United Kingdom is the centre of the tea industry, in 
the year 1899 no less an amount than 289 million pounds 
being imported, the declared value being over 10 J millions 
sterling. Of that large amount 86 per cent came from British 
possessions, the small balance from foreign countries. This is 
somewhat remarkable when one considers that 65 per cent of 
the tea imported in 1884 was of foreign origin, and only 35 
per cent the produce of British possessions. 

The official report on tea-growing in Assam for 1900 
showed that there were 804 tea gardens, embracing an area 
of 1,059,624 acres. Of that large tract 337,327 acres were 
under tea cultivation. Over 9 7 per cent of the area under tea 
is in the hands of Europeans, while less than 3 per cent is 
owned by the natives of India. More than half a million 
of people find employment in cultivating tea in Assam — 
nearly 470,000 of that number being permanently and 35,000 
temporarily employed. 500 million lb. of uncured leaf were 
plucked, yielding 141,118,644 lb. of the manufactured article. 
The amount exported was 107,241,760 lb., and the yield per 
acre averaged 468 lb. 

I have referred to a moist atmosphere being necessary to 
the tea plant. The following figures, taken from the Report 
on Tea Culture in Assam for the year 1900, will convey some 
idea of the rainfall : — 








Average for 

the previous 



five years. 




140 73 




99 03 










59 03 








To show what such a heavy rainfall really means, our City 
Astronomer has kindly allowed me the use of the figures 

270 Tea : Its Cultivation, &c. [Sess. 

showing the monthly and annual rainfall recorded at the Calton 
Hill for the last four years : — 





January . 



































August . 










October . 















Totals . 22-281 26-858 32-634 19-600 

We now come to our fourth and last section — viz., the 
discovery of tea and its subsequent developments. At what 
time tea and its well-known properties were discovered no 
one can with any certainty say. It appears to have been 
known to the Chinese from very remote times. They do 
not claim it as a native plant, as they assert it came originally 
from somewhere in the West. During the early part of the 
nineteenth century it was found that tea was indigenous to 
Assam, and not to China. In its wild state it becomes a 
tree of goodly proportions, living on the best soil under the 
influence of abundant heat and moisture. In China the tea 
tree becomes dwarfed into a bush, owing to its being planted 
on hilly land, the best land being devoted to rice cultivation, 
and under circumstances which do not conduce to promote 
a luxuriant tree growth. One Chinese author states that 
general attention was not directed to tea bushes till the third 
century, during the Han dynasty, and that from that time it 
was only used medicinally until the beginning of the sixth 
century, when it came into general use as a daily beverage. 
During the Tang dynasty, which lasted from the early part 
of the seventh century to the beginning of the tenth century, 
the Chinese exchequer was enriched by means of a tax levied 
on tea ; and in the Sung dynasty which followed, a larger tax 
was imposed. At some time towards the end of the sixteenth 
century tea appears to have been brought to Europe, but 
precise information is lacking. During the seventeenth century 

1901-1902.] Tea: Its Cultivation, &c. 271 

the East India Company began the importation by bringing 
home a few thousand pounds weight of tea, which sold at 
very large prices. In the next century the importation of 
tea had increased to some millions of pounds weight, with a 
very considerable reduction in the price — a price which would 
at the present day be considered absolutely prohibitive. 

As the specimens now exhibited have come from Assam, 
and the methods of cultivation and manufacture just described 
are those practised in Assam, we shall consider specially the 
origin of the industry in India. About the end of the 
eighteenth century some captains of the East India Company 
brought tea plants from Canton to Calcutta. These were 
planted in some gardens, and grew well, notwithstanding the 
local ignorance of their necessities for successful culture. 
Some little time after reports were prepared for the Company, 
dealing with the cultivation in India of new crops, and one of 
them was tea. Nothing, however, was done in the matter. 
The Company had a monopoly of tea, and consequently did 
not feel under the necessity of embarking in the cultivation 
and manufacture of tea in India. When renewing their 
charter in 1833, they found that they had lost their tea 
monopoly. To remedy matters, they at once commenced 
experimental gardens with a view to cultivating tea in India 
of which they would have control. The Chinese planters 
grow their tea on hillsides, and it was thought that was the 
proper thing for India also. Experience demonstrated that 
it would not do. The heavy rain floods washed away the 
soil from the roots and undid the work of planting. To 
obviate this, terraces were formed, and in some parts of India 
under tea these are still to be found. While the experiments 
were being carried out, a report got into circulation that tea 
was indigenous to Assam, and not to China as was generally 
supposed. Various stories got abroad attributing the dis- 
covery to different people. A careful sifting followed, when 
it was found that the honour belonged to a Mr Robert Bruce, 
and this the Government confirmed by giving him a reward. 
Mr Bruce had occasion to visit Assam in 1823, and when 
there his botanical researches resulted in the discovery of the 
tea tree growing wild near Rungpore. At that time Bungpore 
was the capital of Assam, which was not a part of the British 

272 The Teeth of Fishes. [Sess. 

Empire. Since then it has been incorporated with British 
India, the chief town being Gaohati. Before leaving Assam 
Mr Bruce entered into an agreement with one of the native 
chiefs for the supply of a number of tea plants. In the follow- 
ing year Mr Bruce's brother visited the chief, and under the 
agreement obtained a quantity of tea seed and a considerable 
number of plants. These were put into gardens, but nothing 
seems to have been done till ten years later, when the question 
was raised as to the plant being indigenous. When this was 
decided, an attempt was made to ascertain the conditions 
which tended to make successful cultivation. In reporting, 
the investigating committee expressed the opinion that the 
native tree had, through lack of proper cultivation, grown 
rank, and therefore deteriorated, and they recommended the 
introduction of the Chinese variety. This took place about 
1835, and led to the production of new varieties. Mr Robert 
Bruce had not been idle, however, for during the years inter- 
vening since his first discovery of the native tree he had 
been travelling all over the country, finding new places where 
the tea was growing wild, and by the year 1840 he had 
discovered considerably over one hundred tea tracts. 

About the year 1850 the Government gave up the experi- 
mental stations, and tea cultivation, which had become an 
established industry, passed into the hands of individuals 
and corporations. 


By Mr W. H. MENMUIR, L.D.S., R.C.S.E. 

{Read Nov. 27, 1901.) 

The teeth serve a variety of purposes, the principal being to 
cut and masticate food ; to combat, as in the tiger and pig ; 
and for carrying, as in the elephant. There are two kinds : (1) 
Hard calcified, as human, and (2) horny, as in the sword-fish. 

1 901-1902.] The Teeth of Fishes. 273 

The human tooth is formed of three constituents — enamel, 
dentine, and cementum. The enamel covers the crown, the 
dentine forms the body, and the cementum envelops the 
roots. Teeth are developed by a clipping down of the oral 
epithelium from the surface of the jaw. There are four 
methods of attachment: (1) Fibrous membrane, as in sharks 
and rays. The teeth are here attached to fibrous membrane, 
and have no connection with the cartilaginous jaw. (2) 
Hinge, as in pike and hake. (3) Anchylosis, where there is 
membrane between tooth and bone, as is very well seen in the 
section of tooth and portion of the jaw of a python now 
exhibited, showing the marked difference in character between 
the bone of attachment and the rest of the bone. (4) Im- 
plantation in bony sockets, as in most mammals. There is 
here a special development of bone around the tooth, called 
alveolar border. This grows up with the tooth and disappears 
when it goes away. There is a membrane between tooth and 

Fishes are divided into four classes : the principal, from the 
point of view of teeth, are — (1) Teleostei; (2) Elasmobranchi. 
The Teleostei are best known to us. They possess a bony 
skeleton, and the mouth is crowded with teeth, pharynx as 
well as jaws. In the pike the teeth are inclined backwards, 
and are larger in some places than others. In the Elasmo- 
branchi, or sharks and rays, the skeleton is formed of carti- 
lage. The teeth are numerous, and are attached to fibrous 
membrane. The horny teeth of the saw-fish are dermal 
spines, are socketed — which is uncommon among fish — and 
grow from persistent pulps. 

In the Batrachia the teeth are not so numerous as in fish. 
Toads are edentulous. The frog has a single row of teeth in 
the upper jaw, and the lower jaw, which has no teeth, passes 
inside the upper. The Chelonia — tortoises and turtles — have 
no teeth, the margin of the jaws being sheathed in horny 

Saurian Reptiles — lizards. In some cases these have small, 
rounded, conical teeth, and in others long and pointed. The 
teeth are anchylosed to the bone by bone of attachment. The 
succession of teeth is constant. They come from the inside of 
the bases of the old teeth, and pass to the front. 

274 The Teeth of Fishes. [Sess. 

Ophidian Eeptiles — true serpents, the ribs being the means 
of locomotion. There are two groups — non-poisonous and 
poisonous. (1) Non-poisonous Snakes. These have one row 
of teeth in the lower and two in the upper jaw. In the upper 
they are distributed on the jaw bone, palatine and pterygoid 
bones. The teeth are recurved, and are anchylosed to the 
bone. The teeth during their development have a horizontal 
instead of a vertical position, and are thus protected from 
displacement, as happens in other creatures. They have no 
canals in their teeth for ejecting poisonous saliva. (2) Poison 
Snakes — Puff-adders, rattlesnake, vipers, &c. The maxillary 
bone carries no teeth behind the poison-fang. This is a 
splendid example of the doctrine of adaptive modification, 
where in the course of generations the other teeth which we 
see in the non-poisonous snakes have disappeared by the 
development of the poison-fang. 

Crocodilia. In this order the teeth are implanted in 
sockets : they are conical and sharp, while one or two are 
larger than the others. 

Birds. In the present age birds have no teeth, but from 
excavations in different parts of the world fossil remains have 
been discovered proving that some of the birds of the past 
were possessed of true teeth. 

We now come to the mammals, and, as far as can be 
gathered from fossil remains, the typical dental formula 
was — 

incisors -| ; canines ^ ; premolars ^ ; molars ^ 

Edentata — sloths, armadillos, and ant-eaters. In these the 
teeth are of simple form, grow from persistent pulps, and do 
not differ much from one another in appearance. Most of 
them have no incisor teeth. 

In Cetacea we have two groups — toothed whales or Odonto- 
ceti, and the whalebone whales or Mysticoceti. The dolphin 
has very numerous slender teeth, which interdigitate with one 
another. They are fastened on cartilage, and' could be pulled 
out en masse. The pilot whale or Grindhval of the Faroe 
islanders, which attains a length of twenty feet, is often 
caught in the North of Scotland. The teeth are fewer than 
in the dolphin, and have an edge-to-edge bite. In the sperm 
whale the teeth are numerous in the lower jaw, but are stunted 

1901-1902.] The Teeth of Fishes. 275 

in the upper, where they remain buried in the dense gum. In 
the narwhal two teeth alone persist in the upper. In the female 
these are rudimentary ; in the male, one tusk, in some rare 
instances both tusks, continue to grow from a persistent pulp. 
The tusk is quite straight, and is marked by spiral grooves, 
winding from left to right. Where both teeth have been 
developed, the spiral grooves wind in the same direction. 
Whalebone whales have no teeth, but in their place they 
have baleen plates placed transversely to the axis of the 
mouth, but not at right angles to it. The plates are fringed, 
and as the whale takes large mouthfuls of water containing 
minute marine creatures, these are caught by the baleen 
plates, while the water is expelled. 

Cheiroptera, or bats. The bats possess wings, and are 
divided into two groups — namely, insectivorous and frugivor- 
ous. Insectivorous bats have the following dental formula — 

*■ f 5 c - T > P- m - 1 5 m - f 
Blood-sucking vampires (Desmodus) have teeth specially 
adapted for their blood-sucking habits. 

Eodentia. The animals of this order are pretty well scattered 
over the world. They have long chisel-shaped incisors, which 
grow from persistent pulps. In hares and rabbits there is 
an extra pair of incisors, which grow behind the large ones. 

Proboscidea. In this group the incisors grow from per- 
sistent pulps. The molars are massive teeth, and are made 
up of plates held together with cementum. The tusks represent 
the principal ivory of commerce, and, on account of their 
elasticity, are largely used in the manufacture of billiard- 
balls. This elasticity is due to the small size of the 
dentinal tubes, and to the frequent bends which these 
make, giving to ivory the peculiar engine - turning pattern 
that distinguishes it from bone. In the elephant there is 
no vertical succession of teeth, as one finds in most 
mammals, but they come from behind and travel forwards 
as the front ones drop out. 

Ungulata, or hoofed mammals. These are divided into 
Perissodactyle or odd-toed, and Artiodactyle or even-toed. 
The Perissodactyle comprise the horse, tapir, palasotherium, 
and rhinoceros. The dentition of the horse is — 

276 The Teeth of Fishes. [Sess. 

The first premolar is rudimentary. The incisors are peculiar 
on account of a folding in of the enamel in the centre, forming 
the well-known pit or mark by which a horse's age can be 
reckoned with certainty up to a certain time. The pit or 
mark is situated near the middle of the cutting edge of the 
teeth. It is shallow, and by the constant rubbing of the 
upper and lower teeth together, it is obliterated in the two 
centrals at 6, in the laterals at 7, and on the next from 8 to 
10 years. If a horse is fed on soft food, the mark will not 
be rubbed out so soon as if it had been reared on hard food. 
When the horse is about 10 years old a groove commences to 
show at the gum margin of the outermost incisor, and as the 
teeth are being constantly pushed from their sockets to make 
up for the attrition, the groove lengthens as well as the tooth, 
and when it has reached the middle of the crown the horse is 
14, and by the time the cutting edge is reached the horse is 
reckoned 21. The thickness of the incisors also varies, by 
which means one can get a fair idea of a horse's age. 

The incisors of the pig are peculiar, on account of their 
being widely separated at their bases. The molars are adorned 
with rounded conical cusps called the Bunodont pattern. 

In the hippopotamus the dental formula is — 

i. f ; c. i ; p.m. | ; m. § 

The incisors are long and tapering, while the canines are 
enormous teeth, and are used by the animals for uprooting 
aquatic plants on which they feed. The ivory is of dense 
substance, and is used for the manufacture of small objects. 

The principal feature in the dentition of the carnivora is 
the very small incisors and powerful canines, with the pre- 
molars narrow and pointed, and as a rule rudimentary molars. 
The fourth upper premolar is called a carnossial tooth, and 
the first molar in the lower. 

We now come to the aquatic carnivora, or seals and walruses. 
The Otariidaa, or Sea Lions, are the seals from which sealskin 
is procured. Their teeth are like the cetacean, not differing 
much from one another in any part of the mouth. The Phoca 
Groenlandica is the seal commonly met with round our coasts. 
The walrus has enormous upper canines. Its dental formula is — 

i. £ ; c. 1 ; p.m. § 

1 9 o i - 1 9 o 2 . ] The Birds of Ballinluig, &c. 277 

Lastly, we come to the primates, an order which embraces 
monkeys, the lemurs, and man. The true monkeys are divided 
into two great groups — the old world monkeys and the new 
world monkeys. The new world monkeys are called Platyr- 
rhine or wide-nosed monkeys. Their dental formula is — 

if; c. l; p.m. f ; m. § =36 

The old world or Catarhine monkeys have a dental formula 
the same as man. The dentition of the orang approaches 
very nearly to that of man. The canines are longer, while 
the difference in the premolars and molars is of a trifling 


(Read Dec. 18, 1901.) 

The following notes were made chiefly during my annual 
holiday — those referring to Ballinluig being made during the 
last eight years or so, in June, July, August, and September, 
with an occasional week-end visit at the May bank-holiday. 
My notes from Blair Atholl were made only at week-end 
visits at the May bank-holiday during the last two years ; 
while those referring to Fossoway were made in July and 
the beginning of August of this year (1901). On week-end 
visits I was always accompanied by my esteemed friend T. G. 
Laidlaw of this Society. My practice in going to a locality 
is to carry a copy of Howard Saunders' List of British Birds 
in my pocket, and tick off each species as it is observed, 
marking any particulars that may be deemed necessary. 

(1) Ballinluig. 

I may mention a few notes of our journey to Ballinluig, 
as sometimes a good deal can be seen even from the window 
of an express train. Starting from Edinburgh, there is not 

278 The Birds of Ballinluig, &c. [Sess. 

much to be observed until we cross the river Almond, where 
we generally catch a glimpse of a moor-hen disporting itself 
in the slimy-like fluid of that river. MacGillivray, in his 
classic work, gives an account of a journey from Edinburgh 
to Cromarty during the month of March, and it may not be 
out of place to give an extract from it here : — 

At Queensferry, where we crossed the Forth, over whose placid waters 
gleamed from afar the white ridge of the Southern Grampians, were seen 
flocks of common and black-headed gulls, with a few individuals of the 
great black-backed species, and some ducks too distant to be distinguished. 
Between this place and Kinross were observed numbers of the more 
common small birds, partridges, and two pheasants feeding in a ploughed 
field, and a male hen-harrier, the flight of which afforded a most interest- 
ing sight. First it came skimming over a field almost close to the ground, 
then gliding along a hawthorn-hedge, now on one side then on the other, 
turned abruptly to follow another hedge, never flying higher than three 
or four yards, and lastly passed over a large ploughed field and disappeared. 
It was eight when we entered Perth, and the journey by Dunkeld and 
Blair into the Central Grampians having been performed under night, 
little could be seen, although it was clear moonlight, excepting woods and 
plantations in the lower tracks, and in the higher, hills covered with heath, 
of which the dark colour contrasted with the patches of snow that re- 
mained unmelted, with bare valleys in which not a hut was to be seen for 
several miles. 

The gulls, ducks, &c, may still be seen, but it would be a 
treat nowadays to see a hen-harrier. 

There is not much of interest to be noted until Loch Leven 
is reached. It was during one of our week-end excursions 
that Mr Laidlaw and I saw the pintail ducks there. These 
birds had not been recorded as breeding in Scotland previously, 
and we thought it would be interesting to follow the subject 
up. Not having time at our disposal, we placed the matter 
in the hands of Mr Wm. Evans, who gives a full account of 
the nesting of the pintail on Loch Leven in the ' Annals of 
Scottish Natural History' for July 1898. 

We have reason to believe that these birds were somewhat 
harassed during the nesting-time for the next year or two, 
but last year they were strictly protected, with the result 
that as many as sixteen were seen at one time by a friend 
of mine last summer. 

After passing Perth, the valley of the Tay becomes inter- 
esting. We generally see common terns, swallows, house 

1901-1902.] The Birds of Ballinluig, &c. 279 

and sand martins skimming about. Game seems to grow 
more plentiful, and as we approach Ballinluig the oyster- 
catcher becomes very abundant. The local name for this 
bird is " Tooleet," from its cry. During the month of June 
one can hear the cry of the tooleet at any hour of the day or 

Having reached Ballinluig, I shall give an account of the 
district, with a few notes on the birds observed there. The 
district lies at the junction of the Tay and Tummel rivers, 
eight miles north from Dunkeld, and four south from Pitlochry. 
It is in the parish of Logierait, associated with the escape of 
Bob Boy from the Duke of Atholl. Some of the prisoners 
taken at Prestonpans in '45 were sent to prison here. The 
woods, somewhat dense, are well suited for bird life, and roe- 
deer are plentiful in them. The trees are chiefly larch, Scots 
fir, and oak. Larch is especially fine, and of considerable 
value to the proprietor. The oak used to be felled and the 
bark peeled off for use in tanning, but this does not seem to 
have paid — at least, the practice has been abandoned during 
recent years. There is abundance of moorland all round the 
district. My notes were made within a radius of three or 
four miles around Ballinluig. 

The following does not pretend to be a complete list of 
the birds of the district, and is simply a record of what came 
under my own observation. The list of birds comprises 95 
kinds, some — such as the jay and capercailzie — not being 
met with in many parts of Scotland. The capercailzie flourishes 
here because the woods are admirably suited for it, both as 
regards habits and food. Taymouth Castle, the place of its 
reintroduction in 1837-38, is only a few miles off. The jay 
continues to hold its own in spite of all manner of persecution 
from game-preservers. It is said to be a notorious egg-stealer, 
and consequently pays the penalty. I have had eggs pointed 
out to me by a keeper who said he knew they had been 
sucked by a jay from the neat hole made in the egg by that 
bird. I have seen family parties of jays feeding on insects 
on oak trees, also on maggots on a dead rabbit. The jay is a 
match for the wasp, and I was told by a keeper that he had 
shot one in the act of killing wasps. In fact, he fired 
the shot out of his house, setting fire to the window- 

VOL. IV. x 


The Birds of Ballinluig, &c. 


curtain in doing so. I have seen more than a dozen jays 
nailed to a keeper's rail, most of them having been recently 

The following is the list of birds : — 

Missel thrush. 



Song ii 





Common heron. 





Goldfinch (July '95). 







Goosander (May '97). 








Lesser redpoll. 




Black grouse. 

Garden warbler. 


Red ii 


Crossbill (August '94). 


Sedge warbler. 

Corn bunting. 


Chiff-chaff (June '93). 

Yellow n 


Willow warbler. 

Reed n 


Wood wren. 



Golden-crested wren. 


Ringed plover. 

Long-tailed tit. 


Golden n 

Great n 



Blue 1 1 

Carrion crow. 


Cole 1 1 

Hooded m 


Marsh n (June 










Kingfisher (June '93). 

Common tern. 

Pied wagtail. 


Black-headed gull. 

Grey 1 1 

Barn owl. 

Common n 

Tree pipit. 

Long-eared owl. 

Lesser black-backed gull 

Meadow pipit. 

Tawny owl. 

Guillemot (Sept. '99). 

Spotted flycatcher. 





Little grebe. 

(2) Blair Atholl. 

Leaving Ballinluig, we proceed to Blair Atholl, a distance 
of eleven miles or so. The scenery now becomes more 
Highland. Passing Pitlochry with its hydropathics, we are 
soon running through the historical Pass of Killiecrankie. 
To see the pass properly, one must walk through it. The 
chief object of interest at Blair Atholl is, of course, the castle, 
the residence of the Duke of Atholl. Claverhouse is said 
to be buried in the old churchyard near the castle. The 
Falls of Bruar, immortalised by Burns, are well worth seeing. 
MacGillivray gives a most interesting account of spending a 


The Birds of Ballinluig, &c. 


night among the hills here. Scrope, in his ' Deer-Stalking,' 
also tells many curious stories about the district and the 
characters he met with when residing in it. We were shown 
a rock in the Tilt where a celebrated chieftain, the Mackin- 
tosh, held his court, and every time he did so a man was 
hung. This gave rise to the saying in the district, when any 
important event takes place, " It's not every day the 
Mackintosh holds his court." 

The Atholl Gathering, held in September, is well worth 
seeing. The Duke has an armed retinue of two or three 
hundred of his men, who meet at the castle and march 
to a field close at hand, where Highland games of all kinds 
are engaged in, prizes being given by the ducal family. The 
public are admitted to the park, and the sports are always 
well attended. 

The list of birds comprises 62 species, as follows: — 

Missel thrush. 



Song 11 





Black grouse. 



Red ,, 


Yellow bunting. 






Jay (one in 1900). 


Willow wren. 




Carrion crow. 

Golden plover. 


Hooded n 


Long-tailed tit. 



Great 1 1 



Cole ,i 



Blue „ 






Pied wagtail. 

Common heron. 

Common tern. 

Grey m 


Black -headed gull. 

Tree pipit. 


Common n 

Meadow pipit. 


Lesser black-backed 





Tufted duck. 

(3) Fossoway. 

Little grebe. 

We now proceed to Fossoway, or the " Crook of Devon," so 
named because the village is situated at the bend of the river 
Devon. The name is said to signify " haunt of the deer." I 
may say, however, that I did not see any of these graceful 
animals during my visit to the district. Fossoway is situated 
partly in Kinross-shire and partly in Perthshire, the village 


The Birds of Ballinluig, &c. 


being about eight miles from Kinross. The ancient castles of 
Aldie and Tullibole deserve a visit. Mercer, the laird of Aldie, 
joined Prince Charlie at the rebellion of '45, and was slain at 
the battle of Culloden. Aldie is now the property of Lord 

The Devon is a pretty river, the water being very clear, 
and trout are plentiful, but are not easily caught. Burns 
visited this locality, and composed the well-known song, 
" How pleasant the banks of the clear winding Devon." 
Eumbling Bridge and the Falls of the Devon are familiar 
tourist haunts. 

I was informed that there were capercailzie in the large 
fir wood near the village, but I was not successful in seeing 
any. The list of birds comprises 57 species. It is some- 
what short, but July is the worst month for making observa- 
tions about bird life, and last July was so very warm that a 
little walking " went a long way." My notes were made 
chiefly within a mile or two around Fossoway. The following 
are the birds observed : — 

Missel thrush. 

Meadow pipit. 


Song H 

Spotted flycatcher. 




Tawny owl. 



Common heron. 







Golden-crested wren. 

House- sparrow. 


Willow wren. 



Wood ii 




Lesser redpoll. 



Corn bunting. 

Oyster- catcher. 

Long-tailed tit. 

Yellow ii 


Great n 

Reed n 


Cole ii 







Carrion crow. 




Black-headed gull 

Pied wagtail. 


Common 1 1 

Grey n 


Herring m 

[In illustration of the above paper, a large number of slides 
of birds' nests, from photographs taken by Mr Bruce Campbell, 
were shown on the screen. Four of these photographs are 
here reproduced.] 

PLATE XXVIII. -Birds of Ballinluig, &c. 

1901-1902.] The Squirrel. 283 



(Bead Dec. 18, 1901.) 

It is now considerably over forty years since I made the dis- 
covery for myself that squirrels nested and reared their young 
like birds in the trees. I was sitting on a wooden fence, a 
very short distance from the toll- house at the end of the 
bridge which crosses the Tweed near the village of Norharn. 
My attention was attracted by a peculiar purring noise, and 
on looking up, I saw a squirrel on a branch about 1 5 feet over 
my head. I further observed what looked like a bunch of dried 
leaves out on the branch some distance from the trunk. 
Concluding that it was the nest of a bird, the desire to dis- 
cover what kind of nest it was quickly took possession of me. 
The tree was an elm, and as the trunk for a considerable 
distance up was branchless, to climb it was impossible. The 
following day I again repaired to the spot, and again saw a 
squirrel on the tree, yet it never dawned on me that the 
bunch of leaves would be a squirrel's nest. Divulging my 
secret to a school companion, he seemed as anxious as I was to 
ascertain what bird the nest belonged to. We threw stones, 
but could see no bird fly from it. We, however, hit on a 
plan by which we hoped to be able to scale the tree. A 
ladder was stolen from a farm-steading half a mile distant, and 
by placing it against the trunk I found that the branches 
could be reached. I at once ascended, and soon got out on 
the branch which contained the coveted nest. I then found, 
however, that it would be difficult to reach the nest, as the 
branch bent beneath my weight. Taunted by my companion 
below with being " feared," I endeavoured to proceed, but, 
losing my balance, I fell from the branch, though I hung for 
some seconds by my hands. My struggles caused such a 
vibration on the branch that two young squirrels, in attempt- 
ing to escape from the nest, fell to the ground, and almost 
simultaneously I dropped also. I landed on my feet, but fell 
heavily, and was considerably bruised. However, to be half 

284 The Squirrel. [Sess. 

killed was a trifle, since the two young squirrels were secured. 
I am ashamed to confess that in the exuberance of our delight 
we forgot to return the farmer's ladder, but it came to his ears 
who had taken it, and for a long time after we gave him a 
wide berth. 

After such a long vista of years I would not care to state 
exactly the size of the pets, but it is safe to say that they were 
about half grown. In our ignorance of squirrel life I fear they 
did not receive the treatment due to such tiny creatures. 
We took one each, and I hurried home with my prize. My 
companion's died the following day, probably having been 
injured by falling from the nest. I had mine confined in a 
box among some hay, and fed him with small pieces of bread 
soaked in milk. He soon became very tame, and allowed me 
to handle him, and would run up my sleeve, come out at my 
breast, and nestle on my shoulder. For a time he seemed to 
thrive, and I became much attached to such an interesting 
pet. I got hazel nuts, but always had to crack them for him. I 
am now under the impression that it was lack of his mother's 
milk and nursing that wrecked his health, as he succumbed 
before he was even full grown. I should therefore advise any 
one attempting to rear a squirrel to try and get it as young as 
possible and have it suckled by a domestic cat. I have had setter 
puppies reared by a cat, and have seen a kitten, a rabbit, and 
a squirrel, all suckled by puss at the same time. At present 
I could show you a white kitten nursed by a Scotch terrier. 

Never can I forget the death-scene of my pet squirrel. 
For a day or two he had refused all food, and before leaving 
for school in the morning I saw by the rapid heaving of his 
breast that something serious was the matter. On my return 
in the afternoon he was still alive, but very prostrate. I 
lifted him out of his box and held him in my hands near the 
fire. Once with his large, black, intelligent eyes he looked 
right into mine as if imploring for something, but what of 
course I could not understand. He seemed pleased to lie in 
my hands, but he scarcely ever moved, and within half an 
hour I felt his heart cease to beat. Though I was at the 
time, I am not now, ashamed to confess that I ran into a 
spruce wood and cried as if my heart would break. No act, 
however, could restore to life this gentle creature that had 

1901-1902.] The Squirrel. 285 

suffered from misguided affection, in the course of a most 
unsatisfactory, and I now confess inconsiderate, experiment. 
Alas ! how many pets share a similar fate. I buried it in the 
wood, and to this day could point out the spot. 

The nest of the squirrel is generally found on a branch 
where smaller ones shoot out. It is made of twigs, dried 
grass, and leaves bound together with the inner bark of the 
lime-tree. Great care is displayed, and this is necessary, 
in order that it may resist a violent gale. The nest is made 
on the principle of Jenny Wren's, with which we are all so 
familiar. So carefully is it knit together that it is never 
soaked by heavy rains, and here the squirrel brings forth its 
young and spends much of its time during the inclemency of 
winter. Sometimes the nest is formed in a cavity of a large 
branch, where they gnaw out any rotten parts prior to form- 
ing the nest. In the end of May last a dead tree was cut 
down in the policies of Moredun, and on falling to the ground 
it was discovered by the woodman that a squirrel's nest was 
in the cavity of a decayed branch. Five young squirrels 
nearly half-grown were in the nest, but one of them was dead. 
The woodman gave the four to the boys of a farmer close by, 
but here again they became the victims of misguided affection, 
warm milk from the cow (which is much too strong) being 
given them without stint. 

Squirrels love warmth, and I am of opinion that they only 
leave their nests in stormy weather when compelled by hunger. 
They bring forth their young early in May, and, as far as I 
am able to judge from dissection in the spring months, their 
period of gestation, like the rat and the weasel, is six weeks. 
As far as I know, they generally breed only once a year, but 
I do not wish to dogmatise on this point, as I understand that 
in the south of England they bring forth their young much 
earlier than May. 

Among my early recollections was a story in my school- 
book entitled " The Use of Squirrels to the British Navy." A 
gentleman in Monmouthshire observed a squirrel burying 
acorns in the ground, and arrived at the conclusion that the 
animals would fail to find them all again, with the result that 
the acorns would spring up and eventually grow into giant 
oaks suitable for shipbuilding purposes. The writer's con- 

286 The Squirrel. [Sess. 

elusion was a little astray, as the oak requires the growth of 
centuries to mature it, and, as is well known, it has long since 
been superseded by iron in building our modern men-of-war. 
But he was accurate enough in his remarks regarding squirrels 
forgetting where to find their hidden treasures. I have again 
and again observed the stupidity of squirrels in this ' respect. 
I have seen them carrying walnuts a considerable distance from 
the trees, and burying them in a garden by scraping holes and 
covering them with soil. I have also seen them hunting most 
actively and scraping here and there for their hidden food, 
and, what is surprising, very frequently without success. I 
was for long under the impression that squirrels, like field 
mice, invariably laid up stores in quantity, but this has seldom 
come under my observation, though I have often seen single 
hazel nuts, walnuts, and chestnuts unearthed when digging 
was being prosecuted in flower-beds. That the long-tailed 
field mouse has a granary of stores laid up for winter is 
familiar to every one. I have often followed squirrels' tracks 
when there was a sprinkling of snow on the ground, but in 
few cases found a store. I was, however, fortunate in finding 
one this morning. Taking up the track at a large lime-tree on 
the avenue at The Inch, on which there is a nest, I followed 
the trail round behind the stables and found a number of 
places where he had been scraping. Searching diligently, I 
came upon a store of haws and acorns (Spanish oak), which I 
carefully picked up to exhibit here to-night. They were 
covered only by dead leaves. 

I was recently interested in watching a squirrel pulling 
chestnuts from a tree in Kingston Grange Park. I had of 
course to keep a respectful distance, but observed that it 
pulled them off with its feet, when the nuts dropped to the 
ground. It would then run down, pick one up and run off 
with it, crossing the park, a distance of over a hundred yards, 
to a place where the density of the foliage prevented grass 
from growing underneath. Here it made a little scrape, 
pushed the nut as far underneath the leaves and soil as it 
could with its nose, gave three or four scrapes with each fore 
paw to cover it, and was off again. During one of the 
journeys with a nut I got nearer the chestnut tree with a view 
to observing accurately how it removed them. On its return 

1901-1902.] The Squirrel. 287 

it quickly observed me, ran up into the cleft of a branch, and 
watched suspiciously for several minutes. Picking up a bit 
of stick, I began working with it on the walk, and gradually 
went farther away from the chestnut tree. The squirrel 
evidently made up its mind that I was a gardener and had 
no intention of interfering with it, as it again commenced 
operations. Here I discovered how largely this animal is 
endowed with the instinct of self-preservation, as it discon- 
tinued crossing the field, but ran round nearly double the 
distance on the top of the wall that surrounds the park. 
There is a row of trees inside the wall, and prudence dictated 
that it was safer to keep near them than to cross the open 

Strange as it may seem, the tame squirrel now exhibited 
will not eat chestnuts, but this may be accounted for by its 
getting a superabundance of food more congenial to its taste. 
It might be otherwise during a protracted storm. It must 
also be kept in mind that some seasons beech nuts and acorns 
can be gathered in large quantities, while in others scarcely 
any can be got. Not being able to find beech nuts and acorns 
hereabouts this season, and knowing from the recollections of 
my boyhood that a great many grow in the historic park of 
Ladykirk, in Berwickshire, I wrote and asked the gardener to 
send me some. He replied, " There is not such a thing to be 
seen this year; last year they could be gathered in barrow 

The usual food of squirrels is fruit, nuts, acorns, fungi, the 
cones of pine, which they pull to pieces segment by segment 
in order to get out the seed, and — must it be confessed ? — the 
shoots of young trees. They seem to be fond of gooseberries, 
but these are not carried away. Their modus operandi is to 
select a berry they can reach from the ground, make a hole in 
the side and scoop the heart out with their paws, leaving the 
skin hanging on the bush. Where squirrels are numerous 
hazel nuts are frequently cleaned up before they are fit for 
pulling. Cherries are also a great temptation for squirrels. 
I was once much amused by seeing a gardener at Ladykirk 
determined to protect a beautiful crop of cherries which were 
growing against the garden wall. He had them covered by 
hanging a herring-net over them double, and with an evident 

288 The Squirrel. [Sess. 

feeling of self-satisfaction said that " not even a sparrow could 
get in." Sciurus vulgaris was, however, too many for him, as, 
like the rat, he soon cut holes in the net to suit himself, and 
the cherries rapidly disappeared. I was sent for with my gun 
to shoot the depredator. While showing me a place to conceal 
myself among some bushes, the gardener was sent for by his 
mistress. Sitting quiet, the squirrel soon made its appearance 
on the top of the wall, when I fired and killed it. It is to 
this day, however, a moot point whether the squirrel or his 
murderer was the greater robber of the cherries, as, having 
shot the thief, I saw no reason why, in the gardener's absence, 
I should not help myself. 

Large* quantities of fungi are devoured by squirrels. When 
grouse-driving at Millden in Forfarshire in September last, I 
observed one miles away from any trees. At the termination 
of a drive far up the side of Mount Battock, and when sending 
my retriever to " seek dead," he made a point at something in 
the heather. I knew by his manner that it was not a grouse, 
and on going forward he pounced on something which jumped 
up, and which I at first took to be a stoat. In an instant it 
was seized by the dog and killed. I saw it was a squirrel, 
but too late to save it. I had it put in the panniers, and 
could not help reflecting on a squirrel being so far from wood. 
What, I wondered, could it be doing there ? This fact is at 
variance with many writers, who state that squirrels do not 
stray far from trees. Instances are, however, recorded that 
they do. At lunch time I dissected it, and found its stomach 
packed full of fungi, which possibly had attracted it so far up 
among the treeless mountains. Another theory suggested 
itself to my mind. As squirrels are suffering much persecu- 
tion for destroying the forest trees in the valley of the Dee, 
and as Mount Battock constitutes the watershed between the 
counties of Aberdeen and Forfar, might it not be impelled by 
natural instinct to leave the persecuted district and seek for 
more congenial quarters in the valley of the North Esk ? 

I have in snow followed the tracks of an otter — which is 
generally believed never to stray far from water — over the 
mountain ridge which constitutes the watershed and county 
march between Perthshire and Inverness-shire. Bats are also 
known to travel long distances, and I do not think the theory 

1901-1902.] The Squirrel. 289 

is far fetched that squirrels might flee from persecution in the 
valley of the Dee across the mountains to Glenesk. 

In the woods at The Burn, near Gannochy Bridge, I have 
been much interested in watching squirrels carrying pieces of 
fungi, large quantities growing there. I am ashamed to con- 
fess that I have never as yet accompanied any of the " fungus 
forays " of this Society, and am ignorant of the species which 
are poisonous and those which are edible. In the mushroom- 
ing excursions of my boyhood I was taught to gather only 
those in the open fields, as the ones growing underneath trees 
were characterised as " puddock stools," and consequently 
poisonous. As stated, I have never made a study of them, 
but long since discovered that squirrels and deer seem to revel 
in devouring them, especially the red, and, to the uninitiated, 
poisonous-looking ones. 

Squirrels often devour the haws of the thorn and the berries 
of the yew. After a fall of snow last year, I came on the track 
of one which I followed till it disappeared beneath a large 
Irish yew. Betiring to some distance in order to watch his 
movements, I had an excellent opportunity of observing how 
differently squirrels and sparrows feed in concert. The bush 
was thickly studded with red berries, on which the squirrel 
was feeding, and it was interesting to watch how dexterously 
he seized one, and split it up the middle in order to get out 
the kernel. This in turn he split up, devouring the inside, 
but allowing the shell with the outside of the berry to fall to 
the ground. Directly the squirrel let any fragments drop, 
half-a-dozen sparrows flew clown and picked them up. I have 
also known them do much mischief by gnawing off the tops of 
horse-radish. They do not even stick at a turnip. A few 
years ago, when partridge-shooting with a party in Lauderdale, 
in Berwickshire, and while sitting at lunch on the roadside, we 
observed a peculiar animal running towards us on the road. 
We could not make out what it was until it came close to us, 
when we discovered it was a squirrel with a turnip in its 
mouth nearly the size of a man's clenched fist. When quite 
near, one of the dogs moved, and it quickly dropped the turnip 
and scuttled through the hedge. 

Do squirrels eat eggs ? This has for some time been a 
controverted question. For long I was disinclined to believe 

290 The Squirrel. [Sess. 

it, but having one sent me which my friend Mr Paterson, of 
Rutherford, shot in the act of eating out of a blackbird's nest, 
I dissected it, and found the yellow of the yolks and bits of 
the blue shell in the stomach. Why they do so, or whether 
it is habitual or exceptional, I am not inclined to express an 

The squirrel is such a beautiful, nimble, active, and 
industrious little creature, with its large black eyes sparkling 
with intelligence, that I cannot help regarding it as the em- 
bodiment of gentleness and innocence. That it is, however, 
destructive in the garden and the forest, is a truism that can- 
not be gainsaid. Squirrels have always been special favourites 
of mine, and even when in my teens — the bloodthirsty age — I 
shot them with reluctance, despite stern instructions to kill 
them down for their depredations in the garden and in the 
woods. Such was the destruction done by squirrels in the 
pine woods in Strathspey a number of years ago, that an 
organised raid was made against them, and a very large 
number were killed in one day. As already indicated, the 
extensive pine forests in the valley of the Dee in Aberdeen- 
shire have suffered severely by a plague of squirrels. The 
damage done is incalculable, by their peeling the bark in great 
splashes, generally from within six inches to a foot from the 
top of growing fir trees, and feeding on the under bark. On 
examining a lot of timber in the pine forests of Glentana, 
there was scarcely a tree on which there were not several bare 
pieces, some of which were two feet in length and half round 
the tree. Five or six bare pieces, as described, on one tree 
was quite common. This completely ruins the timber, as it 
gets black from the exudation of resin and exposure to the 
weather, and eventually decays or is broken over by the wind. 
There is scarcely a tree in the extensive forests referred to 
without such blemishes, and, as already mentioned, the 
damage done is very great. Even to a superficial observer 
the work of squirrels is apparent where these animals exist. 
Under the trees the ground is littered with cones pulled to 
pieces, thin spales of wood which the squirrels have discarded, 
and the young shoots cut off from the tops of the branches of 
various firs. It is my opinion that they eat the soft wood of 
the latest year's growth. To such an extent has the mischief 

1 901-1902.] The Squirrel. 291 

done by squirrels grown in Aberdeenshire, that in a letter I 
have just received from a well-known proprietor and member 
of Parliament, he says : " Squirrels are a perfect curse to tree- 
growing districts, and we in Aberdeenshire have suffered most 
seriously from their operations. They only came into the 
county about forty years ago, but since then they have been 
so active that hardly a wood has been spared, and we pro- 
prietors have lost many thousands of pounds. Their modus 
operandi is well known. They cut away a ring of bark, not 
far from the tree top, which then withers and becomes so 
brittle as to be easily broken off by the wind or snow, and 
after that the growth of the tree is checked, it becomes stunted, 
and when cut will practically be found to be ' piped ' and much 
deteriorated in quality. Even if the top is not snapped off, 
the circulation of the sap is checked by the ringing of the 
bark, and healthy growth ceases." 

Even in old-timbered parks such as The Inch, Kingston 
Grange, and Edmonstone, squirrels do much mischief. I have 
observed in the early spring (when there is a sprinkling of 
snow it is more apparent) the ground littered with buds be- 
neath the fine old planes, the centre of the buds being eaten 
out by squirrels. Later in the spring, when the horse-chestnut 
has made young shoots of from three to six inches in length, 
they seem to take a pride in the quantity of shoots they can 
nip off. They hollow out the pith, leaving the shoot hanging 
by a strip of bark, which in a day or two dries up, giving the 
tree the appearance of having been blasted by a severe spring- 
frost or withering east wind. 

That squirrels have become a nuisance must appear mani- 
fest, much as I regret the fact. With the exception of the 
domestic cat, they have practically no enemies but man. The 
gardener's cat at The Inch killed a squirrel the other day. In 
deciduous forests they can be shot down, as when stripped of 
leaves " squirlie " cannot well conceal himself, and once seen 
there is no chance of escape from a gun. It is otherwise in a 
dense pine forest, the difficulty there being to see them. The 
best time to destroy them is in the spring when the tree 
sap begins to rise. 

It is a law of nature that where animals which have a 
tendency to increase rapidly abound, checks are generally 

292 The Squirrel. [Sess. 

found by way of counterbalance. Man, however, sometimes 
presumes to be wiser than the framer of natural law, and in- 
terferes with Nature, with the most ruinous results. Rabbits, 
as is well known, were introduced into Australia and New 
Zealand, and quickly increased to such an extent that agricul- 
turists were practically ruined. 

I am not prepared to state whether squirrels are, or are 
not, indigenous to Scotland. It is on record that they have 
been imported from Eussia and Norway to this country as pets, 
and, speaking from my own experience, many pets escape. 
About 1772 the then Duke of Buccleuch kept squirrels in a 
miniature zoological garden at Dalkeith Park, from which a 
number got access to the woods of the park, where they in- 
creased with amazing rapidity. It is now close on forty years 
since the late Tom Inglis, who was so long at Dalkeith Park 
gate, informed me that he came to Dalkeith in 1825, and a year 
or two after that time he procured several nests of squirrels and 
sent them to Minto, where he had previously been, and also 
to a friend at The Haining, near Selkirk, where they quickly 
spread in all directions. Again, in 1844, the then Lord Lovat 
introduced them to Beaufort Castle in Strathglass, about ten 
miles north of Inverness. I am informed by Mr Donald 
Grant of Grantown, who, as factor on several estates, and 
from long association in Speyside, is entitled to respect, that 
when Lord Lovat was conveying the squirrels north by coach, 
and when changing horses at the inn near Alvie, the cage fell 
off the top of the coach and several of the prisoners escaped 
to the Bothiemurchus pine forest. Mr Grant did not actually 
see the animals escape, but his memory carries him back to 
that time, so that its accuracy need not be doubted. I re- 
member being told when a young lad that squirrels had been 
introduced into Ladykirk, in Berwickshire, but as this was 
only hearsay, perhaps too much credence cannot be placed on 
it. The fact, however, remains that squirrels were introduced 
to Dalkeith, in Mid-Lothian ; Minto, in Boxburghshire ; The 
Haining, in Selkirkshire ; Dunkeld, in Perthshire ; Beaufort, 
in Inverness-shire ; Castlemilk, in Dumfriesshire ; and Barskim- 
ming, in Ayrshire. It is therefore conceivable that proprietors 
would like to see such beautiful and interesting creatures 
gambolling in their parks, and would purchase a few for in- 

1901-1902.] The Squirrel. 293 

troduction. In those days facilities for disseminating informa- 
tion of this kind were not so common as now, and the chances 
are that squirrels were introduced to many places, though the 
fact was never put on record. 

In writing on the squirrel, it is with the deepest regret that 
I cannot characterise this beautiful animal to be as innocent 
as he is interesting. That he has become a destructive pest 
has already been pointed out, and to such an extent has he 
been persecuted that 1000 and 1200 have been killed in one 
year, and in seventeen years 14,123 squirrels were killed in 
the plantations on Cawdor estate, in Nairnshire, alone. Not- 
withstanding the war of extermination — Is. per tail being paid 
on some estates in Strathspey — they continue to do much 
damage, and, strange to say, they show a partiality for planted 
trees as against natural. So long as cones are plentiful, they 
will not attack the bark. They begin their ravages about the 
end of April and continue their work of destruction until fungi 
or toadstools grow, when they cease to feed on bark. As 
already indicated, they ramble far from woods in search of 

Mr W. J. Stillman, in his charming little book on his two 
pet squirrels " Billy and Hans," asserts that squirrels do 
practically no harm, and in support of his contention quotes 
from a letter of " an intelligent Scotch gamekeeper, Mr James 
Mutch." The letter states, " There are a great many of them 
here. ... I have never seen a squirrel eating or destroying the 
young shoots of forest trees, and there are thousands of young 
trees here, Scotch fir or pine, the kind they are blamed for 
destroying, and I am safe to say that I could not point out 
one tree damaged by a squirrel." Unfortunately he does not 
mention from what estate Mr Mutch writes. I know game- 
keepers in every part of Scotland, and have never heard of 
James Mutch. If I can find out his address, I shall make a 
point of going to see him, and will be only too glad if he can 
convert me to his views. 

The squirrel is frequently found infested with vermin, and 
my experience of once putting one in my pocket is anything 
but pleasant. I am not sufficiently skilled in entomology to 
describe the kind of flea, but, as far as I can judge, it closely 
resembles the domestic flea, which, as we are all aware, is 

294 The Squirrel as a Pet. [Sess. 

armed with powers to disturb the peace of the king. Every 
creature has a plague in the shape of a parasite, some creatures 
have several, and it seems strange that Nature should have 
arranged it so. 

At the meeting of Dec. 18, 1901, Dr Watson delivered 
a short address on Common Fungi; and on the evening of 
Jan. 22, 1902, made some further remarks on the same 
subject, with the help of lantern diagrams. 



(Read Jan. 22, 1902.) 

I must first apologise for troubling you with a subject which 
you had so recently before you as last meeting. Imperative 
absence in the South of England prevented me, however, from 
beino- with you on that occasion, else you had been spared the 
present communication". I have been able to ascertain the 
views of Mr Speedy only from the notice which appeared in 
the ' Scotsman ' and from what my friends have told me. 
From what I gather, however, I think Mr Speedy views the 
squirrel as an enemy, and one would hardly take the opinion 
of such regarding his foe as a trustworthy estimate. I should 
think that the views of one who did not regard them as 
enemies to be exterminated would convey a more just esti- 
mate than the views of one who was inimically inclined 
towards them. It was stated that squirrels were " stupid 
creatures." Doubtless this is correct if one takes for com- 
parison a city financier, or even a first class chef. But I 
deny entirely that the squirrel is, compared with other 
animals, stupid. The very reverse is true. Timid and 
nervous to a degree he certainly is, but to apply the term 
"stupid" to him is absurd. I have in my time kept many 
pets and watched the habits of many animals, and I can assert, 

1901-1902.] The Squirrel as a Pet. 295 

with positive assurance, that no animal (not even excluding 
man's companion, the dog) that I know of possesses higher 
mental qualities than the squirrel. Mr Speedy cites as 
evidence the fact that he has frequently seen them searching 
for buried nuts and not being able to find them. Nothing is 
so easy as to draw an erroneous conclusion from observations, 
and I feel sure that this has occurred here. I also have often 
watched squirrels hiding nuts, and noted with pleasure the 
clever way in which the tiny hands were used to cover them 
up (the term " paw," I think, should be applied only to those 
animals who do not use the digits as a hand). But I have 
also just as often seen the squirrel come to examine his 
hiding-place to see if his hoard were still safe, or else to find 
which nut was most mature or which tickled his sense of 
smell the most. I have seen one go from place to place sniff- 
ing, and at last unearth one which doubtless seemed most to 
his taste. The tame squirrel exhibits similar preferences, 
rejecting one and grasping another nut, both of which seemed 
equally good. This is an example of how observers differ in 
the interpretation of observations. In this case, mine is 
certainly correct. 

Well, I have kept squirrels for four years, and ought surely 
to be able to speak with some degree of authority regarding 
their habits. No other pet that I know of will give one so 
much pleasure as the squirrel. Its constant vivacity, keen 
sense of fun, and interesting ways, render it an object of 
Natural History well worth the attention of every kindly 
disposed person. I must premise, however, that in order 
to make a tame squirrel, you must get one almost from the 
nest. Unless you do so you will never be able to make a real 
pet of him — he will always remain somewhat wild, and hardly 
to be depended upon. The free use of his teeth comes too 
readily to him to be altogether pleasant for the owner. 
Besides, the cruelty of taking an animal which has had the 
free run of a forest and confining him even to a house is too 
great to be thought of. Though you may give him a cage to 
exercise in, with a sleeping-box attached, on no account ought 
he to be confined in one. To an animal of so active a nature 
a cage is a positive torture, and no matter how well you 
attend to him in the way of food, he will soon languish and 

VOL. iv. T 

296 The Squirrel as a Pet. [Sess. 

die. He must have the free run of the room at least, and 
when you have had him for some time you may allow him to 
accompany you out of doors. There is no fear of him running 
away from you ; he regards you as his protector, and will 
always run to you for safety. When brought up with dogs or 
cats he lives in perfect harmony with them, and their play is 
often most amusing. My present squirrel allows the cats to 
pat or lick him with perfect unconcern. He knows that he 
will receive no injury from them. 

Squirrels are proverbially fond of play, and will nibble, 
worry, and kick at one's hand like any frolicsome kitten. 
Hide-and-seek round a chair or round one's back affords him 
a never-ending joy. Most human-like are the habits our 
present squirrel has of yawning and stretching his arms. 
When tired he cannot restrain his yawns, and invariably on 
awakening he yawns. Bread, biscuits, lettuce, fruit, cake, and 
of course nuts of all kinds, form his articles of diet ; and I am 
sorry to say that he is not an abstainer, for he is inordinately 
fond of mild table or lager beer. 

I deny entirely that the squirrel destroys the eggs of wild 
birds. This is asserted by some writers as a fact. The squirrel 
is an absolute vegetarian, and never tastes animal food even in 
the shape of the contents of an egg. He is a much more strict 
disciplinarian than our human vegetarians who eke out their 
restricted dietary by the addition of milk and eggs. Mr 
Speedy cited the case of a squirrel being shot while sitting on 
a blackbird's nest, and in whose stomach eggs with parts of the 
shell were found, and took this as a proof that the squirrel eats 
eggs. I fancy, even if he did eat egg, that one blackbird's egg 
would prove an ample meal for a squirrel, and so I cannot 
think that the plural number was really meant here. I am 
inclined to think that the yellow matter which was present in 
this unfortunate squirrel's stomach was not of eggy origin. 
The matter which they frequently vomit up is yellow in 
colour, and is due to the oily yellow matter in the nuts and 
kernels which they consume. Even in the remote chance 
that this squirrel did partake of an egg, an isolated case such 
as this would not prove that it was the custom of squirrels to 
eat eggs. A hungry animal may eat anything, as shipwrecked 
mariners have been known to eat their fellows or even shoe- 

1901-1902.] The Squirrel as a Pet. 297 

leather. One would never, however, argue from such data that 
sailors lived usually on human flesh or enjoyed a meal of leather. 

I believe the explanation of the above incident to be as 
follows. Every animal, including vegetarian animals, requires 
a certain amount of mineral matter to keep himself in health. 
It is very probable that the squirrel in question found himself 
deficient in some such respect, and thought rightly that the 
egg-shell would supply his needs. To take an extreme illus- 
tration, I would hardly suppose that any one would go the 
length of saying that a tame squirrel of mine lives on lime 
plaster, though this might be found in his stomach at intervals, 
and the cornice of my dining-room bears very evident traces of 
his efforts to obtain mineral matter. Nor would any one con- 
clude that the squirrel ate bones, though at rare intervals he 
might find traces of dried bones in his intestinal contents and 
due to his search for lime salts. The fact is that nuts, acorns, 
&c, do not contain a sufficient amount of lime to replace that 
constantly destroyed in his skeleton, and perforce he has to get 
an additional supply in a more direct way, as from fragments 
of chalk, plaster, or very rarely egg-shells. The ridiculous 
statement which we find in certain books that the squirrel 
kills and eats young birds and mice in their nests is so alien 
to their natural habits, that I only mention it to show how 
imperfectly the habits of this little animal have been studied. 

To return to our pets. We have never taught our present 
squirrel any special tricks — there was no need, he is so full of 
trickiness himself. Several of his actions show remarkable 
reasoning power. If, while he is eating a nut, you offer him 
another, instead of refusing it he runs off to hide the one he 
was eating and returns to take the second. He found out 
that the proper way to remove the lid from a biscuit-box 
was to prise it up with his teeth on each side alternately. 
He soon discovered that if he merely drove it up on one 
side it jammed. Dish-covers he also disposes of by pushing 
them upwards, and then throws them over. He is a most 
inquisitive little fellow, and tears off the paper from every 
parcel to see what it contains. This habit he has taught our 
kitten, and now we have only to lay a parcel down for it to 
be unpacked by either of them. At meal-time he invariably 
makes his appearance, and having appropriated some article of 

298 The Squirrel as a Pet. [Sess. 

food, as a lump of sugar or a crust of bread, he seats himself 
either on one's shoulders or wrists to eat it. Having eaten as 
much as he feels inclined to, he shoves the remainder down 
one's neck between the collar and the skin, and pushes it well 
down with his hands. This proceeding is not altogether a 
pleasant one, especially when the choice morsel happens to be 
a piece of moist pastry or a strawberry. When he wishes 
some special article of food he nibbles gently at one's finger 
until it is given to him, and will refuse every other kind but 
that one on which he has set his heart. He is exceedingly 
fond of our society (although very shy of strangers), and waits 
for our return on some chair near the door ready to jump on 
us when we enter, when he greets us with many happy little 
noises and gambols around us. When any of the cats disturb 
him when he is sleeping, — and this they often do when they 
want him to come out for a game, by tapping on his box, — he 
puts his head out and grumbles, and scolds as energetically as 
any stair-head randy. Finding this of no avail, he appeals to 
us with beseeching eyes, and the cause of the disturbance hav- 
ing been forcibly removed he returns to bed. 

Squirrels have a most retentive memory, and our present 
pet immediately recognises us even after an absence of five 

By far the gravest accusation which is brought against 
squirrels is, that they cause an immense destruction to woods 
and forests. Mr Speedy states that the damage done to pine 
woods by squirrels is very great. On some estates in Strath- 
spey, he adds, Is. per tail has been given ; and as many as 
1000 to 1200 have been killed on one estate in Nairnshire in 
one year. This question ought to allow of a positive answer. 
Are trees better developed or do they furnish better wood in 
forests which are practically free from squirrels (for I grieve 
to say that in many districts the little animal has been practi- 
cally exterminated) as compared with the trees in forests 
where squirrels abound ? My own observation alone allows 
me to state that no appreciable damage is done to trees by 
squirrels, and this is reinforced by the answers to questions 
put to landed proprietors and estate owners. Many of these 
have told me that neither they nor their keepers would have 
been aware of the presence of squirrels in their woods unless 

1901-1902.] The Squirrel as a Pet. 299 

the little animals had demonstrated their existence visually. On 
the other hand, let it be granted that the squirrel eats the 
growing tips of young branches (which I entirely deny) — might 
not this be very desirable ? We know what happens if a 
forest tree be neglected in not being pruned. It grows up a 
long, bare, straggling specimen. The duty of the forester is to 
prune it so that it throws out stroug lateral branches. Might 
not the squirrel be Nature's forester — removing the growing 
ends and so giving origin to lateral offsets? Nature required 
foresters long before man thought of taking up such duties. 
If we consider pine trees, we can easily see that the removal 
of the tip of the axial stem would be fatal to the usefulness of 
the tree for timber. The desire of the forester is to make 
the pine tree grow tall, straight and undivided. I have 
already quoted authorities to show, however, that any destruc- 
tion which squirrels may cause to pine trees is insignificant. 
Vast tracts in Norway and Sweden are covered by the pine 
(Pintis sylvestris) and the spruce (P. Abies), and yet in spite of 
immense numbers of squirrels these trees grow to a height and 
girth never seen in this country. The squirrel, even when he 
does eat buds, nibbles the young leaves, but does not bite the 
tip off. The accusation brought against him that the enormous 
number of young pine-shoots which are found lying on the 
ground after high winds are due to his work is unfounded. 
The pine beetle (Hylurgus piniperda) tunnelling in the pine- 
shoots is the insect at fault, as the late Miss Ormerod clearly 
showed. Again, Mr Stillman has had experience in his own 
woodland to prove that when food of any kind and water is 
provided for them, the squirrels harm nothing. In the large 
parks in American cities — New York, Kichmond, Philadelphia, 
Baltimore — the American grey squirrel is acclimatised and 
grows very familiar, — so much so, that to people with whom 
they become acquainted they will come to be fed, and search 
for their food in the pockets of the friend they recognise. 
Nothing prevents this charming sight from being common 
in the English parks but the want of protection of the little 

Of course, some folks will not be convinced, or if convinced 
remain of the same opinion still, but to me it seems that the 
consensus of opinion is qufte opposed to the popular belief 

300 The Daisy and the Dandelion. [Sess. 

that the squirrel is destructive to forests. I would earnestly 
ask our landed proprietors to become convinced of the fact of 
the non-destructiveness of the little animal for themselves, and 
to rely on their own observation, and not on the too often mis- 
taken opinions of their servants. "Were this so, we should soon 
have a proper protection afforded to this delightful little friend. 
Especially should this doctrine be preached in our own land of 
Scotland, where ignorant prejudice is already in too many dis- 
tricts exterminating the squirrel. Trap and gun have already 
cleared many a wood of them. In England, where more en- 
lightened ideas take root sooner, on many estates the squirrel 
is protected, and forests and glades are rendered still more en- 
chanting by the presence of the little " shadow-tail " {Sciurus). 
I have made this communication in the hope that it will to 
a certain extent nullify the statements made by Mr Speedy. 
From the respect with which any statements made by that 
gentleman are received, I fear that gamekeepers and foresters 
may redouble their energy against my little friends, and I trust 
that I may be able to lessen the severity of this crusade against 
them, and so even in this feeble way repay a debt of gratitude 
which I and mine shall for ever owe to the tiny folk for the 
many delightful hours which they have afforded us. 

Several lantern slides were exhibited in illustration of the 
foregoing. Four of these are reproduced here, and show our 
squirrel either feeding himself or at play. 



(Read Jan. 22, 1902.) 

Both the daisy and the dandelion belong to a family of plants 
called the Compositae. The chief peculiarities of the Com- 
positae are that the anthers cohere, and that a number of small 
flowers grow together on a head. In other respects all Com- 

PLATE XXX. -The Squirrel as a Pet. 



PLATE XXX.a.-The Squirrel as a Pet. 



1901-1902.] The Daisy and the Dandelion. 301 

positae are not alike. In some all the florets are of the same 
shape. They may either be all tubular or all ligulate. Others 
have two kinds of florets on the same head. Sometimes these 
florets are of the same colour, sometimes they differ in colour 
as well as in shape. We have thus four groups — 1st, All 
florets alike, and all tubular ; 2nd, All alike, and all ligulate ; 
3rd, Florets of two kinds, but of the same colour ; 4th, Florets 
of two kinds, and of two colours. The dandelion belongs to 
the second group ; the daisy to the fourth or highest. There 
are two ways of treating any problem in Biology or Sociology. 
One is, to investigate for yourself ; the other is, to take down 
your Darwin and read what the great teacher has said on the 
subject. Both are good, but as a mental discipline it is 
perhaps better to study the subject unaided, and when you 
have come to definite conclusions, to see by consulting Darwin's 
works whether your conclusions are correct or otherwise. 

Can the plants we have selected give us any information as 
to how we ought to act ? This may seem a fanciful way of 
gaining information, but analogies can be found. When we 
observe an eclipse we generally look at the sun through 
smoked glass, but we can look at it reflected from a basin of 
water. So we can look at human life directly, or view it 
indirectly reflected from the mirror of the life of the lower 
animals or of plants. In the first place, I may say that what 
man is to the lower animals the Composite are to other 
flowers : this applies specially to the higher section of them. 
Like man, they have succeeded in the struggle for existence 
by being social and by division of labour. They are eury- 
thermal, or able to live in almost any climate, like man ; not 
stenothermal, or restricted to a few climates, like monkeys. 
The analogue to monkeys is the Dipsacus family, which are 
gregarious in family groups, but have not developed division 
of labour, and their anthers do not combine. Still lower are 
the Caprifoils and Valerians, which have no common involucre 
nor combined anthers. They are like a herd of oxen, or a 
flock of sheep, to which you may at any time add one animal 
or remove one, and it still remains a herd or flock. Not so in 
human beings. The group is a definite one, bound together 
by kindred, and by a common language represented in Com- 

302 The Daisy and the Dandelion. [Sess. 

positse by the involucre. In monkeys we have the tie of 
relationship, but not of common language. To investigate 
the relative value of these two bonds is the object of my 

Looking round Britain, as we see it in 1902, we must 
observe that the restricted group is everywhere the family — 
a man, woman, and children, living in one house. It may be 
a palace or a hut, but in each case there is a home — the pro- 
perty of the group. The house is the great family institution, 
just as fire is the great tribal institution and clothes the great 
individualist. Man was originally a naked savage. He be- 
came mainly socialist, individualist, or domestic according as 
he first developed and mainly cultivated a fire, clothes, or a 
hut. In India we have large aggregates. A family often 
does not break up for three or four generations. Cousins in 
the male line live together with their respective wives and 
children, and cook at a common fire. This is called in books 
a patriarchal family, but in my sense of the words it is not a 
family, but a small tribe, for the common fire is the centre, not 
the hut — but the fire represents Socialism, just as the hut 
represents the family instincts. The most socialistic races 
known are the savages of Australia. They have huts and fires, 
but no clothes. In Britain we have preserved perfectly the 
monogamic family, represented in Composite by the corolla, 
and the national organisation represented by the involucre. 
We have lost the tribal organisation, represented in the Com- 
positae by the palea of the receptacle, but the daisy and the 
dandelion have also lost these palea. 

In the present day the Socialists wish to destroy the family 
in the interests of the nation. The palace is to be made less 
palatial, the hovel to be made more beautiful. In other 
words, the ray florets are to be shortened and the colour 
taken out of them, while the disk florets are to be lengthened 
and their colour deepened. A man is to be forced by law 
to leave his earnings not to his children, but to the State. 
Children are to be educated, not by their parents, but by the 
State. The daisy is to be turned into a dandelion, all the 
florets are to be of one colour, and the supposed advantage 
is, that in the dandelion all the florets resemble in shape the 
ray florets of the daisy. Of course we are all in part Socialists. 

1901-1902.] The Daisy and the Datidelion. 303 

(1) Improving the dwellings of the poor is Socialism. (2) 
Leaving money to build a hospital is Socialism. (3) Free 
education is Socialism. (4) An Established Church is Social- 
ism. But while admitting the merits of Socialism, we must 
not forget the rights of individualism and of the family. It 
is right to entertain our neighbour with food, cooked at the 
tribal fire, but we must not neglect to repair the hut that 
shelters our wives and children ; or to keep in good order 
the clothes which enable us to face the blast and work 
in the fields far from the hut and the fire. All those inside 
the involucre should be dear to us, but still dearer those inside 
the same corolla. The only precedent of a great State prac- 
tising modified Socialism is Sparta, where the boys were brought 
up together by the State, and money was scarcely used. But 
Sparta was not purely social, for Sparta was strictly mono- 
gamic. Of the two great philosophers of antiquity, Plato was 
a Socialist, a follower of Marx ; Aristotle, a Darwinian, or a 
Spencerian. Plato went further than Sparta. He recommended 
that men and women, as well as children and property, 
should be sacrificed to the supposed exigencies of the State. 
But Platonism has never been adopted by mammals, far less 
by men. It is too late in the world's history. The Hymen- 
optera are Socialists, of the Fabian Society type, but their 
nervous system is ventral, not dorsal, their eyes compound, 
not simple, and they have antennae — organs denied to us. 
No animal with a dorsal nervous system ever has been or 
can be a pure Socialist. To become pure Socialists, we would 
have to retrace our steps — to lose our dorsal nervous system, 
and even our notochord, and after getting down to be a 
chordate Amphioxus, or a hemichordate Balanoglossus, then 
start afresh, on our upward road, as Arthropods. Even when 
we got rid of our backbone, what kind of insects are we to 
rise to be ? Besides the Hymenopterous Socialists, the bees, 
there are also Neuropterous Socialists, the white ants. It 
would be a terrible thing if, after going such a long road in 
hopes of becoming four-winged, many-eyed bees, we found 
ourselves blind, wingless, white ants — where the children toil 
and a few fortunate adults idle : something like the Manchester 
factory system upheld by John Bright and abolished by Lord 

304 The Daisy and the Dandelion. [Sess. 

To return to our botanical metaphor, we are the daisies of 
the human race. As already said, we have retained our 
corollas and our involucres, though we have lost our palea. 
We must accept our position. The ray flowers must help the 
disk flowers, but not give up their ligulate shape nor their 
attractive colours, for if they did they would be injuring, 
not benefiting, the flowers of the disk. Above all, let them 
not listen to the Fabian Society, and vainly seek to be dande- 
lions. I believe that, on the whole, the daisy is more beautiful 
than the dandelion ; but whether it be the case or not, we 
are daisies, and must make the best of it. As the Latin has 
it, Spartam nactus es, hanc exorna. In English, "You are a 
daisy " — to my present audience I may add " Flowers of the 
ray, do your duty as such." 

In addressing the members of this Society as daisies, I am 
presuming they are of Teutonic extraction. The Celts are 
different. They are more inclined to Socialism, and therefore 
in character they somewhat approach the dandelion. It is a 
favourite flower of the Celts. In the Autumn Part of Pro- 
fessor Gedcles's book, ' The Evergreen,' there is a beautiful 
story by Fiona Macleod in which she calls the dandelion 
the flower of St Bridget, so that it is a sacred plant to 
the Gael. Its seeds with abundant pappus soon leave the 
parent plant, reminding us of the custom of fosterage so 
characteristic of Celtic nations. We Lowlanders all love the 
daisy sung by our national poet, 

" Wee, modest, crimson-tipped flow'r.' 

The true Lowlander thinks the daisy the sweetest plant in 
the whole world; but with inveterate national prejudice we 
dislike the Celtic dandelion, and, not content with forcing the 
Highland crofters to emigrate to America, we root out from 
our garden-plots the lovely flower of St Bridget. It is too 
gay for us. But the Highlander loves gay colours, variegated 
tartans, Socialism, and its emblem the dandelion. 

1 90 1 - 1 90 2 .] The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. 305 


By Dr T. B. SPRAGUE and Miss B. SPRAGUE. 

{Read Feb. 26, 1902.) 

Our principal object in this paper is to give the Society some 
account of the work done in connection with the recent com- 
petition for the prize offered by the Society for the best col- 
lection of freshwater Crustacea from Mid-Lothian ; and we are 
not without hope that we may thus induce other members to 
take up the same interesting study. We shall touch briefly 
on the three divisions of the entomostraca, noting some of 
their habits and characteristics; and shall then explain our 
methods of collecting and preserving; and finally, describe 
some of the localities visited, and some of the more striking 
species obtained. Only two out of the sixty species we found 
are large enough to be examined without the help of a 
microscope. These two are the Asellus aquaticus or "water 
woodlouse ", a creature resembling the common woodlouse or 
" slater ", to which it is nearly related ; and the Gammarus 
pulcx or "freshwater shrimp", which is almost identical in 
appearance with the familiar sandhopper. The remaining 
58 species are all included under the general term " ento- 
mostraca ", and fall into three divisions, — the Copepoda, Ostra- 
coda, and Cladocera. It may be worth while to note what 
these names mean : " Copepoda " means literally " oar-feet ", 
and refers to the fact that all the species in this division use 
their feet in swimming. " Ostracoda " means " having the form 
of a shell " ; all the ostracods resemble more or less closely 
tiny bivalve shells ; when the creature is at rest, the whole 
of the limbs — antennas and legs — can be tucked inside the 
shell, leaving nothing exposed. " Cladocera " means " branch- 
horned," and denotes those entomostraca which have a two- 
branched antenna instead of a simple one. 

Taking the copepods first, we find that they are all more or 
less shrimplike in appearance, the body being composed of a 
number of segments protected by as many distinct rings of 

306 The Entomostraca of Mid-Lothian. [Sess. 

chitinous covering which, although widely different from the 
shell of a mollusc, may still be popularly called shell. These 
rings are united by a strong pliable membrane. The creatures 
are extremely active, swimming in a quick succession of jerks 
or darts, produced by vigorous strokes of the antennas and feet. 
Some of them, as the Cyclops, keep a fairly straight line when 
swimming ; others, as the Canthocamptus, move alternately to 
right and left. It is often possible to recognize from the 
method of swimming to what genus, or at least what family, 
a specimen belongs ; and in some cases even the species itself 
can be recognized by its peculiar method of progression. This 
is the case with Cyclops phaleratus ; being a very flattened 
species, it is able to preserve its balance easily and to crawl 
on the surface of the mud, or on the sides of the vessel in 
which it is placed. "We have frequently taken specimens of 
C. phaleratus from a gathering, and put them temporarily in a 
few drops of water in a watch-glass, meaning to examine them 
later on. After leaving them ten minutes or so, and return- 
ing, it has been quite a common experience to find that one or 
two have crawled right out of the watch-glass, and are wander- 
ing on the underside of it, or on the table. 

The copepods generally swim with the ventral surface 
downwards, but we have often seen some species of Cyclops 
swimming, so to say, wrong way up — with the dorsal surface 

The Cyclops is peculiarly liable to parasites, both animal 
and vegetable ; we have often seen brilliant green specimens, 
which owed their colour to the presence of numbers of minute 
unicellular algas growing on them ; and others we have seen 
swimming about surrounded by a white cloudy-looking mass, 
which under the microscope proves to be sometimes hun- 
dreds of bell animalcules. On the Canthocamptus there may 
generally be found a few specimens of a small animal parasite 
— an infusorian living in a delicate hyaline cup. These so- 
called parasites do not prey on their host, but merely attach 
themselves to its shell and reap the advantage of being con- 
stantly carried about to fresh food-supplies ; but when present 
in large numbers they must cause it serious inconvenience. 

Turning to the ostracods, it seems hard at first sight to 
ascertain anything more than the mere outline and colour of 

1901-1902.] The Entomostraca of Mid-Lothian. 307 

any specimen. The shell is usually so opaque, and the body 
and limbs so completely enclosed in it, that little or nothing 
of the internal structure can be seen. The opacity of the 
shell also renders it difficult to see the characteristic external 
markings, which are present in many species ; but this may be 
done by careful adjustment of the light. "We have, first, the 
so-called " lucid spots ", which are really the points of attach- 
ment of certain muscles ; the shape and number of these spots 
in each species is fairly constant and distinctive. Secondly, 
there is also in some species a well developed pattern on the 
shell. By putting a specimen into a solution of caustic potash 
we render the shell semi-transparent, and can see the general 
shape of the limbs ; but this process effaces the shell-markings, 
and should therefore only be done after they have been 

It is extremely difficult to dissect the ostracods, and after a 
few experiments we gave up the attempt. In order, therefore, 
to identify our species, we had to pay careful attention to the 
size, colour, and outlines of the shell. If we were given a 
specimen of either Cypris ficscata or C. incongruens, and asked 
to say which of the two it was, we should find it difficult to 
decide the point at first sight ; but if we were to draw the 
outline accurately with the help of the camera lucida, that 
alone would be sufficient to settle the question. Cypris 
incongruens narrows very slightly towards the front, and G. 
fuscata towards the back ; and, so far as we have observed, 
this small difference is always to be relied on. 

We chanced, while still quite inexperienced as regards the 
ostracods, to get a number of Cypris virens and C. incongruens, 
both young and old, in a single collection ; and since the very 
young Cypris virens differs considerably in outline from the 
adult, and the half -grown forms of C. virens and C. incongruens 
are somewhat alike, we could not tell for some time how many 
species we really had — whether 1, 2, or 3. 

Being so well protected by their shells, and their habit of 
concealing themselves in mud, the ostracods do not need to 
have their powers of locomotion well developed. Some of 
them are very active, but all the species we know are quite 
easy to catch at once with a dipper, whereas you may require 
to chase a copepod patiently for a minute or two before 

308 The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. [Sess. 

capturing it. A large number of them crawl at the bottom 
of ponds, and cannot swim at all. They have all a steady, 
even method of progression, quite unlike the jerky movements 
of a copepod. 

The cladocerans we found particularly interesting. They 
are very varied, and often present most elaborate and beauti- 
ful developments, especially in the antennas and the post- 
abdomen. They swim with a slow, jerky motion, rising 
slightly in the water at the commencement of each stroke, 
and sinking at its close. Many of them maintain an up- 
right position, with the head uppermost; and this, of course, 
makes it much more difficult for them to progress quickly. 
This is very noticeable in the daphnids ; the lynceids, which 
swim with the head depressed and on the same level as the 
body, move much more rapidly. 

The body of a cladoceran is enclosed in one large shell, 
which is open on the ventral and posterior margins. The 
head is protected by a shelly covering, firmly united to the 
rest of the shell ; the line of junction can often be traced, and 
in some species, after a specimen has been dead any length of 
time, the two portions of shell become entirely separated. 
The " legs " are used for breathing ; and the organs used in 
swimming are the antennas and postabdomen. 


As a rule, the freshwater entomostraca are fond of sunlight, 
and we have generally made our best catches on bright days. 
It has happened to us more than once, that after finding 
Eavelston Quarry literally swarming with Diaptomas gracilis 
and Bosmina longirostris on a bright day, we have returned a 
few days later in dull cold weather and been unable to find 
half a dozen specimens of either. The quarry is deep, and in 
dull weather the creatures presumably retreat to the deep 
water. Many species, including the two just mentioned, 
prefer clear water ; others, as certain of the daphnids, and 
many of the ostracods, seem to thrive best in muddy water. 

The copepods and ostracods may be found all the year 
round ; but many of the cladocerans appear to die off in 
the winter. 

1 901-1902.] The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. 309 

In all the copepods the egg- clusters are external : Diaptomus 
has only one, carried on the ventral surface of the abdomen ; 
•while Cyclops has two attached laterally, one on each side. 
We have made several observations on the rate of reproduc- 
tion in Cyclops strenuus, by isolating two or three mature 
females and keeping them for some weeks. We found that 
about four days elapse between the formation of the egg- 
clusters and the hatching of the eggs. Two days after a 
brood is hatched, another pair of egg-clusters is formed, the 
whole process thus requiring only six days for its completion. 
About thirty young ones are hatched in each brood. We tried 
several times to rear the young ones, in order to observe the 
moulting processes, but without much success. The longest 
time we succeeded in keeping a young one alive was twenty- 
nine days ; in that length of time it had developed one fresh 
pair of limbs, and had, we think, moulted once. Our experi- 
ments were made in very cold weather, and we did not know 
what food to provide. At first we used to leave the mother 
Cyclops with the young ones after the latter were hatched ; but 
it seemed to us that the young ones disappeared uncommonly 
quickly under these conditions, and we have a strong suspicion 
that the mother Cyclops fed on them in default of its proper 

The number of eggs in one brood varies greatly in the 
•different species and genera of the copepods, but in all cases 
the eggs seem to be produced and hatched in rapid succession. 

Of reproduction in the ostracods we can say nothing ; com- 
paratively little is known of the subject as yet, and in many 
instances only the female of a species has been observed. 

When we come to the cladocerans we find two methods of 
reproduction. The summer eggs are carried about within the 
shell of the parent until hatched. The number of eggs in one 
brood varies according to the species, such species as Chydorus 
sphcericus or Bosmina longirostris having generally two to four, 
while certain Daphnias and Polyphemus pediculus may have as 
many as twenty. The winter eggs are only one or two in 
number, and are contained in a case called the ephippium, 
which forms at the back of the shell. In the autumn the 
ephippial females appear in large numbers ; after a while the 
■ephippium falls off without injuring the creature, and floats on 

310 The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. [Sess. 

the surface of the water, and the eggs are hatched in the 
following spring. We have occasionally found the water at 
the edge of a pond thickly covered with these floating 
ephippiuins. Daplmias generally seem to die off in the 
winter, though we have on a few occasions found swarms of 
them even then. Baird, writing of the South of England, says 
that in a mild season they may be found all through the 

In studying these little crustaceans we are confronted with 
the same perplexing question that arises with regard to higher 
organisms — " What constitutes a species ? " To take the daph- 
nias as an example, Brady recognizes as distinct species B. 
lacustris and D. galeata, while Lilljeborg includes both these 
forms under the name D. hyalina. Writing in 1898, Brady 
says, " Professor G. 0. Sars now reckons as mere varieties of 
D. longisjpina no fewer than eleven forms which had been 
previously described by himself or other authors as distinct 

In the days before the theories of evolution and natural 
selection were familiar to students, the origin of this multi- 
plicity of closely related forms must have been extremely 
puzzling ; but we now know the daphnia to be a very variable 
organism, which responds readily to changes in its environ- 
ment ; and we believe that the various forms met with in 
different localities are all modifications of one or two original 
species, slowly diverging more and more from each other, as 
each is gradually acted upon by its own peculiar surroundings. 

We are also in a position nowadays to conjecture with some 
degree of probability the significance of the peculiar characters 
found in certain young forms, since we know that in every 
young creature the life-history of its ancestors is more or less 
clearly indicated. Take, for example, the pointed head 
commonly found in young specimens of D. galeata ; this is a 
peculiarity characteristic of the adult Uyalodaphnia cucidlata 
and certain other northern species, believed to be of pelagic 
origin ; and suggests that the ancestors of D. galeata lived 
for generations under conditions similar to those now prevailing 
in the present home of those northern species. (These remarks 
apply to D. galeata, Sars, as described by Brady in " Natural 
History Transactions of Northumberland, Durham, and New- 

1901-1902.] The Entomostraca of Mid-Lothian. 311 

castle-on-Tyne,' vol. xiii., Part 2., which is the form we 
ourselves have found. D. galeata, Sars, as described by 
Lilljeborg in his ' Cladocera Suecise/ seems to differ consider- 
ably from the British form, inasmuch as the adult (summer 
form) is helmeted.) 

The variation that occurs with regard to the eye and eyespot 
is also suggestive. The presence or absence of one or the 
other, and their size and position both relative and actual, are 
taken as constituting generic characters. With regard to the 
three families, Bosminidce, Macrothricidcc, and Lynceidce, as 
described in Norman and Brady's monograph, we find that in 
Bosmina there is a large eye, but no eyespot ; while in 
Monospilus the eyespot is present, but there is no compound 
eye. In other genera both eye and eyespot vary much in 
size and position ; in Brcpanothrix the eyespot is large and 
quadrangular ; in Lathonura it is a mere speck ; in some of 
the Lynceidce it is larger than the compound eye. Coming to 
the family Daphnidce we find that the eyespot is present in 
Ceriodaphnia, Scapholeberis, and Simoccphalus, and absent in 
Moina ; and that in Daphnia it is generally, but not invariably, 
present. How is this variation to be explained ? It seems 
probable that a now functionless eyespot may be the degener- 
ate representative of a former simple eye, which at some stage 
in the creature's history became superfluous and is now 
disappearing. This would account for its complete disappear- 
ance in some cases, and its insignificance in others ; and if it 
is no longer useful to the creature, and therefore no longer 
subject to the action of natural selection, we can understand 
that it might in the process of degeneration assume the variety 
of forms now existing. 


Our method of collecting entomostraca is as follows : we 
have a stick about eight feet long, which can be unscrewed 
into two parts for convenience in carrying. To one end is 
fastened a wire hoop, which may be from six to twelve inches 
across, and on to which is sewn a fine muslin net. This 
tapers gradually towards the lower end, which, instead of 
being sewn up, is fastened round the mouth of a small wide- 
necked bottle. Many collectors use the muslin net by itself, 

VOL. iv. z 

312 The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. [Sess. 

but it is convenient to have a bottle attached, so as to see 
from time to time what kind of material is being brought up. 
We sweep the net slowly through the water, passing it 
repeatedly through any weeds, so as to catch the creatures 
sheltering and feeding among them. Care should be taken 
also to scrape gently along the surface of the mud, since there 
are a number of species that cannot swim, but can only crawl ; 
and these of course are always found at the bottom. We 
generally collect from the surface of the water as well ; in 
fact, our aim is to collect from every variety of locality in a 
pond — from deep water and shallow, from mud and from 
weed. We have usually confined our operations to fishing 
from the bank, but have occasionally collected also from a 
boat; and in large sheets of water this is necessary, since 
there are certain deep-water species which do not come near 
the banks. We empty the contents of the small bottle at 
intervals into a glass jar, in which they are carried home. 
Then they are turned out into a wide shallow white dish — a 
photographic developing-dish answers the purpose admirably 
— and after the mud has settled and the water cleared, it is 
comparatively easy to distinguish the various species by the 
naked eye. 

There are certain species found in Mid-Lothian which we 
have been peculiarly unsuccessful in obtaining ; and it appears 
from what we have lately read in a paper of Mr Scourfield's, 
that some of these can only be found by a special method. 
He says, " I usually put wet mosses into a jar with water, and 
after beating them up vigorously with a fork or some such 
implement, take out most of the pieces of moss and await 
results. In a short time a number of Harpacticids . . . are 
almost sure to be seen swimming about. . . . This method 
of washing damp mosses . . . has yielded two species not 
found in any other way, namely, Alona rustica and Moraria 


When we want to preserve specimens for mounting or any 
other purpose, we put them in a 4 per cent solution of formalin, 
in specimen tubes of the smallest size obtainable — 1J inches 
by I of an inch. These tubes are numbered and a list kept 

1901-1902.] The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. 313 

containing the name of the species, with locality and date of 
collection. When we began mounting our specimens, we tried 
balsam and Farrant's solution, but we found Griibler's glycerine 
jelly to be more satisfactory. In the case of thick specimens, 
such as Eurycercus, we used vulcanite ringcells, in order to 
obtain sufficient depth of jelly ; but these, we found, are liable 
to leak after a time. For our thinner specimens we adopted 
the plan of building up a cell of the proper depth with gold size, 
and we are told that this method succeeds perfectly well with 
deeper cells. 

Some of our small difficulties were overcome only by re- 
peated experiments. First, we found that the jelly became 
cold, and set too quickly, before we could get the proper 
number of specimens placed in the cell. This was obviated by 
heating the slides beforehand. Then there was some difficulty 
in placing the cover-slip on the jelly ; either the jelly would 
run halfway across the cover-slip and then stick, or else 
bubbles would find their way in. This was easily remedied 
by putting some of the liquid jelly on the cover-slip before 
placing the latter on the slide. One of our most serious 
troubles was, that a few of our specimens were too delicate to 
be put direct into glycerine jelly ; and unfortunately we had 
no means of telling beforehand which were the delicate ones. 
Several times we have, as we thought, made some almost per- 
fect slides, and put them away to dry ; and on examining 
them later, found that the specimens were grotesquely distorted 
and sometimes almost unrecognizable. It took us some time 
to find out what had happened ; but at last we came to the 
conclusion that the failure was due to osmosis — i.e., that the 
juices of the body ran out at a greater rate than they could be 
replaced by the jelly, and that the latter was too strong a 
medium. We then put fresh specimens into G-.W.A. (a 
mixture of one part glycerine, two of water, and three of 
alcohol). This plan was very successful, except for some of 
our most fragile creatures ; these had to be left for days in a 
much diluted solution, and were then transferred by degrees to 
a stronger and stronger one. 

We had a curious experience with regard to Diaptomus 
gracilis. We had a large number of specimens preserved, from 
several different localities ; some of these had died a natural 

314 The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. [Sess. 

death through having been kept too long in unsuitable condi- 
tions, and after being placed in formalin they were still 
beautifully displayed, with the antennas fully extended; 
whereas all those that we have killed with formalin curl up, 
and the antennas droop towards the body and lose their fine 
outlines. Eather to our surprise we found that the former 
were much the easier to mount. They appear to be little 
more than skeleton shells, into which the G.W.A. found ready 
admission ; while in the other case it did not so easily replace 
the juices of the body. 

One or two of the Cladocera were very troublesome to draw. 
We generally put our specimens in a few drops of water on the 
slide, and place a cover-slip gently on the top. But if a slip 
is put on a Ohyclorus, for instance, no matter how carefully, the 
pliable shell becomes more or less distorted ; whereas, if no 
slip is put on, the creature turns round and round on the slide 
until it is tired, when it is likely enough that the water has 
evaporated, and the outlines therefore become obscured. The 
live-box is of some assistance, but not much ; and our best 
drawings of Chydorus were made from specimens which we left 
uncovered on a slide, and watched patiently until they lay 
still. All our drawings are made with the help of the camera 


Altogether about forty localities in Mid-Lothian were visited 
by us. 

The pond to which we have done most justice is the Elf 
Loch, on the Braids. We obtained from it twenty-three 
species, but this by no means exhausts its possibilities, as 
Mr Scott and Mr Lindsay obtained from it thirty-two species 
during their investigations in 1896, '97, and '98. We visited 
the loch in all seasons : once we went there on a winter after- 
noon when the hills were covered with snow, and on reaching 
the pond we found it frozen two inches thick. We broke a 
hole in the ice, and having fished as well as circumstances 
permitted we were well rewarded by finding in our catch some 
specimens of Llyocryptus sordidus, a bottom species, which we 
had not previously obtained. The only species we have added 
to Mr Scott's list for the Elf Loch is Cypris gibba. We 

1 9 o i - 1 9 o 2 . ] The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. 315 

found it there only on one occasion, and have not seen it 

In an old quarry near Granton, into which warm water is 
discharged from the ink works, we found numbers of Daphnia 
galeata, and also a young form which corresponds exactly to 
Brady's Daphnia hamata. The terminal claw of the post- 
abdomen in hamata is furnished with several strong teeth, 
which are absent in D. galeata. Such a difference is commonly 
held to be sufficient to constitute a species, and Mr Scott tells 
us that the so-called Daphnia hamata is almost certainly a 
young form of D. pidex. We hope to make some observa- 
tions on the subject this summer. 

We have found the large old quarry in Eavelston a good 
collecting ground, and our thanks are due to Miss Murray 
Gartshore, who has kindly given us permission to collect there 
as often as we like. The crustacean fauna of the quarry 
differs from that of most localities in the neighbourhood, by 
far the most abundant species being Diaptomus gracilis and 
Bosmina longirostris. The water in the quarry is deep and 
very clear. 

From Craigleith Quarry we obtained a solitary specimen of 
Cypris obliqua, a species which we have not found elsewhere. 
When we first fished in the quarry, some three or four years 
ago, we found hardly anything, except the larvas of some 
aquatic insect ; but lately we have obtained ten species of 
crustaceans, and we suppose the water is becoming gradually 

Duddingston, as might be expected, considering the extent 
of water, and the age of the loch, has given us a greater num- 
ber of species than any other locality. We obtained twenty- 
seven in our four visits ; but Mr Scott, in his report to the 
Fishery Board on Scottish Inland Waters, gives a list of forty- 
three species from Duddingston. Four of our species, Cyclops 
affinis, Ilyocryptus sordidus, Alona guttata, and Alona affinis, 
are not included in Mr Scott's list. Duddingston is the only 
place in Mid-Lothian where we have found Euryccrms lamellatus 
and Alona tenuicaudis ; and our only locality besides the Elf 
Loch for Ilyocryptus sordidus and Alona guttata. 

The old bed of the Almond, near Turnhouse, has given us 
some good catches ; we have found there fifteen species in all. 

316 The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. [Sess. 

The three ponds in Penicuik grounds — the High Pond, 
Low Pond, and Hurley Cove — are all good places. The High 
Pond is our only locality for a certain Ceriodaphnia, whether 
C. rotunda, Strauss, or C. scitula, Herrick, we have not yet been 
able to determine. It is also the only pond in Mid-Lothian 
where we found Peracantha truncata. 

In Hurley Cove we have found great numbers of Daphnia 
lacustris. We obtained specimens of this species on 1st 
December 1900, but on visiting the pond on 16th March 
1901, we found none. This species also occurs in large 
quantities in Granton Eeservoir (where we have also found 

The Marlpit, Davidson's Mains, is another good fishing- 
ground : from it may almost always be obtained Cyclops 
phaleratus, which is by some writers considered a rare species ; 
we have come across it in five localities. 

As an example of an unexpected find in a frequently 
examined pond, we may mention Pleuroxus trigonellus, of which 
we found several specimens last June in our very small pond 
at Marchfield. 

Marfield Loch is one of the most interesting pieces of 
water that we have visited. It is presumably of great age, 
and has quite an unusual fauna, since of the fifteen species we 
obtained from it, four (Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Acantho- 
leberis acrvirostris, Alonella exigua, and Alonopsis elongata) we 
found nowhere else, and four more in onlj r one other locality. 
The character of the surrounding country has no doubt much 
to do with this ; we have observed a somewhat similar fauna 
in ponds in the Trossachs, and the English Lake District, where 
there is the same mossy, swampy kind of ground. 

The old quarry in the grounds of Eavelston Cottage de- 
serves mention, since it contains Ceriodaphnia quadrangula 
and Scapholeberis mucronata, which are not of frequent occur- 
rence in Mid-Lothian. 

The only piece of brackish water we had an opportunity 
of collecting from was a tiny rockpool on Cramond Island. 
We found it swarming with Harpacticus fulvus, and there 
were also many specimens of Cypridopsis aculeata and Cyclops 

In the very small pond at House o' Hill Farm may always 

1901-1902.] The Entonwstraca of Mid- Lothian. 317 

be found Cyclops bisetosus, a species which is far from common 
in Mid-Lothian. 

From Cobbinshaw Eeservoir we obtained quantities of 
Scapholeberis mucronata and Bosmina longirostris ; and, in 
addition, our only specimen of Alonclla rostrata. 


Diaptomus gracilis is the only species of the family Ccntro- 
pagidce that we have met with in Mid-Lothian ; it is a slender, 
beautiful creature, with extremely long antennas exceeding the 
entire length of the body. It is in the habit of resting upright 
and motionless in the water, with its antennas outspread ; but 
the instant it is approached with the dipper, it darts off with 
unexpected rapidity. It seems to be the most agile of all our 
sixty species. It varies greatly both in size and colour : 
many of our largest specimens were a dark yellow brown ; the 
smaller ones are often bluish and very transparent, with a 
distinct tinge of red in the antennas ; while the male is some- 
times bright red throughout. 

We succeeded in finding in Mid-Lothian fourteen out of 
the eighteen Scottish species of Cyclops. Two of them, Cyclops 
languidus and C. nanus, have not as yet been reported from 
many localities in Scotland ; and the latter was recorded from 
Scotland for the first time as recently as 1899, by Mr Scott. 
But from what we have seen in Mid-Lothian and elsewhere, 
we are under the impression that it may often be found in 
pools in mossy ground. 

Cyclops serrulatus is the commonest species of the genus ; 
and as might be expected, is very variable, especially in size 
and colour. It is easily recognized by the divergent, pointed 
egg-clusters, and by the long and slender stylets with their 
serrate margins. 

Cyclops phaleratus is a showy species, often coloured bright 
red and blue. It may be recognized at a glance by the dark 
egg-clusters, which are parallel and lie unusually close to each 
other ; and by its already mentioned habit of crawling along 
at the edge of the water, or even out of it. 

With regard to Canthocamptus staphylinus it is interesting to 
notice that the fifth foot, which in the Copepods may generally 

318 The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. [Sess. 

be relied on as a constant character, often varies. We have 
found specimens with one, two, and three small spines re- 
spectively, on the inner side of the second joint. This is a 
very common species ; like others of the same genus, it is in 
the habit of concealing itself among algas and moss ; but, 
unlike them, it is easily dislodged 

The little ostracod Cypridopsis aculeata is mentioned by 
Brady as a species which prefers brackish water, and he notes 
its occurrence in eight localities, seven of which are slightly 
brackish, while the eighth is loaded with salts of lime. Our 
own specimens were all obtained from brackish water, with 
the exception of one, which we found in a pond on a stream 
near Balerno. 

Diaphanosoma brachyurum has a peculiar interest for us : 
in the autumn of 1900 we discovered, in a mixed collection 
from the three ponds in Penicuik grounds, the fragment of a 
creature with which we were not familiar, and which, judging 
from the antenna, we thought was most likely Diaphanosoma. 
We returned to the ponds several times, hoping to find a com- 
plete specimen, but were never successful. About a fortnight 
before the close of the competition, the number of our species 
had risen to fifty-nine, and we were very anxious to make it 
up, if possible, to sixty. We accordingly took a fishing from 
Marfield Loch, as having the most uncommon fauna of all our 
fishing-grounds ; and we were rewarded by finding several 
specimens of Diaphanosoma brachyurum, the very creature we 
were most eager to obtain. Curiously enough, all the specimens 
were males. 

In the same collection we found some splendid specimens of 
Acantholeberis curvirostris. This is a very handsome creature, 
brightly coloured, and with elaborately adorned antennas and 
postabdomen. It is a fragile thing, and owing to our un- 
familiarity with it, and the short time at our disposal after 
finding it, we did not graduate it carefully enough into the 
glycerine jelly, so that our specimens are unfortunately com- 
pletely spoilt. 

Ceriodaphnia is a genus with which we have only recently 
become familiar ; we recorded three species in our list, C. 
reticulata, C. scitula (?), and C. quadrangula, but are almost 
certain that we have a fourth. Several of the species resemble 

1901-1902.] The Entomostraca of Mid-Lothian. 319 

each other closely in general outline, and can only be dis- 
tinguished by slight differences in the anterior antenna, &c. 

Scapholcberis mucronata we have found in only three 
localities, but each time in considerable numbers. It is a 
curious-looking little creature, very dark brown or almost 
black, with greenish eggs, and antennas tinged with pink. 

Simocephalus vetulus is one of the commonest of the 
cladocerans, and may be obtained all the year round. It 
often occurs in large numbers, especially in muddy water. 

Daphnia pulcx has the same apparent preference for muddy 
water ; there must be many thousands in the small pond at 
Drylaw, where we have seen them swimming about in shoals. 
We found an immense number one January evening in a pond 
at Lasswade. They are often coloured bright red, and when 
present in large numbers give a distinct reddish tinge to the 

Ilyocryptus sordidus is a most curious creature. To begin 
with, it is so sluggish in its movements, and so thickly covered 
with fragments of muddy vegetation, that it would be hard to 
distinguish in a catch, but for its brilliant red colour. Being 
unable to swim, it drags itself about the bottom of the pond by 
means of its strong antennas. The postabdomen is large, and 
furnished with numerous delicate spines and a surprisingly 
long pair of setae. There are on the shell four or five 
irregularly concentric curves, apparently the margins of 
different layers of shell, each bordered with a fringe of 
sharp curved spines. It is very hard to get a good view 
of Ilyocryptus ; we spent about an hour one morning trying 
to clean one by squirting it in and out of a dipper in clean 
water, squirting water at it, and trying to clear off its accumu- 
lation of dirt with a needle and brush. The last named 
method seems to be the most efficacious. The spines at the 
front of the shell, and those at the back, are different in 

Graptoleberis testudinaria is one of the prettiest things in 
our collection, having the shell covered with a delicate tortoise- 
shell pattern, from which the specific name is taken. It would 
probably be undistinguishable to the naked eye from some of 
the Alonas, but that its mode of swimming at once betrays it. 
It is hard to say exactly what the difference is, but if one sees 

320 The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. [Sess. 

fifty or sixty creatures all swimming in an identical way, and 
one or two others among them swimming in a slightly different 
way, the latter catch the eye at once. So much so, that we 
have frequently taken up in the dipper some creature which 
was swimming in an unusual way, and found that it was 
merely a common species which had either lost its tail or was 
hindered in its movements by a swarm of parasites. 

Mirycercus lamellatus is a somewhat ungainly looking 
creature, but excites admiration by the wonderful saw with 
which the postabdomen is furnished. In a large specimen 
there may be as many as one hundred teeth in the saw, 
gradually increasing in size towards the large terminal 

The various species of Alona are occasionally difficult to 
distinguish ; we have sometimes, for instance, found ourselves 
unable to decide whether a certain specimen was affinis or 
quadrangularis : the typical A. affinis has a distinct tuft of 
hairs just below the terminal claw, and the typical A. 
qnadrangidaris has none ; but when we find a specimen 
with one or two small hairs, it becomes difficult to say to 
which species it should be referred. 

Alonella nana is the smallest of all our species ; it is, as 
Brady remarks, easily distinguished from other lynceids by 
having the shell striated in the reverse direction. 

Acrojperus liarpaz is a very common species ; numbers may 
often be seen floating on the surface of the water. It seems 
that they get caught by the surface tension and are unable to 
free themselves from it. We have often released one from 
this position and squirted it into the water, and seen it swim 
off apparently none the worse. 

Alonopsis elongata we found in only one locality — Marfield 
Loch. It is at once distinguished by its long narrow shell 
and dark brown colour ; and also by the small lines of 
striation running obliquely between the larger lines on the 

Peracantha truncata we only found on one occasion, in the 
High Pond, Penicuik : it has a row of strong curved teeth 
along the posterior margin of the shell, which gives it a very 
characteristic appearance. We were surprised at the scarcity 
of this species in Mid-Lothian, having found it very frequently 

PLATE XXXI— The Entomostraca of Mid-Lothian. 

w | M 

y m w 


( i ) 


Cyclops languidus, G. 0. Sars. 


1. Female x 38. 

2. Tail x 106. 

3. Anterior antenna x 10(5. 

4. Keceptaculum x 106. 

5. First foot x 106. 

6. Second foot x 106. 

7. Fifth foot x 212. 

Cyclops bicuspidatus, Claus. 

8. Female x 38. 

9. Tail x 83. 

10. Anterior antenna x 106. 

11. Eeceptaculum x 106. 

12. Fifth foot x 212. 

Cyclops vernalis, Fischer. 

13. Female x 38. 

14. Tail x 87. 

15. Anterior antenna x 106. 

16. Eeceptaculum x 106. 

17. Fifth foot x 212. 

Cyclops bisetosus, G. O. Sars. 

18. Female x 38. 

19. Tail x 106. 

20. Anterior antenna x 106. 

21. Receptaculumx212. 

22. Fifth foot x 212. 

( ii ) 


Ceriodaphnia affi,nis, Lilljeborg. 


1. Ephippial female x 38. 

2. Anterior antenna of female x 212. 

3. Anterior antenna of male x 212. 

4. Postabdomen of female x 106. 

Scapholeberis mucronata, Miiller. 

5. Female x 38. 

6. Postabdomen of female x 106. 

Cyclops nanus, G. O. Sars. 

7. Female x 38. 

8. Tail x 106. 

9. Anterior antenna x 106. 

10. Receptaculum x 212. 

11. First foot x 212. 

12. Fifth foot x 212. 

Macrothrix laticornis, Jurine. 

13. Female x 87. 

14. Anterior antenna of female x 212. 

15. Postabdomen of female x 212. 

Alona tenuicaudis, G. 0. Sars. 

16. Female x 87. 

17. Postabdomen of female x 212. 

PLATE XXXI.a.-The Entomostraca of Mid-Lothian. 

1901-1902.] The Entomostraca of Mid- Lothian. 321 

in the Trossachs and the English Lakes, and near Bourne- 

We obtained Alonella rostrata on our second visit to Cobbin- 
shaw, on a grey cheerless day, most unfavourable for collect- 
ing. We walked right round the large reservoir, fishing at 
thirty or forty points with little result, catching hardly any- 
thing but Gammarus. But on reaching home we looked 
carefully through the catch, and found this one rare specimen. 
One thing we have learned by experience is, that however 
poor a collection appears to be, it is worth while to examine 
it thoroughly. 

Chydorus sphcerieus, with which we shall conclude, is by far 
the commonest cladoceran, and perhaps the commonest of all 
the entomostraca, in Mid-Lothian, though Cyclops serrulatus 
runs it very close. It varies greatly in size, colour, and even 
outline. We have observed the males in only one locality, 
the small pond on House 0' Hill farm ; and this in spite of 
the fact that we were on the look-out for them all last 

Mr T. Scott desires to say that in the Note on the list 
of fresh-water Crustacea (ante, p. 260) No. 42, Ceriodaphnia 
scitula, Herrick, should read, " This looks very like C. affinis, 
Lilljeborg." Nos. 49 and 50, Baphnia haniata, Brady, should 
also read, "These I regard as immature forms of D. pulex, 
No. 46." 

(We are indebted to both Mr T. Scott and Mr D. Scourfield 
for having drawn our attention to Ceriodaphnia affinis, Lillje- 
borg ; and having compared my drawings carefully with those 
of Lilljeborg, I now think that our specimens belong to that 
species. It seems probable that the name C. scitula, Herrick, 
which we appended to No. 42, is a synonym of C. affinis, 
Lilljeborg. — B. S.) 

In conclusion, we have to thank the Society for directing 
our attention to a most interesting group of creatures, of 
which previously we knew scarcely anything ; and we can 
very heartily recommend the study of the entomostraca to any 
member who is at a loss for a special subject to take up. 

322 Fortrose and Rosemarkie. [Sess. 


Notes on the Geology, Botany, and Antiquities of 
the District. 

Bt Mr S. ARCHIBALD, Tomatin, Inverness, 
Corresponding Member. 

(Read Feb, 26, 1902.) 

The peninsula popularly known as the " Black Isle " lies in a 
N.E. and S.W. direction between the Cromarty Firth on the 
north and the Moray, Inverness, and Beauly Firths on the 
south. It consists of a tableland along the middle, flanked by 
ridges on each side, about 500 or 600 feet in height. The 
ridge on the south has a steep slope seawards, which for the 
most part ends more or less precipitously at or near the water's 
edge. From near the middle of the south coast a long sandy 
peninsula, called Chanonry Point, stretches fully a mile and a 
half out into the firth, forming fine bays on either side ; and 
the ancient burghs of Bosemarkie and Fortrose, which are just 
about a mile apart, are charmingly situated on the east and 
west bays respectively. Nearly opposite Chanonry Point, but 
a little lower down, projects the peninsula on which Fort 
George is built, and the geological problem of how these two 
points were formed is an interesting but rather difficult one. 
There are great cliffs of boulder clay at Bosemarkie, and there 
is a hill of similar material behind Campbeltown on the 
opposite side. One writer thinks that in the geological 
ages there may have been a great barrier wall of this 
material right across the valley, sending the drainage of the 
Ness and Beauly basins out some other way, and that after 
the pressure of water had broken through the barrier, the 
currents would deposit the rougher materials on the south 
side, and being deflected and eddying round, would deposit 
the finer particles on the north side, forming Chanonry Point. 
While staying at Bosemarkie I noticed a peculiarity in the 
tide. About fifteen minutes after high water, and when it 
had gone down a little, there came a succession of large 
waves, raising it to about its previous mark. This would 

1901-1902.] Fortrose and Rosemarkie. 323 

no doubt be caused by reflected waves from Fort George 
Point on the first outward rush of the tide after high water, 
the whole of the large body of water from the inner firths 
having to pass through the narrow opening. The navigation 
of the channel is guided by a lighthouse on the end of 
Chanonry Point. A well-defined terrace or raised beach, 
about 100 yards from the present coast-line, extends nearly 
the whole way along the eastern side of the peninsula. 

At, and for a short distance east from, Eosemarkie, there is 
a fine sandy beach, very suitable for bathing. Beyond this, 
the beach consists of a very rough rocky floor ; and near this 
commences a line of high, precipitous cliffs, extending to 
Tarbet Ness, and broken only by the narrow entrance to the 
Cromarty Firth, with its guardian " sutors." These cliffs, 
which are of a strong red colour, present a bold and striking 
appearance as viewed from the water or the opposite shore. 
They are pierced by a great many caves, singly, and in twos 
and threes, some of them going right through a projecting 
point of rock. The entrances to these caves are all about 
fifteen feet above the present coast-line. In ' The Testimony 
of the Eocks ' Hugh Miller describes the geological features of 
this rocky coast, and speaks of the clear proofs which these 
caves afford of the whole coast having been raised since they 
were formed. And no doubt the " terrace " on Chanonry 
Point bears witness to the same geological process. Along the 
foot of the cliffs there are many isolated stacks and pinnacles 
of rock, in two series, one belonging to the present and the 
other to the ancient coast-line. Strange in appearance are 
these latter, many of them being now at some distance from 
the water's edge, surrounded by sandy dunes, much weathered, 
and ivy clad, like the " ruins of a world gone by." These 
cliffs, for some miles at least, are composed chiefly of gneiss, 
with bands of quartzite varying in colour from white to blood- 
red ; deformed pegmatite, muscovite (white mica), &c. Along 
the rocky floor are strewn carried boulders of many varieties, 
including some of a peculiar grained granite, and a block of 
amphibolite, which, from its appearance, readily attracts 
notice. Ammonites and other fossils are occasionally found 
in fragments of rock washed up on the beach from a bed of 
oolite. At Eathie Burn, seven miles from Eosemarkie, are 

324 Fortrose and Rosemarkie. [Sess. 

the quarries of old red sandstone made famous by the labours 
of Hugh Miller. There the stone is mostly of a pure grey 
colour, but along the central plateau sandstone occurs of a deep 
red colour, as well as grey streaked with red. All along the 
rocky beach there is considerable scope for the study of marine 
flora and fauna. Some interesting shells were picked up, as 
the dwarf dog whelk (Nassa pygmcea), plentiful ; cowries 
(Cyprcea europcea), scarce ; and a few conelets (Bela rufa and 
B. turricula). 

A small stream which enters the sea at Eosemarkie comes 
down from a very romantic den. It is deep, rocky, and beau- 
tifully wooded, and well deserves its name, the " Fairy Glen," 
presenting, as it does, the most charming scenery in the dis- 
trict. Near the head of the glen there are two pretty water- 
falls, the banks and rocks all around being clothed with ferns, 
mosses, and many others of Flora's treasures. From the high 
ground on either side of the glen magnificent panoramic views 
are obtained of land and sea. Opposite Eosemarkie the hill, 
descending with a rapid slope, ends abruptly in a broad per- 
pendicular cliff of red boulder clay, about 100 feet in height, 
streaked with horizontal seams of sand, in which a great 
colony of jackdaws have made their homes. A little way up 
the glen, on the opposite side of the stream, there is a remark- 
able assemblage of cliffs and pyramids of the same material, 
about 200 feet in height, the remains of a vast accumulation 
of boulder clay, which has been worn and carved into many 
strange and fantastic forms. 1 These cliffs and pyramids of 
boulder clay are without doubt the most remarkable geological 
feature of the district. Evidently Hugh Miller considered them 
quite unique. In his day they must have presented a very bleak 
and savage aspect, but their appearance has now been much 
modified by the growth of trees all around. A splendid view 
of these cliffs can be obtained from near the high road, which 
gradually climbs the slope on the opposite side to the central 
plateau, and on to Cromarty, distant eight miles from Eose- 

The time of my visit to the place (September) was too late 
in the season to allow of an extensive list of the flora being 

1 A very graphic description of these cliffs will be found in Hugh Miller's 
' Cruise of the Betsy. ' 


Fortrose and Rosemarkie. 


compiled, but enough, remained, either in flower or in a con- 
dition easily identified, to furnish a very interesting list, and 
to show the vegetation to be not only luxuriant but varied, 
and that it embraces a considerable number of comparatively 
rare plants, as the following short list of the more note- 
worthy ones will show : — 

Mertensia maritima (plentiful). 

Hyoscyamus niger. 

Solidago Virgaurea (great branching 

spikes three feet high). 
Cynoglossum officinale. 
Salsola Kali. 
Reseda lutea. 
Agrimonia Eupatoria. 
Eupatorium Cannabinum. 
Astragalus Hypoglottis. 
Geranium sanguineum. 
Plantago maritima. 
P. Coronopus. 
Cakile maritima. 
Artemisia vulgaris. 

Trifolium arvense. 

Stachys arvensis. 

Hypericum quadrangulum. 

Vicia sylvatica. 

Lysimachia nemorum. 

Myosotis palustris, var. strigulosa. 

CircEea alpina. 

Erodium cicutarium. 

Malva rotundifolia. 

Parnassia palustris. 

Sanicula europfea. 

Trientalis europsea. 

Goodyera repens. 

Myriophyllum spicatum. 

Among grasses were noted Bromus asper, Brachypodium 
sylvaticum, Festuca gigantea, Elymus arenarius, Ammophila 
arundinacea, Triticum junceum, and Melica uniflora. 

Ferns do not seem to be very numerous, either in number 
of species or number of plants of any one species, except 
Brackens (Pteris). But there are Brackens extraordinary (!), 
covering great areas, and of immense size. Of others I noted 
Cystopteris fragilis, Asplenium Trichomanes and A. Buta- 
muraria, Polystichum aculeatum, and some fine specimens of 
the common Lastreas and Athyrium. 

Between the line of cliffs and the sea there is in many 
places a narrow strip densely covered with vegetation, includ- 
ing ash, hazel, bramble, burnet and dog roses, and brackens. 
Brambles and hazel nuts are in strong evidence, both being 
ripe in September. 

To speak now of the anticpiities. Bosemarkie, the modern 
name of the burgh and of the parish, which also contains the 
burgh of Fortrose, was originally Bosmarkyn (ros, and marai- 
chin, the headland of the seamen). The burgh was a place of 
importance as far back as the beginning of the eighth century, 
about which time a church is said to have been founded there 
by St Boniface, an Italian (or according to some an Irish) 

326 Fortrose and Rosemarkie. [Sess. 

monk, and his effigy adorns the " common seal of the burgh of 
Eosemarkie." Another tradition connects St Moluag of 
Lismore with the place, and says he was buried there ; and 
further, that the Celtic (commonly called the runic) cross 
which was found under the flooring of the parish church when 
it was being rebuilt in 1821 covered the grave of that saint. 
The cross now stands close to the N.W. corner of the church. 
It had been broken across, but is now carefully cemented 
together, and is held in position by an ingenious framework of 
iron. The dimensions of the cross are : height about 8 feet ; 
breadth, 28 inches at base and 30 inches at top; thickness, 
7 inches. It had originally been considerably higher, the top 
being mutilated. It is closely sculptured all over, mostly in 
high relief, but, being exposed to the weather, is rapidly 
becoming defaced. Each face is divided into three panels. 
The upper panel on the front contains a plain equal-armed 
cross, surrounded by very intricate interlaced and knotted 
scrollwork. The middle panel is filled with semi-zoomorphic 
forms, and the bottom one with circles, &c. On the back the 
cross — a " stepped " one — is in the middle panel, and is sur- 
rounded by a key-pattern. The background of the cross is 
filled in with fine interlaced work and bosses. The large 
upper panel on this side seems a very important one, as it 
contains most of the mystic symbols carved on this and similar 
crosses, the meaning of which is not yet known. These 
include the crescent three times repeated (when entire), with 
the V-shaped rod symbol ; double disc symbol with its bosses, 
and Z-shaped rod symbol connected therewith. Zobmorphic 
forms and knot-work are introduced on the lower crescent and 
elsewhere. The two edges are also divided into panels, and 
filled with interlaced and knotted work, in some cases formed 
of serpent-like and other creatures. Where these animal and 
semi-animal forms are introduced, it is done in a very subdued 
manner, with little of the grotesque. Altogether, this stone 
seems quite a unique specimen of early Celtic art, testifying 
alike to the skill and perseverance of the artists in designing 
and executing such work ; and it will be a great pity if such 
a valuable relic should be allowed to become a plain slab. 

In Eosemarkie churchyard there is another sculptured stone 
— a slab about four feet long and two feet wide. It is sculp- 

1901-1902.] Fortrose and Rosemarkie. 327 

tured on one side only, and lies face downwards on a grave. 
The ornamentation consists of key-patterns and spirals. Other 
three sculptured fragments which have been found there are 
now in the Edinburgh Museum of Antiquities. In connection 
with the bosses on some of these sculptured stones, and the 
cup-shaped markings on others, the thought occurred to me 
that these may be the same symbol reversed, though of course 
that would do nothing to explain their meaning. 

The next important thing to be noticed is Fortrose Cathedral. 
In ancient days Fortrose was the " chief seat of ecclesiastics 
and of literature in the north." The bishopric of Koss was 
founded about 1124, and the cathedral was built about 
200 years later. It was originally of considerable extent, 
and consisted of choir and nave, with south aisles, eastern 
lady chapel, western tower, and chapter-house. There now 
only remain the aisles and chapter-house, but these are 
carefully preserved. The rest was torn down by Cromwell, 
and the materials used to assist in the building of his fort at 
Inverness. The style of architecture is described as " the 
purest and most elaborate middle-pointed," and enough is left 
to show that it contained many beautiful features, such as the 
mouldings of the pillars, the groined roofs of the aisles, and 
the remains of the tracery in the top of the five-light east 
window. In two of the arches between the aisles and the 
body of the building there are the remains of some very fine 
canopied tombs, one of which at least has been built with the 

About half-way down Chanonry Point, and just on the top 
of the " Terrace," there stands the broken shaft of a cross of 
grey sandstone. It is of a flattened hexagonal shape, about 
three feet high, and fifteen inches broad. About its own 
history I could learn nothing, but it is said that one of the 
last cases of witch-burning in Scotland took place beside it. 
"While on the " Point," it may be noted that a fine golf course 
has been laid out on it, and as it runs so far out into the firth, 
forming a natural pier or promenade, it affords a grand oppor- 
tunity for all in search of sea-air to get the full benefit thereof, 
without any discomfort or trouble. 

On the plateau about half-way between Eosemarkie and 
Cromarty there is an immense cairn of stones called the " Glas 

VOL. iv. 2 A 

328 The Folk- Lore of Natural History. [Sess 

Cairn," or Grey Cairn. It is about twenty-four yards across 
and ten feet high, and is said to mark the site of a great battle 
between the Scots and the Danes. There used to be another 
cairn near it, called the " Cairn of the Battle," but it has been 
carted away by farmers to build dykes. Under it were found 
stone coffins, and weapons of copper (? bronze) and other 
metals, thus confirming the tradition that a great battle had 
been fought in the neighbourhood. 

In conclusion, I would say that any one, naturalist or other- 
wise, in search of health or of a pleasant place for a holiday, 
would find the district I have roughly described a very good 
one for their purpose. 


(Read March 26, 1902.) 

The stories and superstitions connected with natural history 
have always had a fascination for me, and the following, 
gleaned at various times from many sources, will, I venture to 
hope, not altogether fail to be of interest, although many must 
necessarily be familiar to you already. For is it not a relief 
to turn from the sometimes dry-as-dust details of modern 
scientific inquiry, and to allow the imagination to wander back 
into times when there were not so many books about nature, 
and nature itself was more of a book, the pages of which were 
full of mystery and wonder ? 

One stormy night some winters ago, as I was going home 
through the woods, I saw an unusual light some distance from 
the path. Not a little astonished, I groped my way over to 
where it was, and found an old oak tree had been blown down, 
and that its roots were all aglow with a phosphorescent light 
that some distance off looked decidedly uncanny. On reaching 
home, I spoke of the unusual sight, and my father said that 
what I had seen used to be known as spunkie wood : it re- 
minded him of the tales of his boyhood, nigh seventy years ago. 
And it is back to about that period I would like to go to-night. 

1 901-1902.] The Folk-Lore of Natural History. 329 

The Owl. 

The countryman wending his way across some desolate moor 
on some dark night — 

" When winter scowls along our northern sky " — 

sees a light flitting across the peat moss : he clutches his stick 
and hastens his steps, for is not that " spunkie " trying to wile 
him off his road and drown him in his watery den ? What to 
us is the will 0' the wisp flickering amongst the marshes was 
then directly attributed to the presence of fairies or spunkies. 
We can easily imagine how, in the long dark winter nights 
in the lowly Scottish homes of a past generation, the talk 
would turn on things weird and supernatural, and stories of 
ghosts and witches would be eagerly listened to, and as firmly 
believed. In an environment such as this the simplest inci- 
dents of natural history came to possess a significance the origin 
of which cannot always be easily traced. But any one who has 
been startled by the scream of an owl on a lonely road can 
readily suppose that it would then be put down to something 
uncanny. Tannahill, in one of his finest Scottish songs, says — 

" The cry o' howlets maks me eerie " — 

and the owl has been generally regarded as a bird of ill-omen, 
and superstitiously considered a messenger of woe. The Romans 
viewed the owl with detestation and dread. "The owlet's wing" 
was an ingredient of the cauldron wherein the witches prepared 
the charm of powerful trouble (" Macbeth," Act IV. sc. i.) 
Should an owl appear at a birth, it is said to forebode ill-luck 
to the infant. King Henry VI., addressing Gloster, says — 

"The owl shrieked at thy birth, — an evil sign." 

When Eichard III. is irritated by the ill news showered thick 
on him, he interrupts the third messenger with — 

" Out on ye, owls, nothing but songs of death." 

Among the strange occurrences presaging King Duncan's 
murder is mentioned — 

" On Tuesday last, 
A falcon, towering in her pride of place, 
Was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed." 

— " Macbeth," Act II. sc. iv. 

330 The Folk- Lore of Natural History. [Sess. 

Among the many curious legends with reference to this 
bird we may mention one to which Shakespeare alludes — 

" They say the owl was a baker's daughter." 

— " Hamlet," Act IV. sc. v. 

This refers to an eastern tale, too long to quote here, which 
says a certain baker's daughter was for some wickedness 
transformed into that bird, and to this day she laments 
her fate in its mournful hoot. 

The Eagle. 

The opinion that the eagle possesses the power of gazing 
undazzled at the sun is of great antiquity. Pliny relates that 
it exposes its brood to the test as soon as hatched, to prove if 
they are genuine or not : — 

" Nay, if thou be that princely eagle's bird, 
Show thy descent by gazing 'gainst the sun." 

— "K. Henry VI.," Part III., Act II. sc. i. 

"A lover's eyes will gaze an eagle blind." 

— " Love's Labour's Lost," Act IV. sc. iii. 

As a bird of good omen the eagle is often mentioned by 
Shakespeare — 

" I chose an eagle and did avoid a puttock " (kite). 

— " Cymbeline," Act I. sc. ii. 

The great age to which this bird sometimes attains has been 
remarked on by most writers on ornithology. The Psalmist 
has beautifully alluded to it when he says of the righteous 
man, " His youth shall be renewed like the eagle's." 

The Hawk. 

The sparrow-hawk appears to have been frequently used 
in falconry in olden times to take the smaller kind of game. 
In the Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland 
we find the following entry: "16th Sept. 1473. Item 
given to a man of David Oguilviys of Inch martyn that 
brocht a spar hawk to the King iij s." A wild hawk 

1901-1902.] The Folk-Lore of Natural History. 33, 

was sometimes tamed by watching it night and day to 
prevent it sleeping: J 

" You must be watched ere you be made tame, must you ?" 

— "Troilus and Cressida," Act III. sc. ii. 
" I'll watch, him tame." 

—"Othello," Act III. sciii. 

The Raven. 

Go where you will over the face of the wide world, the 

well-known hoarse croak of the raven is still to be heard 

Ihrough a long course of centuries the raven has been 

regarded as a foreteller of good or evil, and even to th's 

a a death- ^ ^ ^^ ^ raVGn ' S CI ° ak predicts 

" The raven himself is hoarse 
That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan 
Under my battlements." 

— " Macbeth," Act I. sc. v. 
" ! it comes o'er my memory 
As doth the raven o'er the infected house 
Boding to all." 

— " Othello," Act IV. sc. i. 

A curious belief is mentioned with regard to the rearing of its 
young : — ° 

" Some say that ravens foster forlorn children 
The whilst their own birds famish in their nest." 

— " Titus Andronicus," Act II. sc. iii. 
It would appear from some passages in the Scriptures that the 
desertion of their young had not escaped the observation of the 
inspired writers. It was certainly a belief in olden times that 
when the raven saw its young ones newly hatched and covered 
with down, it conceived such an aversion to them that it for- 
sook them and did not return to the nest till a darker plumage 
had shown itself. And to this belief commentators suppose the 
Psalmist alludes when he says, "He giveth to the beast his 
tood, and to the young ravens which cry " (Ps. clxvii 9) "-Who 
provideth for the raven his food? when his young one's cry 
unto God, they wander for lack of food" (Job xxxviii 41) 
An old writer also says that "the raven's young be fed with 
the dew of heaven all the time they have no black feathers" 

332 The Folk- Lore of Natural History. [Sess. 

With the ancients much superstition prevailed in regard to the 
crow family generally, and Shakespeare specially mentions 
three of these as birds of omen — 

" Stones have been known to move, and trees to speak, 
Augurs that understood relations have 
By magot pies, and choughs, and rooks brought forth 
The secret'st man of blood." 

—"Macbeth," Act III. sc. iv. 

Even at the present day there are still to be found some who 
profess to augur good or evil from the flight of the magpie or 
the numbers seen together : — 

" One for sorrow, two for mirth, 
Three for a wedding, four for a birth." 

But in my own district we had it — 

" Yin's joy, twa's grief, 
Three's a marriage, four's a death, 
Five is heaven, six is hell, 
Seven's the devil's ain sel'." 

The following lines from Tannahill will be familiar : — 

" The craw that biggit in the stackyard thorn, 
Scraight and forsook its nest when she was born ; 
Three pyets crossed the kirk when she was christened ; 
I've heard it tauld, and trembled when I listened. " 

The Eook. 

As far back as the year 1424 we find an Act passed by the 
Scots Parliament for the purpose of lessening the number of 
rooks. When children see crows hastening away in a body 
they say the schule is skailing ; and if they are noticed sitting 
thickly on trees in the winter time, it is called "a craw's 
preachin'." When they are seen whirling and hovering round 
one spot in numbers, old people say it is a craw's weddin'. 
If they are observed flying high in the air in a flock, and 
tumbling and diving down, it is considered a sign of wind and 
rain. An old Scottish saying is, " Ay, but ye're a bonnie pair, 
as the craw said to his ain twa feet." In Shakespeare we find 
the quotation — 

" We'll pluck a crow together." 

— " Comedy of Errors," Act III. sc. i. 

— the meaning of which is perhaps not quite so clear as our 

1901-1902.] The Folk-Lore of Natural History. 333 

own Doric, " I've a craw tae pluck wi' you, my man." There 
is a widespread belief that the rooks are very punctual in 
starting their nest-building, and the following rhyme is won- 
derfully accurate as regards dates : — 

" On the first of March 

The craws begin to search ; 

On the first of April 

They are sittin' still ; 

By the end of May 

They're a' flown away, 
Croupin' greedy back again 
Wi' October's wind and rain." 

I do not remember ever seeing the crows building in 
February, but I have many a time seen them carrying sticks 
on the 1st of March, and this year was no exception. 

The Yellow-hammek. 

" Fair plumaged bird, cursed by the causeless hate 
Of every schoolboy." 

— Graham's ' Birds of Scotland.' 

This beautiful little bird is the subject of unaccountable 
superstition on the part of the peasantry in England and 
Scotland as well. Its nest therefore receives less mercy than 
that of almost any other bird. Its somewhat extraordinary 
appearance, nearly all of one colour, and that an unusual one 
in birds, is the only imaginable cause of the antipathy with 
which it is regarded. The yellow-hammer was accounted one 
of the devil's birds, as instanced in the rhyme — 

" Yellow, yellow yorlin', 
Drink a drap o' the de'il's bluid 
Ilka Monday morning " — 

and it was further believed that the devil, crouching in the 
form of a toad, sat upon the yellow-hammer's eggs and hatched 
them and fed the young : — 

" Quarter puddock, quarter taed, 
Half a yellow yourlie." 

Jamieson, in his ' Scottish Dictionary,' says : " The super- 
stition of the country has rendered it a very common belief 
among the illiterate and children that this bird, the yeldring, 

334 The Folk- Lore of Natural History. [Sess. 

somehow or other receives a drop of the devil's blood every May 
morning." In the ' Proceedings of the Berwickshire Nat. 
Club,' vol. i. p. 219, we find this account : " Children hang by 
the neck all the yellow-hammers they can lay hold of. They 
often take the bare gorbals or unfledged young of this bird and 
suspend these by a thread tied round the neck to one end of a 
cross-beam : they then suddenly strike the other end and drive 
the poor bird into the air. This operation they call ' spangie 
hewit.' " In my younger days at Cramond school I can re- 
member the same process, only it went by the name of 
" spring wheasling." In revenge for the treatment which it 
received, the yellow-hammer was supposed to curse its per- 
secutors in its song of — 

" De'il, de'il tak' ye, 
For me to big a bonnie nest, 
And you to take it frae me ; " 
or — 

" Whetit te, whetit te, whee, 
Harry my nest and de'il tak' ye." 

It is to be hoped, however, that the present generation of 
school children know nothing of these fine arts of savagery, 
and that no more 

" The weary yeldrins have to wail 
Their little nestlings torn." 

— Tannahill. 

The Whitetheoat 

is another bird whose nest is often found by boys, who seldom 
scruple to harry it, from a prejudice against the wheatie, on 
account of their belief that it sucks the eggs of other birds. 
One of its popular names in Berwickshire is " Jenny cut-throat." 
The bird, of course, lives entirely on insects and small 
fruits. An old school conundrum which country boys used 
to puzzle their town friends with ran thus : — 

"A wheetie and a whitebird, 
A laverock and a lark, 
A blackie and a blackbird, 
How many birds is that ? " 

In some parts of Scotland the stonechat or stanechacker 
is exempted from the pains of harrying, in consequence of a 

1901-1902.] The Folk-Lore of Natural History. 335 

malediction which the bird itself is supposed to be pro- 
nouncing : — 

" Stane chack, devil tak', 

They wha harry ma nest 

Will never rest, 

"Will meet the pest. 

Deil brak their long back 

Wha my eggs wad tak-tak." 

The lark is supposed to have ugly eyes, and there is a 
reference to this in " Borneo and Juliet," Act III. sc. v. : — 

" Some say the lark and loathed toad change eyes." 

I have given some instances of wanton cruelty to birds on 
account of superstition. We will now take the other and 
more pleasing side of the picture, where first we find 

The Kobin. 

" And thou the bird whom men love best, 
The pious bird with scarlet breast, 
The bird who by some name or other 
All men who know thee call thee brother." 

The earliest Scottish poet who mentions the redbreast is 
Holland, in 'The Howlat,' written about 1453, and, appar- 
ently from its familiar disposition, he calls it " the hennis 
man " or family servant. " The Eobins are too muckle about 
the doors the day for guid weather," is an expression that at 
one time was common. Boys used to believe that the robins 
followed them into the woods for the purpose of intimating 
any danger that might waylay them, and sometimes the belief 
was so impressed upon them that they would take to their 
heels if the birds approached too closely. In some districts 
of the country the robin is looked upon as a hallowed bird, 
and very few boys will kill one, it being said that if they do, 
its spirit will some day return and seek the blood of the 
slayer. The story of the robins in the " Babes of the Wood " 
is familiar to all, and the popular belief in robins covering 
dead bodies is very old. 

" No burial this pretty pair of any man receives, 
Till Eobin redbreast piously did cover them with leaves." 

Isaac Walton, in the ' Compleat Angler' CI 6 5 3), speaks of the 

336 The Folk-Lore of Natural History. [Sess. 

honest robin that loves mankind both alive and dead. The 
robin is said in one legend to have been the only bird that 
ventured near the cross, and that the blood of the Saviour 
fell on its breast, which has remained red ever since. But 
there is another bird that a strange but beautiful story con- 
nects with the crucifixion: — 

" And by all the world forsaken, 
Sees He how with zealous care 
At the ruthless nail of iron 
A little bird is striving there. 

Stained with blood and never tiring, 

With its beak it doth not cease ; 
From the cross 'twould free the Saviour, 

Its Creator's Son release. 

And the Saviour speaks in mildness, — 

' Blest be thou of all the good ! 
Bear, as token of this moment, 

Marks of blood and holy rood ! ' 

And that bird is called the crossbill ; 

Covered all with blood so clear, 
In the groves of pine it singe th 
Songs, like legends, strange to hear.' 

— Longfellow, " The Legend of the Crossbill " 
(tr. from the German). 

And in connection with things sacred, is it not a strange fancy 
that makes the poet exclaim — 

" The sparrows chirped as if they still were proud 
Their race in holy writ should mentioned be " ? 

The Wren. 

In Henderson's 'Folk-lore of the Northern Counties' we 
find it stated that the wren had a sacred character among 
our Celtic ancestors. It has for centuries back been always 
associated with the robin. 

" The robin redbreast and the wren 
Are God Almighty's cock and hen." 

John Webster, writing in 1638, says: — 

" Call for the robin redbreast and the wren, 
Since in shady groves they hover, 
And with leaves and flowers do cover 
The friendless bodies of unburied men. 

1901-1902.] The Folk-Lore of Natural History. 337 

At one time, on St Stephen's day, the common people of 
the Isle of Man assembled and carried about a wren tied to 
the branch of a tree, singing a doggerel song called " The 
hunting of the Wren." This custom is believed to have taken 
its origin from an effort of the early Christian missionaries to 
extinguish a reverence for the wren which had been held by 
the Druids as the king of birds. In Ireland the same custom 
must have prevailed. In the year 1845 we find a proclama- 
tion issued by Eichard Dowden, Mayor of Cork, forbidding, on 
the score of cruelty, the hunting of the wren on St Stephen's 
day. Whatever may have been the origin of the custom in 
Ireland, there is no doubt that on St Stephen's day the " wren 
boys " went about the hedges pelting the unfortunate victim 
with sticks and stones, and carrying it about when caught on 
the top of a pole in the midst of ivy or holly, singing some 
doggerel verses beginning with — 

" The wren, the wren, the king of all the birds, 
St Stephen's day was caught in the furze," &c. 

The Swallow. 

There is no bird whose appearance is more welcome, and 
whose departure is watched with greater regret, than the 
swallow. And it is round this bird we have had some very 
pretty fancies developed regarding hibernation as opposed to 
emigration, but into these I shall not enter. " There is a 
tradition," says Dr Henderson of Chirnside, " amongst boys of 
the county, that if a swallow fly betwixt a person's body and 
his arm that person will lose the power of his arm for ever. 
It is obvious there can be little danger of such a thing taking 
place, yet I remember when I was a boy I had a great dread 
of the swallow when she was skimming past me on her swift 
pinions." When swallows fly low and sweep close over pools 
of water, rain may be expected. 

" When swallows fleet soar high and sport in air, 
He told us that the welkin would be fair." 

Old writers tell us that when the young swallows are 
hatched they are blind for some time, and that the parent 
birds bring to the nest a plant called Chelidonium or swallow- 

33$ The Folk- Lore of Natural History. [Sess. 

herb, which has the property of restoring sight. The plant is 
the well-known Celandine {Chclidonium majus). Besides the 
swallow-herb there is the swallow-stone, to which wonderful 
properties have been likewise attributed in connection with 
diseases of the eye. Pliny makes mention of a swallow-stone 
which, he affirms, is found in the stomach of the swallow. In 
Brittany and in some English counties the stone is said to be 
found in the nest of the swallow. Longfellow, in " Evangeline," 
refers to the legend of the swallow-stone : — 

" Oft in the barns they climbed to the populous nests on the rafters, 
Seeking with eager eyes that wondrous stone, which the swallow 
Brings from the shore of the sea to restore the sight of its fledglings ; 
Lucky was he who found that stone in the nest of the swallow ! " 

The Cuckoo. 

The cuckoo had its calendar embodied in the following 
rhyme : — 

" In April come he will ; 
In May he sings all day ; 
In June he changes tune ; 
In July away he'll fly ; 
In August go he must." 

But the believers in hibernation had also their jingle : — 

" Seven sleepers there be, — 
The bat, the bee, the butter-flee, 
The cuckoo and the swallow, 
The kittywake and the corncraik, 
Sleep a' in a little hollow." 

The Kingfisher. 

It was a firm belief of the ancients that during the time the 
halcyon or kingfisher was engaged in hatching its eggs the 
water, in kindness to her, remained so smooth and calm that 
the mariner might venture on the sea with the happy certainty 
of not being exposed to storm and tempest. This period was 
therefore called by Pliny and Aristotle the " halcyon days." 
It was also supposed that the dead bird stuffed, carefully 
balanced and suspended by a single thread, would always turn 

1901-1902.] The Folk- Lore of Natural History. 339 

its beak towards that point of the compass from which the 
wind blew. 

" But how now stands the wind ? 
Into what corner peers my halcyon's bill ? " 

— Marlowe. 

The Lapwing. 

" Far from her nest the lapwing cries away." 

— " Comedy of Errors," Act IV. sc. ii. 

The dolorous cry of the lapwing, called in Scotland the 
peeseweep, has attracted the attention of children, and is 
embodied in one of their rhymes as 

" Peeseweep, peeseweep, 
Harry my nest and gar me greet." 

Tannahill, regarding it as a foreboding sign of evil, says, — 
" The peeseweeps scraichin' o'er the spunkie's cairn." 

In certain parts of Scotland there is an antipathy to this bird, 
and it is held as unlucky on account of its having served in 
persecuting times to point out the retreat of the Covenanters 
who had sought refuge in the wilds. 

" The lapwing's clamorous whoop attends their flight, 
Pursues their steps where'er the wanderers go, 
Till the shrill scream betrays them to the foe." 

Barnacle Geese. 

As long ago as the twelfth century we find the story that, 
somewhere in the Orkney Islands, there grew certain trees 
that produced at the end of their branches small swelled balls, 
containing the embryo of a goose suspended by the bill, which 
when ripe fell off into the sea and took wing. The old wood- 
cuts illustrating this story are very amusing. Boece, the oldest 
I Scottish historian, denies this story, but says they are pro- 
duced in the form of worms in the substance of old trees or 
timber floating in the sea ; and he gives a circumstantial 
account of their appearance. In connection with this old 
superstition, it is a curious fact that, in spite of the many 
modern scientific and exploring expeditions, the real breeding 

340 The Folk- Lore of Natural History. [Sess. 

however, has heen known to breed in captivity, and is a some- 
what rare winter visitor in the Firth of Forth. 


In connection with another sea bird, the cormorant, it may 
not be out of place for me to mention that King James I., in 
1611, had a regular establishment of these birds for fishing 
on the river Thames at Westminster. Numerous interesting 
entries regarding it are found in the Eecord Office : " To John 
Wood the sum of £30 in respect of bringing up and training 
of certain fowls called cormorants and making them fit for the 
use of fishing." " May 27, 1612. — Payment to the said John 
Wood for getting cormorants from the north." 


A common belief existed at one time that somewhere in the 
centre of Africa there existed a race of pigmies between whom 
and the migratory cranes deadly battles were fought. Pliny, 
in his seventh book, gives some justification for the alleged 
feud : " In the spring-time the pigmies sally forth in great 
troops, riding upon goats, searching for and devouring the eggs 
of the cranes." Kecent explorations in Africa have indeed 
revealed the existence of a certain race of pigmies, but we 
hear of no account of any such warfare in modern times. 

While the Scottish rural class of former days had their 
curious superstitions as regards birds and beasts, the interpre- 
tation of their habits into omens and signs of the weather 
might well form a separate chapter of study. The knowledge 
which long-continued observation gives respecting meteoro- 
logical changes was embodied in verses of the usual simple 
kind, which were handed down from sire to son with the 
greatest fidelity, and are even yet quoted by old people. One 
of the simplest and oftenest heard is that 

"An air* winter's 
A sair winter " — 

i.e., a winter early begun is likely to be a severe one. Feb- 

1 901-1902.] The Folk- Lore of Natural History. 341 

ruary appears to be one of the most important months as 
regards weather predictions, as it seems to have some mys- 
terious influence on the weather that is to follow. Yet 
throughout the country generally good weather in February is 
regarded as an unfavourable symptom of what is to come. 

" A' the months o' the year 
Curse a fair Februar'." 
Also — 

" February fill the dyke, 
Be it black or be it white : 
If it be white, the better to like." 

" If Candlemas be dry and fair, 
The half of the winter's to come and mair ; 
If Candlemas be wet and foul, 
The half o' the winter's gane at Yule." 

When the new moon is in such a part of the ecliptic 
as to appear turned much over on her back, wet weather is 

" The bonny moon is on her back — 
Mend your shoon and sort your thack." 

" About the moon there is a brugh — 
The weather will be cauld and rough." 

The halo seen round the moon, being a consequence of the 
humidity of the atmosphere, may well forebode wet weather. 

The hills, by their attracting the clouds and precipitating 
rain, serve as natural barometers all over Scotland. Thus in 
Eoxburgh shire they say — 

" When Rubislaw puts on his cowl, 
The Dunion on his hood, 
Then a' the wives of Teviotside 
Ken therf will be a flood." 

It is a popular belief that when the oak comes into leaf 
before the ash there will be fine weather and an abundant 
crop. I remember in my school days there was a tradition 
that if, when the rainbow was seen in the sky, you were to go 
to the spot where the rainbow rested on the earth and dig 
down, you would find a pot of gold. The time when that rain- 
bow appears is supposed to aid in foretelling the weather : — 

" A rainbow at night is the shepherd's delight : 
A rainbow in the morning is the shepherd's warning." 

34 2 The Folk- Lore of Natural History. [Sess. 

An old writer says, " Where the rainbow toucheth the tree, no 
caterpillar will hang on the leaves : where the glow - worm 
creeps in the night, no adder will go in the day." 

The Indian story of the rainbow is the most beautiful of all 
natural history legends. The old squaw, in answering Hia- 
watha's question as to what the rainbow is, says, — 

" Tis the heaven of flowers you see there ; 
All the wild-flowers of the forest, 
All the lilies of the prairie, 
"When on earth they fade and perish, 
Blossom in that heaven above us." 

The following simple couplet is prevalent throughout the 
whole of Scotland, and with slight variations is also common 
in England — 

" The evening red and morning grey 
Are tokens of a bonnie day." 

Of the antiquity of this observation we have it in the Scripture, 
" When it is evening, ye say, it will be fair weather : for the 
sky is red " (Matt. xvi. 2). 

The future of the weather is often augured from the flight 
of birds. In some districts there existed at one time a belief 
that the weather of the day was foretold by the two most 
conspicuous members of the crow family : if the raven cry 
first in the morning, it will be rain ; if the rook, it will be 

" The corbie says unto the craw, 
Johnnie, fling your plaid awa' ; 
The craw says unto the corbie, 
Johnnie, fling your plaid about ye." 

A homely rhyme addressed to the seagull by children used 
to be — 

" Seagull, seagull, sit on the sand ; 
It's never good weather when you're on land." 

The following account of a new weather-prophet appeared 
in the newspapers recently : — 

A sportsman who spent a holiday in Unst, the northmost of the Shet- 
land Islands, went to see the Muckle Flugga Lighthouse, which stands on 
a rocky islet about a mile from the north point of Unst. The lighthouse 
keepers told him that for nine years they had a tame rabbit living on the 
rock beside them. It had three holes on different parts of the islet over 

1901-1902.] The Folk- Lore of Natural History. 343 

which it roamed at pleasure. The keepers said that when they saw the 
rabbit going to one particular hole they had learned that they might pre- 
pare for a south-west gale. 

I have previously mentioned how common was the belief 
in witches, and it is but natural that we should look for some 
antidote to their power to do mischief. Hence we have the 
rhyme, — 

" Rowan tree and red thread 
Mak' the witches tyne their speed." 

Among the Highlanders of Scotland the virtue of the rowan 
tree is in the highest repute even at the present day. The 
mountain ash is considered by them the most propitious of 
trees, and in fishing-boats a pin of this wood for fastening the 
halliard to has been held of indispensable necessity. Sprigs 
of mountain ash in diseases of cattle, &c, are considered a 
sovereign remedy. 

The peculiar circular growths of fungi which occur some- 
time in old pasture-land are familiar to all field naturalists. 
These were called fairy rings, and husbandmen used to avoid 
with superstitious reverence to till or destroy these circlets of 
bright green grass, which are believed to be the favourite 
ball-rooms of the fairies ; for, according to the appropriate 
rhyme, — 

" He wha tills the fairies' green 

Nae luck again shall hae ; 
And he wha spills the fairies' ring, 

Betid him want and wae. 
For weirdless days and weary nichts 

Are his till his deein' day." 

Whereas by the same authority, — 

" He wha gaes by the fairy ring 
Nae dule nor pine shall see ; 
And he wha cleans the fairy ring 
An easy death shall dee." 

There are many other topics which I have necessarily left 
untouched, for I fear I have already trespassed too long on 
your time, and I feel I have done but faint justice to a sub- 
ject which, for me at least, has a peculiar fascination, and 
which a skilful pen would render of more than passing 
interest. For the range of scientific knowledge is ever 

vol. rv. 2 b 

344 Some Foreign Birds I have kept. [Sess. 

widening, and under its influence in a few short years the 
simple legends of natural history, — the peculiar heritage of 
country children, — which have passed from generation on to 
generation, will gradually fade out of memory. It was only 
last summer that, listening to some children playing among 
themselves, I heard one being scolded for having killed a 
red spider, or "red sodger" — for in their innocence they 
believed that its slaughter would be followed by a "sunny 
shower." And who would like altogether to see such simple 
stories die out. Do we not rather like to picture the times 
such as are described by Longfellow in "Evangeline," when 
the old notary in amusing the children told — 

" How on Christmas Eve the oxen talked in the stable, 
And how the fever was cured by a spider shut up in a nut-shell, 
And of the marvellous power of the four-leaved clover and horse-shoe." 


{Read March 26, 1902.) 

I wish to-night to exhibit several foreign birds which I have 
kept, and to make a few remarks or notes on them. The first 
bird to which I will draw your attention is the Pekin robin 
(Liothrix luteus). It is called by dealers the Sun-bird, Lesser 
Pekin nightingale, or Japanese nightingale. The German 
name is " Sonnenvogel." This bird is a little larger than a 
cole tit. The back is olive brown, changing to an olive- 
yellowish tint at the head, and to greyish brown at the 
sides. The throat and breast are dark ; each wing-feather 
is edged with bright deep orange colour. The female is very 
similar to the male, and only to be distinguished by the orange 
tints being a shade less deep and a trifle less spread over the 
breast. China, Japan, and the Himalayas are the home of 
this bird. In India he is seldom found at a lesser altitude 

1901-1902.] Some Foreign Birds I have kept. 345 

than about 4000 or 5000 feet above the level of the sea. 
Hence the bird is not nearly so delicate as other Indian birds ; 
hardy as regards climatic influences, and content with almost 
any food. In the aviary he will be found feeding with the 
American robins and other soft-food birds, and again paying 
attention to the seed dishes, swallowing canary and millet seed 
entire. I have kept him with tanagers, and just now I have 
him in a cage with a pair of blackcaps. A piece of ripe fruit 
and a meal-worm are equally welcome to him. Currants 
mixed with his food he is very fond of. Even a little boiled 
rice will not come amiss. In the cage the bird cannot have 
too much variety of food. Even a few grains of hemp may 
be given, which the birds will, if the seeds be large, carry to 
a perch, hold daintily with their feet, and try to break by 
hammering with their coral-red soft beaks. Tbese birds are 
extremely fond of bathing — in fact, will take a dip several 
times a-day ; and almost incessantly will they be busy preen- 
ing and arranging their pretty feathers, until these are the 
very perfection of neatness and good order. Not the least of 
this bird's merits is that he never molests any other birds, 
large or small, and is a model of good behaviour in the aviary, 
whether kept singly or in pairs. Even several pairs do not 
apparently molest each other. Dr Euss first bred the Liothrix 
in captivity in 1874, and since then several successful broods 
have been recorded annually. The nest is rather inartistic, 
either in a bush or a ledge or in a nest-box or German cage. 
It consists of hay,, and grasses, with a few small feathers. 
About four bluish or greenish eggs, with brown or reddish 
spots, will be laid. The young appear less difficult to rear 
than those of other insectivorous birds, and resemble the old 
birds, except that the colours are faint and somewhat dull. 
These pretty birds can be bought for a few shillings a pair, 
and as they have very lively manners they make amusing 
cage pets. 

The next bird I show is the Avadavat or Amavude finch. 
This finch and the other two which I show belong to the 
Dwarf or Fancy Finches. These finches may be considered 
the foreign cage-birds par excellence, but it should be stated 
at once that very little is known of the life and habits of most 
of these little birds in their wild state, whilst a great mass of 

346 Some Foreign Birds I have kept. [Sess. 

information on their habits in the aviary has been collected by 
Dr Euss. These diminutive finches are found in Asia, Africa, 
and Australia, whilst no representative of their family has been 
discovered in America or Europe. In size they vary from that 
of our chaffinch down to something less than our smallest 
wren. These of all birds deserve the name of Love-birds. 
At the dealers' shops in London hundreds may be seen in 
one cage, sitting as close together as they can, trying to keep 
one another warm and lovingly arranging each other's feathers. 
At night they will be found either to occupy an artificial nest 
or to sit close to each other on a perch. As regards cages, it 
should be remembered that some which would safely hold a 
canary would allow the smallest of the foreign finches to 
escape. The wires of cages for foreign finches must not be 
more than five-eighths of an inch apart, and half an inch 
wire is better. 

Many people who never heard the name of any other foreign 
finch have heard of the " Avadavat " (Ustrelda Amandava). 
The dealer's name is Avadavat or Averdavat. The German 
name is " Tigerfink " or " Getigerter-Astrild." These little 
birds appear to have been casually sent to Europe many years 
ago, and arrive now in ever-increasing numbers. The Amavude 
finch is one of the smallest foreign finches, and is found in 
great numbers in British India and Java, where he lives on 
seeds, building a nest in October in low bushes or between the 
stems of high grasses. The nest is constructed of vegetable 
fibres, is completely covered over, and has an opening in the 
side. The eggs are white, like all the Estreldse : their usual 
number seems to be four. Gedney, in his ' Foreign Cage 
Birds,' says : — 

This bird is well known to all A.nglo-Indians, abounding as it does in 
the East Indian islands and India proper, and everywhere constituting 
himself a nuisance to the cultivators of land by the wanton destruction 
of seed. He is a tiny little fellow, about three inches long, thoroughly 
" game," as brilliant in his wedding clothes as a polished gem, glinting in 
the sunshine as he flits about amongst the tall herbage, and ever ready to 
pounce upon a rival and to do battle for the exclusive possession of his wee 
brown wife. His love note is remarkably clear and loud, resembling 
somewhat the liquid notes of our willow wren ; and no matter how 
numerous may be the occupants of your bird room, the Avadavat's song 
can always be distinguished above other songs. 

1901-1902.] Some Foreign Birds I have kept. 347 

The Avadavat is smaller than our smallest European wren, 
of slender build, and vivacious and graceful in his movements. 
His plumage is dark brown, with a carmine-red tint, and 
covered all over with small pearl-white spots. The female is 
more sober in her appearance, the back being brown and the 
chest, &c, a brownish-yellow tint. The white spots are visible 
also, but less numerous. Several pairs will live very peaceably 
together, and towards dusk they will all sit on the same 
perch, very close together, selecting generally the highest 
perch in the cage. At that time one and then another will 
suddenly raise itself and sing a little melodious stanza, settling 
down to sleep when it is over. The female will sing nearly 
as well as the male. 

The next bird is the Madagascar Bib or Dwarf finch — said 
to be one of the smallest of the finch family. I have only 
had this tiny bird in my possession for a few weeks, and 
regret that I can say very little about it. 

The Double-banded or Bicheno's finch is the next one I 
show. The Latin name is Estrelda Bichenovii. The dealer's 
name is Double-banded Finch. The German dealers' is " Bin- 
gelastrild " or " Gitterfliigel." Compared with the brilliant 
hues of other foreign finches, the double-banded finch appears 
at first sight very modestly attired. A pure silvery-white is 
the ground colour. The feathers are delicately pencilled with 
fine black lines or bars, which, when seen at a distance, give 
the bird a light silvery-grey appearance, but examined more 
closely, the plumage of this finch, one of the smallest of the 
Australian finches, is of great beauty and marvellous delicacy. 
The face, throat, breast, and the lower part of the body are 
white. A narrow black line, which crosses the throat, 
extends from ear to ear. A second black line across the 
lower breast runs parallel with the former, and gives the bird 
the name of double-banded finch. The wings are black, but 
the feathers have rows of white square spots, which on the 
dark ground appear something like a trellis. The Germans 
have named this bird, for this reason, " lattice wing." The 
beak is of silvery-grey tint, and the tail is black. The female 
bird cannot be distinguished from the male ; possibly the 
markings of the female may not be so sharply pencilled, but 
this may be due to age just as well as to sex, and there is no 

348 Some Foreign Birds I have kept. [Sess. 

distinguishing mark. The double-banded finches are more 
abundant in the southern and eastern portion of Australia 
than elsewhere, and there they are rarely met with except in 
the interior, congregating in small parties upon open grass 
plains, feeding on grass seeds and minute insects. Their 
favourite haunts being somewhat beyond the happy hunting- 
grounds of professional bird-catchers for the British market, 
these finches are seldom to be obtained in this country ; the 
few pairs which annually find their way over being readily 
bought up at high prices, Continental dealers always being 
ready to purchase any number of them. 

The next bird is the Long -tailed Grass finch (Poephilda 
acuticauda). This is another of the pointed tail finches also 
found in the northern portion of Australia. The bird here 
treated of is grey on the head and face ; the tail is black, and 
the two centre feathers extend beyond the rest to a point. 
The throat is black ; breast fawn colour. Total length, five 
inches. It is a very rare bird in England. From personal 
knowledge this is a very pretty, happy, and amiable bird, but 
one often meets with disappointment. At night the bird 
is bright, healthy, and lively. In the morning it is dead. 
This is caused, it is said, by a gradual drying up of the 
heart - organs through the eating of dry seeds. To avoid 
this the bird (in fact all the finches) should have always 
a head of Indian millet in their cage or aviary, or even 
the heads of ordinary wild grasses. 

The last bird which I exhibit is the Gouldian finch (Sper- 
mestes Gouldce). These lovely birds were named by Gould in 
memory of his wife, and they certainly deserve the foremost 
place in the ranks of Australian grass finches. He measures 
four inches in length, his upper body and wings of a rich 
green, beak ruby at base, face and throat velvet-black, sud- 
denly terminating in a broad, dazzling lilac band, which crosses 
the breast. There are two varieties, — what are popularly 
called the " red heads " and " black heads," the former 
being much higher in price. The female is very like 
the male in its colours, but is very much duller in 
tone. I may state that these beautiful birds were bred 
two years ago by an Edinburgh lady, for which she 

1901-1902.] A Winter in Cornwall. 349 

received a special award from the Avicultural Society. 
They were never known to have been reared before in 

At the above meeting Mr W. C. Crawford gave a short 
address, with lantern and microscopical illustrations, on " The 
Grasses, an Example of Nature Study," with special reference 
to one of the prizes for the encouragement of local Natural 
History offered by the Society. 



(Bead April 23, 1902.) 

It may seem somewhat presumptuous on my part, consid- 
ering the short time at my disposal, to attempt to describe 
such a curious and interesting county as Cornwall. As a 
matter of fact, it will not be possible to do more than 
touch the fringe of the subject at present; so in order to 
do this as concisely as may be, and to avoid prolixity, I 
have divided this paper into sections, which I shall take 
up one by one, in the hope that some of them may be 
of interest to the members of the Society. The first to 
be glanced at is the 

Scenery, Topography, and Climate. 

Since returning home I have been frequently asked, " How 
does the scenery of Cornwall compare with that of our 
own country of Scotland ? " The answer to that is, There 
is practically no comparison between them, as the outstanding 
features of each are quite diverse. True it is that in Corn- 
wall one discovers little glens running down to the sea-shore 
which call up reminiscences of similar scenes in the High- 
lands, but the Cornish ones are on a much smaller scale. 
Che county is hilly, but it cannot be called mountainous, 

350 A Winter in Cornwall, [Sess. 

as the highest elevation is not much above that of Arthur's 
Seat. In some parts there is a continuous succession of 
these rising grounds, and as the engineering of many of 
the roads leaves much to be desired, rising and falling as 
they do most abruptly, the impression is formed that 
Cornwall is a much hillier district than it really is. Men- 
tion having just been made of roads, it is safe to say — leaving 
out of the question the main highways — that narrower 
means of communication could not be found in Great Britain. 
Around the neighbourhood of Fowey, on the south coast, 
this was notably the case, most of the farm-roads being so 
confined within high hedges as to make it almost impossible 
to avoid running into a wandering horse or cow, much less 
of admitting two vehicles to cross each other. A feature 
of Cornwall is the tall hedgerows. These are not the least 
like ours at home. The bases are composed of high earthen 
and stone mounds combined, and on the sides of these 
mounds hart's -tongue ferns and a great variety of low- 
growing plants flourish luxuriantly, even in winter. On 
the top, again, of these roughly made erections stunted 
hazel bushes, brambles, &c, grow to a considerable height, 
shutting out the view on either side, so that when the 
track runs level you walk in a tunnel minus the roof. 
Where the stone -work of these mounds is bared, a curious 
style of building is revealed. For a time the rough blocks 
are laid horizontally, then perpendicularly, and often at an 
angle, this arrangement seeming to a certain extent to depend 
upon the size of the stones, those lying flat being, as a rule, 
larger than the others. 

Some districts are well, even richly, wooded, notably 
Bodmin Boad and its vicinity, Fowey, Falmouth, and Pen- 
zance ; but a great portion of the county is bare and tree- 
less, particularly in the Land's End and St Just direction, 
as well as about Newquay and most places on the north 
coast. In the parts sheltered from the fierce sea -winds, 
flowers and plants grow in profusion. In spring the woods 
are a mass of daffodils, lilies, and suchlike ; and even in 
February in not a few protected areas could be noticed 
flower -buds ready to burst open, while wallflower was in 
full blow. Subtropical plants and palms grow in the open 

1 901-1902.] A Winter in Cornwall. 351 

air at Falmouth and in the Morrab gardens at Penzance. 
As already said, large tracts of country are devoid of trees, 
being nothing but barren muirland covered with whin, 
bracken, and coarse grass, interspersed here and there with 
heather. Great boulders of granite stud these wastes, and 
when blackened by rain they give to the landscape a weird 
desolate appearance that would vie with some of our in- 
hospitable wildernesses, such as those of Lanarkshire or 
Eannoch. Add to this the circumstance of so many disused 
tin and copper mines, with their broken-down masonry and 
rotting machinery marring the prospect, and you have a 
picture in winter, or in bad weather, of utter God-forsaken- 
ness. Those muirs, however, are not without their redeeming 
features, as on sunshiny days, when the gorse is in full 
bloom and the brackens wave gracefully in the wind, a 
ramble over them, with the fine breeze blowing off the ocean, 
is not to be despised. "What perhaps increases their at- 
tractiveness, under the above conditions, is the frequency 
of those extraordinary freaks of nature in the shape of 
enormous eruptions as it were of granitic formation that 
seem to spring out of the ground in most unexpected fashion. 
Illustrations of these may be cited in the famous Cheese- 
wring, Helmen Tor, and Eoche Eocks ; but as attention 
will be called to them under the heading of " Antiquities, 
Churches, &c," they may be passed over at present. One 
thing that struck me most markedly was the supineness 
of the landed proprietors and tenantry in making little or 
no attempt to reclaim suitable portions of this waste ground. 
One explanation of this appears to be the fact that very 
little encouragement is given to tenants to trench and 
cultivate virgin soil, leases and compensation for improve- 
ments not being much in vogue, so that in reality the 
farmer has small inducement to add to his holding. It 
seems to me that were the Cornish proprietors to take 
an example from many of our Scottish lairds, wonders 
might be done. The land, when cleared of whins and 
rubbish, is good, the elevation above sea-level is not great, 
— not nearly the height on which corn grows in our less 
favoured country, — frost and snow are rare occurrences, 
and there is always a sufficiency of rain. If grain would 

352 A Winter in Cornwall. [Sess. 

not pay, vegetables might ; and now that the mining industry 
is at so low an ebb, it does seem strange that large tracts 
are permitted to lie dormant. 

As a contrast to the foregoing, there is one feature about 
Cornwall which compares favourably with our methods at 
home. I refer to the facilities offered to pedestrians for 
roaming across country. Footpaths over fields are numerous, 
granite crossing-stiles are provided to pass from field to 
field and from farm to farm, and it is no exaggeration to 
say that around Penzance alone miles and miles of delightful 
walking can be done through fields, with only an occasional 
crossing of a high-road. Compare this with the state of 
matters in Scotland. Let any one be rash enough to move 
off the beaten track in order to take a short cut across a 
field or meadow : if observed, he is subjected to vituperation 
of an offensive kind by some irate agriculturist or his 
myrmidons, and the trespasser may consider himself lucky 
if he regains the turnpike without having the impress of 
a collie -dog's teeth on the calf of his leg. A stringent 
law of trespass exists in England ; that in Scotland is 
practically nil : why, therefore, the freedom in the former 
country, and the restriction in the latter ? The reason is 
obvious : numerous opportunities are given in England 
for people to walk vid bypaths away from the highways, 
therefore there is no inducement to trespass : in Scotland, 
few of these facilities exist, and, being deprived of the 
privilege, people are more apt to wander where they should 
not. You all know the old Scottish saying, " It's an ill 
bird that files its ain nest," and personally, I should not 
like to incur the odium of slandering my own countrymen, 
but a love for truth compels me to say that English people, 
as a rule, are not nearly so destructive of trees, plants, and 
property generally, as the baser sorts of Scotsmen are, — 
hence the reluctance of landowners to throw open their 
grounds to the public in this our native land. As this 
subject, however, is somewhat controversial, it need not be 
enlarged upon. 

Cornwall's finest feature is its rocky coasts. These are 
very rugged, and although the cliffs do not attain to anything 
like the height of the Caithness or Sutherlandshire headlands, 

1 901-1902.] A Winter in Cornwall. 353 

still they are very grand. The prevailing rock is granite, 
chiefly grey, although, of course, there are a great many others, 
such as felspar, porphyry, slate, limestone, serpentine, &c. On 
the south coast there are hardly any beaches, the English 
Channel lapping the base of the cliffs, so that one cannot walk 
comfortably along the shore, even at low tide ; but numerous 
little coves occur here and there, many of which give shelter 
to fishing boats, besides being utilised as lifeboat and coast- 
guard stations. Perhaps the two prettiest of these natural 
harbours are those of Looe and Fowey, on the sides of which 
are built the towns of the same names. At Fowey the tide 
finds its way inland in sinuous fashion about eight miles to 
Lostwithiel, and branching off this tidal river are several 
creeks, the hills sloping down to the shores being beautifully 
wooded, with quaint little hamlets, and some fine churches 
peeping out at intervals. Apple-orchards are very common, 
and a fair trade seems to be done in fruit for consumption, as 
well as for the manufacture of cider — a sour kind, different 
from the sweet variety made in Devonshire. The Fowey river 
and harbour form together, to my mind, one of the prettiest 
parts of Cornwall ; and the town itself is decidedly quaint 
and most interesting, although where the coast is dotted with 
so many choice little retreats, it is not easy to pick out the 
best, as, after all, it resolves itself into a matter of taste. 
Many of the fishing- villages, particularly Polperro, are most 
picturesque : the houses are shot down on the steep slopes 
without any regard to order or uniform design, and from the 
windows of those higher up one can look down the chimneys 
of the cottages below. The so-called streets are, in some 
instances, no wider than an Edinburgh High Street close, and 
turn and twist in the most perplexing fashion. 

Time does not permit, however, of any lengthened descrip- 
tion of the numerous towns and villages : in a word, therefore, 
let it be said that the larger places do not present any out- 
standing features of interest; always excepting the churches, 
and it is to the smaller villages and hamlets that a visitor 
must turn if he wishes to make acquaintance with the unique 
and more old-world aspect of Cornwall. The houses, being 
almost entirely built of grey granite, have, particularly on a wet 
day, a cold and forbidding look, and possess none of the cheery, 

354 -^ Winter in Cornwall. [Sess. 

bright appearance of the wooden-fronted and creeper-covered 
cottages of the Midlands of England. Like many of our 
Scottish houses, substantiality is the first consideration, orna- 
mentation, either in design or floral adornment, being of 
secondary importance. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, 
they have a charm of their own, and will well repay one for 
the time spent in hunting them up. 

Eeturning to the cliff scenery, the rocks about the Lizard 
Point and Land's End district are perhaps the finest on the 
south coast. The granite takes the most fantastic shapes, and 
at a distance one would almost be justified in supposing that 
portions were placed in position by some of the ancient giants, 
who, if we are to believe the story of ' Jack the Giant-Killer ' 
which charmed our youthful minds, inhabited the district long 
ago. Some of the formations strongly resemble medieval 
castles, and especially is this the case at Castle Treryn, where 
the far-famed Logan Eock is situated. The north coast, while 
equally rugged, has the additional advantage of possessing 
magnificent sandy beaches, those about the Newquay district 
being wonderfully fine ; while, to add to the amenity, the high 
cliffs are honeycombed with caves, some of them of enormous 
size. These caves were a perfect godsend to smugglers in the 
old days, when almost every man along the coast was engaged 
in the forbidden traffic, and many a stirring event has no doubt 
been enacted along that rock-bound shore, when cargoes of 
wine, brandy, lace, silk, &c, were being run in from France 
and other Continental countries. Another pleasant little 
pastime indulged in by the old Cornishmen was that of 
" wrecking," and here again these caves came in handy as 
hiding-places and storehouses. In one of the larger caves 
near Newquay concerts are often held, and some of our most 
famous operatic singers have been among the performers. 

There is a great want of wood on the north coast, and the 
inland scenery is not nearly so fine as that of the south. The 
tide rushes in with great rapidity, and one has to be extremely 
careful about wandering at the base of the rocks, as should the 
sea overtake the luckless pedestrian there is no hope of escape 
save by climbing the cliffs, which, even at the easiest point, 
are most difficult to scale. 

As may naturally be supposed, boating enters largely into 

1901-1902.J A Winter in Cornwall. 355 

the pleasures of the Cornish folks, and in towns like Fowey 
almost every householder owns a boat of some kind or other. 
Besides the usual method of allowing such to float in the 
harbour, attached to chains which are fixed to an iron ring at 
the bottom of the sea, some residenters have erections like 
masts on the top of their garden walls, with ropes that run 
round with a pulley at the end, and to these ropes the craft is 
fixed. When it is desired to draw the boat to the foot of the 
stone stairs that run down to the water's edge, all they have 
to do is to loosen the rope from the cleek on the pole and haul 
in the vessel hand over hand. The only reason for mentioning 
this plan is to explain that locally this apparatus is called 
" frapes," the derivation of which word I cannot discover. At 
first sight it looks like a corruption of the French f rapper, but 
the English meaning of the word does not bear out that 
hypothesis. Possibly it may be a relic of the extinct Cornish 

As is matter of history, constant fighting used to take place 
between the Cornish and Continental nations, chiefly the 
French and Spanish, and to guard against the incursions of 
these enemies, a series of small castles or blockhouses were 
built along the rocky coasts. Numerous ruins of these still 
exist, and at Fowey itself there are remains of three. Between 
the one on the Fowey side and the other at Polruan, a small 
town opposite, tradition has it that a heavy iron chain was 
stretched across the water so as to impede the passage of 
hostile vessels. A link of this chain, believed to be genuine, 
is preserved in that most singular construction known as 
" The Grotto," at Pridmouth Cove, a few miles along the coast 
from Fowey. In our day blockhouses — which, by the way, 
are somewhat similar in shape to our Scottish peel-towers — 
have given place to coastguard stations, and these to a certain 
extent supply the material to man that Navy of which all 
loyal Britons are justifiably so proud. 

Before passing on to the next division of our subject, a few 
words anent the climate may not be amiss. Comparing it 
with Scotland, it is, naturally, from the geographical position 
of the country, much milder, but in winter this undoubted 
gain is neutralised by the heavy rainfall. All winters are 
not, of course, so humid as the one I spent there, which was 

356 A Winter in Cornwall. [Sess. 

exceptionally bad ; but still, even under the most favourable 
circumstances, there are frequent downpours, which turn the 
narrow roads into sloughs of despond and make them impass- 
able for pedestrians. In fact, the " clartiness," to use a familiar 
Scottish word, is inconceivable. When not raining, there is, 
as compensation, an amount of sunshine quite absent from 
Scotland, and one can sit out of doors on most dry days with- 
out wrapping up. Vegetables, such as cauliflower and broccoli, 
can be got from the fields in January, and lambs are to be seen 
running about during the same month. Potatoes do not require 
to be pitted, nor cattle wintered indoors, and what snow and 
frost occurs is of very short duration. Occasional snaps of 
chilly weather are experienced when the wind veers to the 
east or north-east, and there is a decided difference between 
the temperature of the south and north coasts — the latter 
being much the more bracing of the two as well as drier. 
The rainiest " airt " is from the south and south-west, and 
the storms that blow inland from the Channel are sometimes 
of terrific violence. Spring is, from all accounts, the best time 
to visit Cornwall — from March till the end of May, when 
flowers and vegetation generally are at their freshest, and 
before the great heat of summer makes locomotion a toil. 
Let me warn any intending visitor, however, not to go there 
with the idea of viewing magnificent panoramas such as are 
to be had in the Highlands of Scotland or in North Wales. 
The scenery is tamer, and completely different from those 
localities, but, all the same, it has a charm of its own, and 
is by no means to be despised. 

Enough has been said to give a cursory idea of what the 
country is like, so let me go on now to the second division — 

The People, Customs, Etc. 

The pure Cornish are, as is well known, Celts, being ap- 
parently more allied to the Cymric or Welsh than to the Irish 
or Scottish Gaelic-speaking races. Many of the names of 
places have a similarity to those found in Wales. To take 
one instance only, the prefix " Lan " is very common, evidently 
the same as the " Llan " prevalent in the more northern country. 
The ancient language is, of course, dead, and from what can be 

1901-1902.] A Winter in Cornwall. 357 

gathered, few remains of its literature, either in manuscript or 
in print, exist, but some of the words used by the people to- 
day are no doubt remnants of the extinct tongue. The great 
majority of the population are dark in hair and complexion, 
light or red hair being very unusual, and are stoutly built, 
somewhat after the Dutch type. The men are not very tall, 
but are broad-shouldered, muscular, steady fellows, and, as 
previously mentioned, Cornwall is a splendid recruiting-ground 
for our Navy, not forgetting those equally brave heroes who, 
carrying their lives in their hands, do not hesitate to " man the 
lifeboat " when occasion requires. 

It would hardly be possible to come across people more 
obliging, civil, and respectful than the working and farming 
orders in the country districts ; and there is an absence of 
that hateful, independent boorishness that is unfortunately to 
be met with in so many places of Great Britain among a 
similar class. Of course there are, as everywhere, exceptions 
to this rule, but they are not numerous. The smaller centres 
of population, however, in common with most little provincial 
towns in England and Scotland, are not free from the infliction 
of that insignificant coterie who visit only among their own 
set, think themselves superior to all other residents and visitors, 
and justly merit a place in Thackeray's ' Book of Snobs.' It 
is somewhat amusing to watch the airs of these gentry as they 
pass along the thoroughfares, or attend church, concerts, &c. 
To use a French phrase, it is a case of " le nez retrousseV' 
coupled with a thanking of the Almighty that they are not as 
other folks. There is a considerable foreign element in the 
county, many sailors of various nationalities having settled 
down from time to time, intermarrying with native women, 
and their descendants still bear unmistakable traces of Con- 
tinental origin in their features, &c. In Fowey, several families 
of the name of Vargo exist, and those claim descent from a 
shipwrecked mariner of the ill-fated Spanish Armada. 

Living is fairly cheap, and if one resided permanently there, 
a much smaller income would suffice to keep things going than 
is required in Edinburgh. Visitors, however, as is almost uni- 
versally the case, have to pay more than residents for house 
accommodation and food, while house rent is high ; but even 
at the enhanced prices, provisions are much less than at home, 

35§ A Winter in Cornwall. [Sess. 

with the single exception of fish, which are abnormally dear. 
Potatoes are sold in the shops by the gallon, which, as a school- 
boy can tell us, is a measure of capacity as well as a liquid 
measure. It sounds a little strange to Scottish ears to pur- 
chase potatoes by the gallon, but such being the fact, it is 
almost permissible to expect that whisky could be bought 
by the peck ! 

The Cornish are decidedly musical, and during the winter 
months concerts are got up in the various towns for all sorts of 
charitable purposes, as well as for the benefit of athletic clubs 
and other objects, and it is surprising how excellent is the talent 
displayed by the amateur performers. Cornwall has also not 
been behind-hand in producing professional talent. Mention 
need only be made of Madame Fanny Moody as one instance 
of this. 

Two virtues appertaining to Cornish folks, that cannot fail 
to strike a stranger, are their honesty and temperance, — not 
that these attributes are by any means confined to that remote 
part of England, but except in places where the tourist element 
has spoiled a certain section of the people, the trading class are 
found to be fair and just in their dealings, and excess in liquor 
among the native population is a very rare occurrence. Most 
of the farmers are of the working class, there not being many 
of what are known as gentlemen farmers with capital, and the 
holdings are generally small. The word " croft " occurs, and 
is somewhat similar in meaning to that in vogue in our High- 
lands. A peculiarly shaped spade is used, and is, I believe, 
confined to Devon and Cornwall. This is a broad heart-shaped 
looking article, coming to a sharp point, and lying almost flat, 
not upright like the ordinary implement. The shaft is from 
five to six feet long, and bent like a low arch, the idea evidently 
being to reduce the back-bending of the user to a minimum. 
It seemed to work well among soft ground, but did not appear 
to be of much utility in turning over hard soil. 

We now come to the third division of our remarks on 
Cornwall — viz., its 


As far back as its history goes, Cornwall's greatest industry 
has been mining — viz., tin, copper, and iron, besides other less 

1901-1902.] A Winter in Cornwall. 359 

familiar minerals in smaller quantities. By the way, there is 
a very fine collection of specimens of these in the Truro 
Museum well worth inspecting. Nowadays, while it cannot 
be said that this source of wealth is dried up, yet the industry 
is a mere shadow of its former self. About Camborne and 
Eedruth district several mines, notably Dolcoath, are still 
working, also in the Carradon neighbourhood ; but towards 
St Just only one mine, the Levant, is in use. The workings 
of this last run a long way below the sea, as did those of the 
famous Botallack mine in the immediate vicinity. No more 
saddening spectacle can be seen anywhere than in different 
directions presents itself to the eye, — emblems of ruin in the 
shape of broken-down masonry, rotting machinery, tumble- 
down chimney-stalks, and shafts filled with water, speaking to 
a vast amount of capital sunk, and to a wage-earning com- 
munity deprived of their daily bread, and forced to scatter to 
the four winds of heaven. Many of the old miners emigrated 
to Johannesburg, and were doing well until the war in South 
Africa compelled them to become refugees. It is satisfactory 
to know, however, that many are now returning to the sphere 
of their former labours. In the district north of Liskeard the 
ruinous condition of things was markedly noticeable. Where, 
not so long ago, hundreds found employment, not a soul was 
to be seen — nothing but disused workings, and huge heaps of 
refuse cast up from the mines upon which practically no 
vegetation grew. The evening I passed through was calculated 
to increase the depressing appearance, as a thick mist was 
drifting along the hill -sides, accompanied by, at intervals, 
blinding showers of rain, the whole prospect forcibly reminding 
one of some of Gustave Dora's masterpieces. Apropos of this 
subject, tradition says that the oldest mine is that known as 
the " Ding-Dong," which is supposed to have been worked before 
the birth of our Saviour. This statement is only given for 
what it is worth, to prove such an assertion not being an easy 
matter. "Whether the Cornish mines may ever be resuscitated, 
so as to defy foreign competition, is a problem that need not 
be here discussed. 

It is a trite remark that when one industry dies, another 
springs up to take its place, and this is providentially the case 
in Cornwall. China or white clay — the kaolin of commerce — 

VOL. iv. 2 C 

360 A Winter in Cornwall. [Sess. 

is now a flourishing and, let us hope, increasing branch of 
trade. Experts tell us that this substance is largely the 
resultant of decomposed granite, its headquarters being in the 
St Austell district. Unlike coal, iron, &c., it is not secured by- 
sinking long shafts, but is dug out of the open, just as stone is 
in quarries. Some of these excavations are of enormous size, 
and contain zigzag paths for the workmen to pass up and 
down. The clay is pumped up by powerful engines, and then 
goes through a variety of washing processes to free it from the 
gritty granite, until ultimately it is turned out in blocks, as 
white as chalk, to be shipped to a great many parts of the world. 
It is used for filling cotton, as well as in the manufacture of the 
finer kinds of pottery, while a large quantity goes to paper- 
mills to assist in the production of paper. On a very minute 
scale this same material, dished up with a little scented matter, 
is sold as tooth-powder. The chief shipping-ports are Par and 
Fowey, and at the latter place vessels of nearly all the Euro- 
pean nationalities congregate for loading purposes. There is 
besides an inexhaustible supply of granite, and this stone 
forms a considerable source of revenue. The grey colour 
predominates, something like the Aberdeen variety, but red 
sorts are not uncommon, including porphyry and many others 
to which I cannot give a name. The serpentine rock at the 
Lizard is, when polished, most beautiful, containing as it does 
so many different shades ; but, save for the making of orna- 
ments, it is not of much use commercially speaking. 

Pig-breeding is not despised by the Cornish folks, but more 
for supplying local demand than for export ; and vegetable and 
flower culture bulk largely in the industries of the county. 
As already hinted, far more could be done in this way if a 
little more energy and capital were forthcoming. A large 
business is also done in fish, the greater bulk of the takes 
being sent to London, Plymouth, and other large centres of 
population. Pilchards are caught in great quantities, and, 
after being preserved, are sent abroad, chiefly to Italy. For 
the benefit of those who are not familiar with this particular 
fish, it may be stated that a pilchard in size is midway 
between a sardine and a herring, and travels in shoals similar 
to the last named. Unlike herrings, however, they are not 
gutted, but put into strong salt for several days just as they 

1 901-1902.] A Winter in Cornwall. 361 

come out of the sea, and then packed tightly into barrels for 
transmission to the markets. Along the coasts one runs 
across curious little stone towers like miniature castles. 
These are known as " huer's houses," and were erected as 
places of vantage from which to watch the advent of the 
shoals. When these were sighted the watcher raised the hue 
and cry, and out went the fleet of fishing boats. The word 
" huer " is, I am told, synonymous with " crier." 

We now come to the last division of our subject — viz., 

Antiquities, Churches, Etc. 

This is far and away the most interesting aspect of Cornwall, 
especially to those imbued with antiquarian tastes ; but even 
people who have no special leanings in that direction cannot 
fail to derive pleasure from viewing the fine old churches, the 
ancient cromlechs, barrows, camps, and other remains, that 
take us back to a very remote period in British history. It 
is safe to say that no county in England can boast of so 
many relics of the past, and attention will now be called, as 
briefly as possible, to a few of these. Let us take the churches 
to start with. Many of these are dedicated to saints seldom 
heard of elsewhere, bearing curious names, a small number of 
which may be quoted as samples — viz., St Winnow, St Fim- 
barrus, St Sampson, St Marnarch, St Petroc, St Blaise, St 
Levan, and St Julitta ; while here is a curious fellow to wind 
up with, St Veep. These form a mere sprinkling of the 
saintly characters whose names are still perpetuated in stone 
and lime : in fact, if it were possible to manufacture a hagio- 
logical automatic machine, a few turns of the handle would 
result in the ejection of an assorted gross of the finest saints 
in the calendar. Old churches spring up everywhere, some of 
them in very ruinous condition, — notably Lanteglos, near 
Polruan, — while others are in good preservation. They are, as 
a rule, built of granite, and are not all externally beautiful, 
although some, such as St Austell and Fowey parish churches, 
and others that could be named, are singularly fine in their 
carving. It would take a long time to describe these, so a 
very few general remarks must suffice. Those whose interiors 
have not been modernised and ruined by whitewash and other 

362 A Whiter in Cornwall. [Sess. 

vandalistic processes are, of course, the most interesting, and 
some of the old oak -carvings on the wagon roofs and pew 
ends, albeit of a rude type, are really worth studying. In a 
few the carved chancel-screens still exist, with faded remains 
of coloured pictures of Scriptural events painted on the panels. 
Others, again, have armorial bearings still visible on the ends 
of the box-shaped pews; and in one church there were numbers 
of wooden boards, like escutcheons, fastened to the walls and 
pillared arches, with illuminated texts painted on them. 
Many mural monuments exist, as well as memorial slabs on 
the floors : some of the former are quite unique in design, the 
various materials employed in their construction being alabaster, 
marble, varieties of granite, slate, and even wood painted to 
represent stone. One evidently was intended for a delineation 
of the last day ; while another consisted of three tiers of dumpy 
wooden images like Chinese gods, probably portraying three 
generations. In the parish church of Lostwithiel is a small 
alabaster carving intended to show the flaying of St Bartholo- 
mew, after whom the church is called : one can see a fellow 
deliberately skinning the martyr with a small knife. These 
examples could be added to indefinitely. In a few of the 
sacred edifices were old dilapidated boards in the belfry con- 
taining instructions to the bellringers, some of them in doggerel 
rhyme of the worst type. In St Cleer parish church, near 
Liskeard, various things were specified that these individuals 
were to avoid, such as quarrelling, striking, and swearing, 
under a penalty of sixpence for each offence. Truly the bell- 
ringers of olden times would appear to have been rather a 
rowdy lot! 

Before passing from the churches to other antiquities, one 
peculiarity may be brought under notice. In two, if not more, 
were remains of what is called " The Leper's Squint." To 
understand what this means, we must go back to days, happily 
departed, when that loathsome disease leprosy was not so very 
uncommon in Britain. Tne wretched sufferers, while pre- 
vented from mixing with ordinary mortals, were not entirely 
debarred the consolation of religious devotions, and were ad- 
mitted into churches by a side door and allowed to stand or 
sit in a space apart from the audience, probably screened off. 
To permit of them seeing the priest at the altar, a slanting 

PLATE XXXII. -A Winter in Cornwall. 

PLATE XXXIII. -A Winter in Cornwall. 

1901-1902.] A Winter in Cornwall. 363 

opening was cut in the wall, and through this slit the unfor- 
tunates could see and hear what was going on without giving 
offence to their healthier neighbours in the building. 

Numerous examples of those historical instruments of igno- 
miny, the stocks, are to be found lying about the porches and 
belfries : fortunately they are merely objects of antiquarian 
interest nowadays. Granite crosses are of common occurrence 
all over the county, not only in churchyards, but at the 
junction of roads, many of them bearing weather-beaten traces 
of carving : some are very tall, others dumpy, and a few are 
erected on the top of a series of steps composed of the same 
material. What are commonly called " Standing-stones " crop 
up everywhere, some being as high as sixteen feet above ground, 
pointing, of course, to the fact that they go down into the 
earth to a considerable distance as well. Another antiquity of 
frequent occurrence in lonely parts is what is known, presum- 
ably for want of a better name, as the " Druidical circle." I 
ran across some very perfect specimens of these, the finest of 
which was " Boscawen-un " in the vicinity of Penzance. As you 
will observe from the illustration (Plate XXXII.), it consists of 
nineteen stones, — the same number as in another good example 
in St Buryan neighbourhood designated "The Merry Maidens," 
but with the addition of a twentieth in the centre. This one 
lies in a slanting direction, but whether this has been done of 
set purpose or the stone has slipped over is matter of conjec- 
ture. Around these monuments of a bygone age clings a halo 
of superstition, and the story goes that the huge unchiselled 
blocks were once men or women turned into stone for some 
heinous sin committed. Notably is this the case in a circle 
near the Cheesewring bearing the name of " The Hurlers." 
Tradition says that a set of men were playing at ball on 
Sunday, and were turned into granite as a punishment. 
The game in Cornwall is known as " hurling," and 
from what I could gather it seems to be something 
like a pastime which gave intense delight in our youthful 
days, and which, in Edinburgh at least, bore the name 
of "dully." 

Another fascinating antiquity distributed fairly evenly over 
the county is the cromlech, or " Quoit " as it is termed locally, 
supposed to mark the burial-place of some notability crumbled 

364 A Winter in Cornwall. [Sess. 

into dust centuries ago. It consists of upright stones, varying in 
height in different localities, with a huge block laid flat on the 
top. How these were put in position I do not profess to know, 
but that they were erected by the hand of man is evident, their 
construction being quite different from those wonderful freaks 
of nature such as the Cheesewring, &c, to be noticed immedi- 
ately. One of the largest and finest of these cromlechs is 
what is called "The Trevethy Stones," near Liskeard (Plate 
XXXIII.) ; but what perhaps exemplifies their construction 
more aptly, though on a smaller scale, is the famous " Lanyon 
Quoit," about five miles from Penzance (Plate XXXIV.), and 
the almost equally famous " Chun Quoit," also near Penzance 
(Plate XXXV.) In the same neighbourhood as the Lanyon 
cromlech are other two objects of great interest. One is the 
" Men Scryfa " or inscribed stone, bearing a set of deeply cut 
letters which a little trouble can decipher ; and the second 
is the " Men-an-tol " or Crickstone (Plate XXXVL), the most 
bizarre curiosity in the county, so far as came under my per- 
sonal observation. The Crickstone proper is a large round 
stone shaped like a ring, about three to three and a half feet 
in diameter, standing on end, and containing in the centre a 
circular hole about a foot and a half wide. On each side, 
roughly about eight feet off, are two upright masses rising 
about three feet from the ground. What this strange relic of 
the past was originally intended to represent is hard to say, 
but in later days a use was found for the Crickstone itself. 
The superstitious believed that certain diseases could be cured 
by thrusting the unfortunate patient through the hole. This 
operation may have worked well enough if the person operated 
upon was thin in body ; but when the obese had to be dealt 
with, the wretched victim was usually sent to his or her long 
home during the process. On the top of the hill near by are 
the ruins of the famous Ding-Dong mine already mentioned. 

The British circular camp is a familiar object, and, just as 
in Scotland, is here found on the summit of an eminence. 
Probably the best example is the Castle-an-Dinas, a few miles 
from Penzance, which is about 86 yards in diameter; but 
another very good one is Chun Castle, and this measured 
about 50 yards across. Mention may also be made of Castle 
Dore, near Fowey, a good specimen, but woefully spoilt by 

PLATE XXXIV.-A Winter in Cornwall. 

t ' ' 


PLATE XXXV. -A Winter in Cornwall. 

1 901-1902.] A Winter in Cornwall. 365 

dense masses of whin, bracken, &c, which cover up the for- 
mation. This old camp was utilised by the Parliamentary- 
forces who opposed King Charles in 1644. In almost every 
instance all these prehistoric remains stand in wild and barren 
districts, far from towns and villages. In all likelihood those 
that existed elsewhere would be destroyed during the march 
of civilisation, as few are to be seen in the cultivated 

Another most interesting antiquity, of which a few examples 
are still extant, is what, judging from the ruinous remains, is 
conjectured to have been a kind of village or settlement, con- 
sisting of rude stone huts communicating with each other by 
means of narrow passages. The two which I had the pleasure 
of examining were Chysoyster, and one near Caer Brane and 
Chapel Uny, whose name has escaped my memory, — the latter, 
if anything, better preserved than the former. The dense mass 
of vegetation that has been allowed to overgrow these struct- 
ures hides to a large extent the original ground-plan, and this 
again is a case of lack of interest on the part of the proprietors 
and the public generally. The expenditure of a moderate sum 
of money would go a long way towards clearing out the 
rubbish, and helping to preserve a few, at least, of these 
memorials, which in this progressive age are fast becoming 
a vanishing quantity. Some attempt at excavation has un- 
doubtedly taken place at the example near Caer Brane, 
and a few of the underground passages, roofed over with 
immense slabs after the style of the galleries in the 
Highland brochs, have been cleared out, as also a circular 
chamber, roofless now, whatever it may have been in its 
pristine state. Not far from this place is a fine specimen 
of the bee - hive shaped hut, probably used as a place of 

Holy wells must at one time have played an important 
part in the history of Cornwall, as divers instances of these 
may be discovered all over. Most of them were connected 
with baptisteries, more or less crumbling to ruin now, save 
where some philanthropic individual, or body of individuals, 
have stepped in and prevented further decay by a judicious 
tinkering up or rebuilding. Numberless were the marvellous 
cures of sundry complaints that were effected upon sufferers 

366 A Winter in Cornwall. [Sess. 

coming to drink or get bathed in the waters, accompanied 
by some priestly mummery to add celebrity to the 

Mention has been made of such freaks of nature as the 
Cheesewring, Helmen Tor, Roche Eocks, &c, and I am fain to 
confess myself somewhat at a loss how to describe them so as 
to bring their general appearance to the mind's eye of those 
who have not witnessed such strange vagaries. Conceive to 
yourselves huge, unchiselled, shapeless masses of granite 
shooting out of the level, and suggesting the idea that they 
had been thrown out of the bowels of the earth during some 
extraordinary convulsion of nature, piled one on top of 
another, small blocks supporting others twenty times their 
size and weight to a bewildering extent. Many of these 
stones are of an enormous size, weighing several tons, and the 
question is, How did they get into their present position? To 
look at them, one would think a good push would be sufficient 
to knock the larger blocks off the smaller ; but in reality, though 
top-heavy to appearance, they are so firmly fixed that nothing 
less than dynamite or a regiment of soldiers would move 
them, and even then the latter would have their work cut out 
for them. The only theory I have ever heard advanced that 
savours of feasibility is, that after the great upheaval centuries 
of rain and tempest washed away the surrounding soil and left 
the lumps just as they were when underground. This may be 
right or it may be wrong, but the idea need not be pursued 
further. The group in the Carradon district, of which the 
famous Cheesewring (Plate XXXVII.) forms a small part, is 
perhaps the finest example, and to see this to perfection a wild, 
wet, misty day is the best, although possibly not the most com- 
fortable. To observe the " haar " driving in clouds across 
the muir, every now and then being cleared off by a gust of 
wind so as to reveal the enormous stones standing out in relief 
against the sky, has a solemn and weird effect, and gives a 
much better notion of their magnitude than can be obtained 
through the medium of bright sunshine. It can quite easily 
be imagined that, among piled-up masses such as these, stones 
may be found poised in such positions as to be capable of 
being slightly moved by an exercise of more or less strength. 
These are known as " Logans " or rocking-stones, and many 

PLATE XXXVI. -A Winter in Cornwall. 

PLATE XXXVII. -A Winter in Cornwall. 


1901-1902.] Geological History of the Coast of Fife. 367 

examples are pointed out to visitors. Some of these are 
genuine, in so far as they can be made to oscillate slightly ; 
but others are frauds, and only to be believed in by the ultra- 

In conclusion, let me merely reiterate what has already 
been said, that it is not possible to do justice to this subject 
in one paper ; but if any members of the Society should con- 
template visiting this outlying part of South Britain, it will be 
a pleasure to me to afford them every information in my 
power, so as to direct them to what I consider the salient 
features of this most interesting county. 



Of the Geological Survey, F.G.S., F.Z.S., 

Custodian of the Collections of Scottish Geology and 

Mineralogy in the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art. 

(April 23, 1902.) 

Probably one of the very finest sections of the Lower Carbon- 
iferous rocks exposed in Britain is that seen on the coast 
from near Colinswell, west of Burntisland, to the harbour at 
Kirkcaldy. A short account of its history may therefore be 
of interest to the Edinburgh Field Naturalists. The subject 
may be understood more easily if an outline of the general 
features in the history of the rocks there be given first, and this 
be made subordinate to a description of what is actually 
to be seen. 

Following upon the long period of continental conditions 
with an arid climate which prevailed while the volcanic rocks 
of the Ochils and Sidlaws were being formed, there ensued a 

368 Geological History of the Coast of Fife. [Sess. 

period of great terrestrial disturbance, during which much of 
the rock-material previously formed was removed by denuda- 
tion. If we may judge by the thickness of rock removed 
during this period it must have been one of immense length, 
seeing that the whole of the Caledonian Old Eed and much of 
the Orcadian was wasted away in the interval. If, as we 
seem to be justified in doing, the aggregate thickness of these 
rocks is estimated at over thirty thousand feet, and the waste 
proceeded at a rate as high as one foot in tivo thousand years, 
instead of the usual standard, one in six, the period works out 
at sixty million years. 

Following this period of waste, there commenced a second 
period of arid conditions, with Britain (or a large part of it) under 
continental conditions as before. It was the desert sands, the 
wady deposits, and the sediments deposited upon the floors of 
the inland lakes of this period which combined to build up the 
Upper Old Eed — those sandstones which lie unconformably 
upon the volcanic rocks of the Ochils, and whose soft outcrops 
now form the Howe of Fife. Near the close of the period in 
question the whole land began to subside, and the arid climate 
of former times gave place to climatal conditions of a much 
more humid character. Plants, which had been conspicuous 
by their absence in the earlier period referred to, now began 
to flourish under the more genial climate, animals of various 
kinds gradually spread over the changing surface, and a new 
order of things commenced. 

Presently the land began to be lowered beneath the sea — 
the part where Edinburgh and Tweedside now are being the 
first to disappear. Sediments began to accumulate over the 
old floor of desert-formed rocks, and the lower beds of the 
Lower Carboniferous rocks were spread out over all the part 
submerged. But no part of Fife was under water until a later 
period. Long before that event occurred what is now Fife 
consisted of a rising ground far above sea level, with a con- 
siderable hill formed of Upper Old Eed Sandstone over the 
area where the Lomonds of Fife and the adjoining Howe of 
Fife are now. In the meantime, the Edinburgh volcano — 
that from which came the volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat, the 
Calton Hill, and Craiglockhart Hills — had slowly raised its 
head above the waters, and, in course of time, had grown up 

1 901-1902.] Geological History of the Coast of Fife. 369 

to be a volcano as large as Vesuvius, with a big parasitic cone 
on its eastern flank, where Arthur's Seat stands now. Eventu- 
ally, this important volcano ceased to erupt, and finally died out 
as the land continued to sink. Soon after this event estuarine 
sediments began to be deposited upon the slopes of the Old 
Eed Sandstone hill in Fife, and the sandstones seen below 
Grange, around Colinswell, and to the east of Aberdour were 
laid down. These are part of the Granton Sandstone Series. 
By this time volcanic action, quieted down in the Lothians, 
had begun to break out in Fife. A series of small cones 
formed the starting-point of larger volcanoes — in some cases 
dying out as the points of eruption changed their position. 
One of these abortive attempts at building up a volcano was 
met with in the course of some workings to the west of 
Grange, where the baby volcano was found, smothered in bed, 
as it were, by a great pile of sandstones which had been heaped 
upon it. 

As the land continued to sink other sediments were formed, 
each one spreading over a larger area than the one that pre- 
ceded it — the hill forming what is now the Howe of Fife in 
the meantime rising far above the water. At this stage the 
remarkable and widespread deposit known as the Burdiehouse 
Limestone was formed. It is not, I think, directly of organic 
origin, but is really a mixture of chemically-precipitated car- 
bonate of lime (with some dolomite) and carbonaceous matter, 
in nature allied to oil-shale. Soon after this we find evidence 
that the great series of Oil Shale Beds, whose hydrocarbon is 
of so much importance in the Lothians, gradually accumulated 
in the estuary as the land continued to subside. Still the 
Howe of Fife eminence stood above the waters. It is these 
Oil Shale rocks, as I pointed out many years ago, which form 
the great series of strata seen along the Fife coast from St 
Andrews, past the East Neuk of Fife to near St Monans, and 
which are also seen around Burntisland and Kinghorn. Early 
in this period volcanic action commenced in real earnest, and 
we find clear evidence of the event in the rocks around what 
is now the Binn of Burntisland. From this centre, or series 
of centres, one eruption after another took place, chiefly in the 
form of quiet effusive eruptions instead of explosive outbursts. 
From this volcano there flowed out to the north, north-east, 

37° Geological History of the Coast of Fife. [Sess. 

and west what amounted in the long-run to a thick pile of 
basalt lava streams. The fine crag named after King Alexander 
affords an excellent illustration of the earlier phases of the 
volcanic eruption here. If we study the beds seen there we 
shall find a record of many different lava streams piled on each 
other, with evidence of long pauses between, during which there 
was a quiet deposition of estuarine or marine sediment. There 
is no place where this interesting feature can be better observed 
than at and near Pettycur. Between this point and King 
Alexander's monument two or three beds of lava are seen, 
each separated from the other by a small thickness of sedi- 
mentary rock, which speak eloquently of the changes in 
progress at the time these rocks were formed. 

Just below the inn at Pettycur there is a bed of lava, rather 
steeply inclined, as they all are, towards the east. On this 
bed lies a pile of sediments which have evidently been accumu- 
lated in an estuary. Near the base one band of these old 
sediments includes a big ejected block which must have fallen 
during an explosive eruption of the neighbouring volcano down 
through the air plump into the soft mud on the sea bottom. In 
falling it has crumpled and squeezed up the unconsolidated 
sediments beneath, as one can readily see. Then, after this 
interesting little episode, sedimentation went on once more, 
and covered up the stranger. The volcano had, however, only 
temporarily quieted down, for we find the higher beds of sedi- 
ment plentifully mixed with material shot out from the old 
volcano during one of its explosive fits, which, as before 
remarked, were not of frequent occurrence. Next comes two 
or three beds of lava with some little sediment between, as 
before. Then, just before we reach the point selected for the 
Battery, we find a thick bed of estuarine sediment containing 
many spoils of the adjacent land, in the shape of trunks and 
leaves of the giant Lepidodendroid trees that flourished at no 
great distance. These, of course, are the ancient representa- 
tives of the club-mosses of the present day, or rather of their 
allies the Selaginellas, but instead of being at the most a few 
inches, many of these towered to a height of from forty to sixty 
feet. Following this comes on a thick pile of beds of basalt 
lava, which form the headland where the big guns have lately 
been mounted. At Kinghorn harbour comes next above this 

1901-1902.] Geological History of the Coast of Fife. 371 

yet another group of old sediments, containing also trunks and 
stems of trees like those before-mentioned. 

If we review what was taking place inland at this period, 
which the record of the rocks enables us to do with tolerable 
certainty, we find that the volcanic rocks which emanated 
from the Binn did not extend as far to the north as the Howe 
of Fife ; nor, in the direction of the East Neuk of Fife, did 
they extend as far as St Monance. There is some reason to 
think that the lava flows did now and then go as far as 
where Inchkeith is now — though one cannot be quite sure 
that these may not have travelled from some other vent now 
concealed beneath the waters of the Forth. 

It is quite clear, however, as any one can see by studying 
the rocks seen on the the shore north of the Abclen shipyard 
at Kinghorn, that the volcano continued in activity some time 
later, and, indeed, all through the period while the vast pile of 
strata, some three thousand feet in thickness, which now form 
the Lothian Oil Shales, were being laid down. The normal 
conditions existing were evidently those of a great estuarine 
or delta area, near to the sea in one direction, for marine fish 
made their way up quite frequently, and not very far from a 
land surface in another, because the remains of land plants 
occur in tolerable abundance. The animals native to the spot 
were clearly of the same general nature as those which occur 
in the water of deltas now. Furthermore, while these con- 
ditions obtained, sheets of lava, again and again, rolled down- 
ward from the adjoining volcano into the sea, covering up 
the older sediments as they did so, and in turn being covered 
by newer sediments as time went on and the subsidences 
made room on the sea-bottom for their accumulation. 

One interesting episode is that represented by the rocks on 
the shore a few hundred yards to the north of the Abden ship- 
yard. Overlying one of the lavas is a thin bed of shale, one 
band in which yields Pteronites persulcatus, Streptorhynchus 
crenistria, and other fossils, in abundance. This I have called 
the Pteronites bed. At the bottom of this shale, and lying 
directly upon the scoriaceous surface of an older basalt lava, is 
a very thin band containing the remains of a considerable 
number of species of fish. These are all in the form of frag- 
ments of bone, scales, and teeth, none of them being connected 

372 Geological History of the Coast of Fife. [Sess. 

with the bones which should naturally be next to them in the 
complete skeleton. This is the celebrated Abden Bone-Bed 
which has formed the subject of valuable papers by Dr 
Traquair. 1 The list may be given here : — Elasmobranchii — 
Diplodus parvulus, Tristychius arcuatus, Euphy acanthus semi- 
striatus, Helodus falcatus, Oracanthus armigerus, Ccdiopristodtis 
pcctinatus, Cladodus mirabilis, C. sp., Acanthodes sp. Teleo- 
Stomi — Rhizodopsis sp., Strepsodus striatulus, Megalichthys sp., 
Ccelacanttois abdenensis, Elonichthys pcctinatus, Eurynotus cre- 
natus, and C'heirodus crassus. 

Close above the shale which contains the Bone Bed is a thin 
band of what was formerly volcanic mud. In this a diligent 
search may be rewarded by the discovery of some interesting 
ferns, Rhacopteris incequilatera amongst others. Overlying this 
is a grey limestone, whose light colour stands out conspicuously 
against the sombre browns and russets of the associated 
volcanic rocks. Overlying the limestone comes a second fish 
bed (which cannot easily be got at), and on that lies another 
band of basalt lava, which forms part of the small headland 
known as Hoch-ma-toch. 

The history of this part of the series is of considerable 
interest. At the bottom below the Bone Bed is a lava flow. 
Then there is evidence of a local and apparently sudden 
destruction of a considerable number of fish (perhaps through 
some volcanic outbreak close by). Then a record of estuarine 
conditions, with the volcanic mud being washed into shallow 
water from the neighbouring volcano. To account for the 
presence of the limestone we must postulate a change of level 
probably taking place somewhat abruptly, and the existence of 
clear sea water, and, I think, of deep water too. On the sea 
floor was then slowly laid down what is part of a sheet of 
limestone, which, though not very thick, is part of a bed of 
rock which extended continuously to the south as far at least 
as Lancashire. I regard this limestone, which we may call 
No. 1, as the lower part of the Hurlet Limestone, which is so 
well known in the West of Scotland. I think that the 
average rate of formation of such a limestone as this, not 
allowing for pauses in deposition, may be one foot in 25,000 

1 See Trans. Geol. Soc. Edin. (vol. v. p. 310), and Proc. Geol. Assoc, (vol. xv. 
p. 143). 

1901-1902.] Geological History of the Coast of Fife. 373 

years. The limestone, all counted, is about ten feet in thickness 
here. "With the advent of the conditions under which No. 1 
Limestone was formed, the hill so often referred to as now 
represented by the Howe of Fife became submerged. 

The Bone Bed overlying No. 1 Limestone seems to point to 
a recurrence of catastrophic conditions ; while the succeeding 
basalt lava may, possibly, suggest a temporary return to 
shallower water conditions. I think that most periods of 
subsidence include also local and temporary upheavals — the 
subsidence being the net result of the whole. On the top of 
the basalt lava first mentioned is a thin red band, reminding 
one, so far as superficial aspect goes, of a laterite, or old soil 
which has been " burnt " by contact with an overlying lava. 
The latter is there ; but it is open to question whether the red 
bed in question is an old soil or not. At anyrate, overlying 
the upper basalt lava of Hoch-ma-toch comes more estuarine 
shale, with a band of red volcanic mud near its base, and 
graduating upward into grey clay, which in turn passes up 
into a second limestone of marine origin, which forms long 
reefs close to the shore. This we shall call No. 2 Limestone. 

The shale just mentioned as occurring between the lime- 
stone and the underlying lava flow contains many species 
of marine invertebrata. I have collected from it the follow- 
ing : Lithostrotion junccum, two species of coral not deter- 
mined, Discina nitida, Lingxda squamiformis, Spirifera 
trigonalis, Streptorhynchus crenistria, Orthis michelini, Athyris 
ambigua, Rhynchonella pugnus, Produchcs longispinus, Proditctus 
semircticulatus (P. giganteus occurs in the limestone below), 
Nucida tumida, N. attenuate/,, Zeptodomus sp., Pteronites per- 
sidcatus, Anthracoptera sp., Aviculopecten sowerbyi (which is 
common), two or three species of Polyzoa, Loxonema, two 
species, Bcllerofhon wrei, Euomplialus carbonarius, Macrocheilus 
sp., Naticopsis plicistria, and two species of Orthoceras. En- 
crinite stems are common, the most abundant being Poterio- 
crinus crassus, but two others are met with. I have given 
the list (which will probably have to be extended), because 
the bed in which the fossils occur is one frequently visited 
by collectors. 

The second limestone just mentioned can be traced for 
about a third of a mile northward along the coast. It is 

374 Geological History of the Coast of Fife. [Sess. 

faulted in a very striking manner just to the south of the rifle 
target, and in one of the fault fissures this rock is seen to be 
much dolomitised, and to pass by insensible gradations into 
Hydrohaematite or Turgite , which is not commonly recorded 
in our mineral lists. 

Climbing over the cliff above the target we come upon an 
interesting sea-cavern, which was worn by the sea when the 
land stood a few feet (say 20) lower than it does at present. 
It occurs on nearly the same level as most of the other up- 
raised sea-caverns around the coast of Scotland. Why they 
should have been formed more commonly at the period in 
question than at any other has not yet been explained. 

Going on in the direction of Seafield Tower, we find, in 
the sandstones which overlie the limestone just mentioned, 
interesting examples of two intrusive sheets of rock, which can 
clearly be seen to cut across the rocks in which they occur. 
At any rate, the eruptive rocks in question are not lavas. As 
a matter of fact, it is not certain that any outpourings of lava 
later than the one which supports the target and in which 
the cavern has been excavated occur in this neighbourhood. 
Apparently with the subsidence which led to the conditions 
under which limestone No. 2 was formed the volcano ceased 
to give forth any more material at the surface. Most of the 
eruptive rock met with as we go nearer Kirkcaldy, and which 
is so well seen around Eaith, was certainly formed under- 
ground, and occurs in the form of intrusive sheets instead of as 
lava flows. In the two thin intrusive sheets just mentioned 
occurs Stilbite, which, by the way, can be met with also at 
Pettycur. It is of the vermilion-red variety. 

Going in the direction of Seafield Tower we meet with lime- 
stone No. 3, which, like those which preceded it, represents a 
purely marine deposit, formed, I think, during one of the 
temporary returns to deep-water conditions which this district 
underwent. Like the other two, this limestone can be traced 
far into the north of England, occurring all the way with 
nearly the same characters, fossils, and thickness. 

Next above No. 3 Limestone begin the local representatives 
of the Edge Coal Series of the Lothians. Here, in Fife, coals 
are not so marked a feature of these rocks as they are to the 
south of the Forth. But it may be mentioned that the coal 

1901-1902.] Geological History of the Coast of Fife. 375 

seams in the Edge Coal Series are, though not always very 
thick, amongst some of the most persistent sedimentary rocks 
anywhere known. 

The series in which these coals occur occupies nearly the 
whole of the shore from Seafield to east of Kirkcaldy. It is 
mainly of estuarine origin. I may remark here that deposits 
of freshwater origin in the Lower Carboniferous rocks exist 
only in text-books — the sediments are all either purely marine 
or else of estuarine origin, under which latter category may be 
classed the lagoon deposits. I cannot adopt the view that any 
coals are of terrestrial origin, — at least, any I have yet had 
an opportunity of examining. 

There is not much need to enter into any great amount of 
detail with regard to the rocks under notice. But no descrip- 
tion of the coal section under notice would be complete if it 
did not contain some reference to the disturbances which the 
Carboniferous Rocks have undergone. In Fife they have been 
thrown into a great series of folds, whose axes may be said to 
range in a north-westerly direction between Kinghorn and 
Kirkcaldy, and to be north-easterly in the area around 
Starleyburn, just west of Burntisland. These folds are of 
post- Carboniferous and pre-Triassic age, for there is clear 
evidence of their having been folded, faulted, and greatly 
wasted by denudation, prior to the period last named. There- 
after they were covered first by the Trias, then by the Rhaetic 
Rocks, and finally by those of the Jurassic age. Whether 
they were covered by the Cretaceous Eocks also may never 
be determined. The faults just referred to are very well 
seen at many places on the shore ; and they include a 
remarkable group of small reversed faults or overthrusts, 
which occur chiefly between Craigfoot and the Tyrie Bleach 
Works, in one of the limestones. 

I think it was but in comparatively recent geological times 
that the last remnant of the Trias was removed from Fife. It 
occurred, I think, as a strip extending from Kirkcaldy across 
the Forth to the east of Inchkeith, and thence along what is 
now the low ground of the Dalkeith coal-field. 

It was from the Trias that the remarkable staining which 
gave the characteristic red colour to " The Fife Bed Measures, 
d 5 ," in the first instance arose. 

VOL. iv. 2 D 

376 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

There is not room here to give even a bare outline of more 
recent events — of the Tertiary volcanic outbursts, or of that 
interesting episode which I speak of as The Age of Snow. 
But it may be mentioned in conclusion that, associated with 
some of the remarkable Eaised Beaches so well seen in Fife, 
there occurs here and there, close to Tyrie Bleach Works 
amongst others, traces of the boreal molluscan fauna which 
formerly peopled the Forth. 


By Mr JAMES EUSSELL, Convener. 

In deciding upon subjects for session 1901-2 the Section 
wished to pursue the study of some typical forms of Animal 
and Vegetable Life. With this object in view the members 
resolved to adopt one or other of the excellent memoirs 
published under the auspices of the Liverpool Marine Biology 
Committee — known as " L.M.B.C. Memoirs " — as a text-book. 
The work of the session was accordingly commenced by the 
study of the Ascidia, treated of in Memoir I. 

According to Professor Herdman, Ascidians are now regarded 
as the degenerate descendants of a very lowly-developed group 
of the Chordata. Professor Garrod " considers them to be 
degenerated Vertebrata which should be placed quite at the 
end of that sub -kingdom." The species studied was the 
Ascidia mentula, specimens of which were kindly procured 
for the Section from the marine station at Naples by Dr 

After the embryo Ascidia is hatched it leads for a day or 
two a free-swimming existence, and in this larval stage attains 
its highest degree of organisation, having developed along with 
other organs a notochord, thus claiming at this period to rank 
among the vertebrata. As, however, it approaches its adult 
state, a process of degeneration sets in. It attaches itself by 
its posterior end to some foreign body, such as a rock, a stone, 
or a seaweed. The tail, which formed its organ of locomotion, 

1901-1902.] Report of the Microscopical Section. 377 

disappears, being absorbed into the body or cast off in shreds ; 
the notochord, which gave it rank among the vertebrata, is 
dissolved ; but its outer covering, called the test or tunic, is 
growing apace, and when it has reached its adult stage it looks 
more like a piece of inanimate cartilaginous matter than a 
livincr thing. 

The appearance of the adult Ascidia is something like a 
leathern bottle with two openings — one at the anterior end, 
called the branchial aperture, and the other a little way down 
on the dorsal side, called the atrial aperture. The margin of 
each of these apertures is divided into a number of small 
lobes, and the number of these is held to be a means of 
distinguishing species. In the species under consideration 
there are eight lobes on the margin of the branchial aperture 
and six on that of the atrial. As a nerve runs to each .of 
these lobes from the nerve-ganglion or brain, they are the most 
sensitive part of the animal. This nerve-ganglion is a small 
mass of dark-coloured matter situate on the dorsal edge, mid- 
way between the branchial and atrial apertures. By a little 
delicate manipulation it can be laid bare, and the individual 
nerves traced almost to their endings. 

As has been said, the outside covering of the Ascidia is 
called the test or tunic — hence the name of the order, 
tunicata. This test, which is an excretion from the next 
inner layer called the ectoderm, is of a cartilaginous con- 
sistence, is easily cut with a knife, and when freed from 
extraneous matter is very transparent. It is traversed by 
numerous blood lacunae, the course of which can be easily 
discerned by the naked eye when a piece is held up to the 
light. The size of the specimens examined was from four to 
6ix inches. 

By removing carefully the one side of the test longitudin- 
ally the whole internal economy of the Ascidia is laid bare, 
and we can thus examine the separate' parts and see their 
relation to each other. isText to the test is a delicate layer 
called the ectoderm, and inside the ectoderm is a thicker layer 
called the body-wall or mantle. This layer contains a large 
number of muscles running longitudinally and transversely, 
and thus forming a kind of network. The mantle surrounds 
the whole animal, with openings at the two apertures. 

378 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

Cutting open the body wall, we come to a large organ called 
the branchial sac. On the ventral side the branchial sac is 
contiguous with the body wall, but on every other side there is 
a considerable vacant space between these two. The part of 
this vacant space at the dorsal side of the branchial sac and 
extending to the atrial aperture is called the atrial cavity, 
while the vacant space on the other two sides is called the 
peribranchial cavity. Extending through this peribranchial 
cavity are numerous connectives which bind the branchial 
sac to the body wall. 

The wall of the branchial sac deserves close examination. 
It consists of three distinct series of bars or blood channels : — 

1. The transverse vessels which run horizontally round the 
wall and open into two large vessels which run longitudinally 
— the one on the ventral side called the ventral blood sinus, 
and the other on the dorsal side called the dorsal blood sinus. 

2. The five longitudinal vessels which run vertically between 
the transverse vessels and open into them. Between these 
longitudinal vessels there are five slits called stigmata. 

3. The third series of vessels, called the "internal longi- 
tudinal bars," run vertically in a plane internal to the previous 
two series, but are attached to the transverse vessels by short 
tubes at the crossings, and at these points short papillae project 
into the branchial sac. 

The ventral and dorsal blood sinuses communicate with 
each other by means of a transverse vessel near the branchial 
aperture, so that there is thus intercommunication throughout 
the whole of the wall of the branchial sac. 

Proceeding with our dissection, we cut open the wall of the 
branchial sac right through the branchial aperture, thus laying 
this latter out flat. We then find that at the margin of the 
branchial aperture there is a slight infolding of the test. A 
similar infolding takes place at the atrial aperture. 

Eound the neck of the branchial aperture, and also round 
that of the atrial aperture, run strong muscles called the 
sphincter muscles : these sphincter muscles resemble much 
in appearance and function the india - rubber bands which 
formerly used to be attached to the wrist part of some 
cloth gloves. 

Below the sphincter muscle at the branchial aperture is a 

1901-1902.] Report of the Microscopical Section. 379 

row of tentacles, presumably for the purpose of excluding 
undesirable substances. Below the tentacles is the pre- 
branchial zone, bounded on the lower or inner side by two 
bands called the peripharyngeal bands, which encircle the 
neck of the branchial sac. The upper of these bands is 
continuous in its passage round the branchial sac, but the 
continuity of the lower band is broken by its attachment to 
two other organs — one on the ventral side called the endo- 
style, and the other on the dorsal side called the dorsal lamina. 

The endostyle is a thick-walled ciliated groove running along 
the whole length of the ventral side, and terminating both 
anteriorly and posteriorly in a cul-de-sac. At the anterior 
end it is in communication with the lower of the peripharyngeal 

The dorsal lamina is also a thick-walled ciliated groove, 
communicating at its anterior end, like the endostyle, with the 
lower of the peripharyngeal bands, and running down the 
dorsal side to the oesophagus, the entrance to which it 

The oesophagus forms the entrance to the stomach, an organ 
of considerable size lying across the left side of the lower part 
of the body. Its continuation is the intestinal canal, which 
starts from the ventral end of the stomach, turns back across 
the body of the animal, and after making two bends, one 
towards the anterior end of the Ascidia and the other towards 
the posterior end, it empties itself at the dorsal side into the 
atrial cavity. 

Having got thus far in the dissection of the Ascidia, we are 
able to trace the course of its nourishment. The branchial 
aperture is the mouth of the animal, and into this there flows 
a constant stream of water, carrying with it microscopic 
particles of organic matter which serve for food. The water 
passes at once into the branchial sac, then through the clefts 
or stigmata in the wall into the peribranchial cavity, whence it 
is ejected through the atrial aperture. The minute particles 
of food, on the other hand, are caught by the peripharyngeal 
bands, and carried forward along these towards the dorsal 
lamina by a flow of mucus secreted in the groove of the 
endostyle, and urged forward by the ciliary action of this 
organ. Arrived at the dorsal lamina, they descend this 

380 Report of the Microscopical Section. [Sess. 

organ, still forced along by ciliary action, till they reach 
the oesophagus, whence they pass into the stomach. Here 
they are subjected to the usual processes which fit them for 
nourishment, while the refuse passes along the intestinal canal 
into the atrial cavity, whence it is ejected along with the water 
through the atrial aperture. The soluble parts of the food 
which have been fitted for nourishment pass through the wall 
of the intestine into the small blood spaces, and are thus con- 
veyed to all parts of the animal. 

The heart or seat of the circulation of the blood is merely a 
delicate, slightly enlarged tube, lying behind the stomach. It 
has no valves, and is connected at its ventral end with the 
great ventral blood-vessel running alongside the endostyle, 
and at its dorsal end with the great dorsal blood-vessel 
running alongside the dorsal lamina. As has been noted, 
these two large blood-vessels are connected with each other 
by a circular vessel which runs round the neck of the 
branchial sac behind the peripharyngeal bands. They are 
also connected with the transverse and interstigmatic vessels, 
and from them connectives are also given off to the body-wall 
and test, so that a complete system of circulation is constituted. 

The blood thus leaving the ventral end of the heart passes 
into the great ventral blood-vessel, and is thence distributed 
into all the smaller blood channels, and as it passes through 
these in the wall of the branchial sac it comes into close 
proximity with the water passing through the stigmata, and 
thus receives its supply of fresh oxygen, and returns purified 
by the dorsal vessel to the heart. 

A peculiarity in the circulation of the blood in the Ascidia 
is that it is not continuous in one direction. Its flow from 
the ventral end slackens, and then stops, when the flow com- 
mences in the opposite direction. This change in the direction 
of the flow takes place every minute or two. The cause 
of this curious phenomenon is thought to be the blood being 
forced into the smaller vessels in greater volume than can get 
through, so that they become engorged, and ultimately force 
back the blood, thus causing a reversal in its flow. 

The Ascidia is hermaphrodite, — that is, it possesses both male 
and female reproductive organs. These lie close together on 
the left side of the body alongside the stomach and intestine, 

1901-1902.] Report of the Microscopical Section. 381 

and are provided with delicate ducts which open into the 
atrial cavity. The mature ova and spermatozoa are thus 
carried out of the body by the current of water flowing 
through the atrial aperture. 

The type of Vegetable Life chosen for study was Codium, 
— No. IV. of " L.M.B.C. Memoirs." Codium is a genus of the 
Siphonaceee (Confervoid Alga;). It is a marine plant, with 
branched filaments interwoven into a spongiform frond of a 
dark-green colour. The species which came under observation 
was Codium tomentosum, a plant about eight inches or so in 
height, found at the south end of the Isle of Man. It grows 
in shallow rock-pools at or near low -water mark, and is 
attached to the substratum by numerous small rhizoids. The 
fronds are cylindrical, and usually dichotomously branched, 
and consist of a single multi-nucleated cell. They become 
thicker towards the apex, and end in a rounded point of a 
much darker colour than the lower part. Reproduction takes 
place by the discharge of the contents of certain sporangial 
cells in the form of numerous small ciliated zoospores. These 
sporangial cells are borne on the sides of the fronds, on what 
are called the palisade cells. 

Codium was chosen as the type of single-celled plants. A 
vegetable cell has been defined as " a closed sac composed of 
an (originally) imperforate membrane formed of the chemical 
substance called cellulose, this membrane enclosing fluid con- 
tents so long as the cell retains its vitality." It is by the 
aggregation of cells that the plant is built up. Ordinarily 
the plant consists of an infinite number of cells, each with at 
least one nucleus, but in the type under consideration the 
plant consists of but a single cell with an indefinite number 
of nuclei. The branched filaments of Codium are thus but the 
extension and modification of the original cell. 

Mr Crawford, who conducted the demonstrations, had in 
addition specimens of allied genera, such as Botrydium. a 
microscopic plant found on damp clayey ground, in which the 
cell retains its original spherical form. It is attached to the 
substratum by a ramified filamentous base. Vaucheria, an 
interesting plant, growing in fresh or salt water or on damp 
ground, and in which the cell becomes filamentous. It is in 

382 Prise for Collection of Fresh-iuater Crustacea. [Sess. 

the apices of these filaments that the zoospores are produced, 
and through the orifices of which they escape when ripe. 
Bryopsis, a marine genus growing upon rocks in tide-pools, 
forming green, feathered, silky tufts from one to four inches 

On the concluding evening of the active work of the session 
a demonstration on microscopical manipulation, showing the 
correct lines on which the illumination of objects under the 
microscope should proceed, was given by Mr West. This 
demonstration was much appreciated by the members. 


At the evening meeting of April 23, 1902, Dr Sprague and 
his daughter, Miss B. Sprague, were presented with the 
prize awarded to them for the excellence of their collection 
of fresh -water Crustacea. The prize took the form of the 
following volumes : ' Cladocera Suecise ' and ' Copepoda,' by 
Prof. Lilljeborg, and ' State Eeport on the Entomostraca of 
Minnesota.' Mr James Russell, Vice-President, who occu- 
pied the chair, in making the presentation spoke of the 
gratification it gave the Council to recognise, as they now 
did in this tangible form, the value of the work which 
had been done by Dr and Miss Sprague in this difficult 
branch of Natural History. Dr Sprague, owing to the state 
of his health, was unable to be present, but was represented 
by his son, Mr Ernest Sprague, who, on receiving the volumes 
above-mentioned, read a communication from Dr Sprague, 
expressing the pleasure which he and his daughter had 
experienced in their search for, and study of, these minute 
creatures, and of the stimulus they had received in their 
work from the encouragement held out by the Council in 
their offer of a prize. The whole proceedings in connection 
with the presentation were of a most interesting nature, 

1901-1902.] North American Raspberry at West Linton. 383 

and the handsome volumes — two of them specially bound 
in green morocco — were handed over by the Vice-President 
amidst applause. 



On July 13 of last year (1901) the Society made an ex- 
cursion to West Linton, when two residents of that place 
very kindly put their services at the disposal of the members, 
namely, Mrs Eobertson and the late Mr E. Sanderson — the 
former a well-known local botanist, and the latter ecpaally well 
known for his intimate knowledge of the district. On that 
occasion Mrs Eobertson showed a number of berries from 
a shrub which was said to be pretty widely distributed in 
that locality, and of which a specimen was pointed out to 
us at Slipperfield. It was believed by several of the members 
to be an American Eubus, but it was resolved to wait until the 
following summer in order to secure flowers, which were at 
this time past for the season. Mrs Eobertson duly forwarded 
blooms about the middle of July this year ; and at the 
beginning of August one of our members on holiday at West 
Linton, Mr G. E. Hamilton, secured several early berries. 
Owing to the cold and wet spring and summer of this year, 
flowers and fruit of the plant were much later than last 
year. On examination, it was concluded that the shrub 
was Rubus spcctabilis, and this has been confirmed by one 
of our honorary members, Mr Hugh Fraser, late manager 
to Messrs Thos. Methven & Sons, Nurserymen, who re- 
members seeing this Eubus in abundance at Dolphinton some 
twenty years ago, when it was planted in the woods and 
coppices on the estate of the late John Ord Mackenzie, Esq. 
of Dolphinton, as a cover for game. The plant seems now 
to have spread considerably, as it has been found in various 
places within a radius of six or seven miles. 

384 North American Raspberry at West Union. [Sess. 

Rubus spectabilis, or the showy raspberry, is a native of 
North America, being found on the banks of the Columbia 
or Oregon river, and was introduced into Britain in 1827. 
It is a hardy deciduous shrub, growing to a height of five 
or six feet, and having a stem without prickles. The leaves 
are in leaflets of threes, each leaflet ovate -acute, unequally 
serrated, and slightly downy beneath. The flowers, which 
are slightly odorous, are borne singly on long terminal flower- 
stalks, dark- or rose -purple in colour, the sepals shorter 
than the petals. The fruit is very similar in size and 
shape to the common raspberry of our gardens (R. Idceus), 
but dark yellow or amber coloured, somewhat astringent, and 
it is said to make excellent tarts. An ornamental species 
frequently planted in gardens in this country, belonging to 
the same group of hardy deciduous North American rasp- 
berries, is Rubies odoratus, the sweet-scented or Virginian 
raspberry, introduced into Britain in 1800. Unfortunately, 
the Virginian raspberry, though possessing very handsome 
leaves, seldom fruits in this country, being unlike in this 
respect to the subject of this note, R. spectabilis, which fruits 
freely. An allied form, R. arcticus, a low -growing hardy 
herbaceous plant, is also often found in British gardens. 
Indeed it has been claimed as a native species, from the 
Highlands, but Hooker, in his ' Student's Flora of the British 
Islands,' says this claim is made on very doubtful authority. 
It is common, however, in Norway, Sweden, and Siberia, 
where it fruits abundantly, though, like R. odoratus, very 
seldom producing berries in Britain. The fruit of R. arcticus 
is of a delicious flavour, and has been characterised by 
Linnaeus as " the prince of wild berries," — an honour some- 
times claimed also on behalf of our native cloudberry (R. 

The presence in the "West Linton district of this North 
American raspberry, Rubus spectabilis, is very interesting, 
and the plant is likely to continue to spread if not inter- 
fered with. Birds are very fond of its berries, and they 
are generally devoured long before they are fully ripe. Mrs 
Bobertson deserves the best thanks of the Society for having 
drawn the attention of the members to this denizen of a 
far country. 

1901-1902.] Exhibits in Natural History. 385 


The following objects in Natural History, exclusive of those 
illustrating papers, were exhibited during the session at the 
evening meetings of the Society. Mr Speedy showed the 
following : A white thrush from Argyllshire ; a cross between 
a blackcock and a pheasant, shot at The Haining, Selkirk ; 
and wild cats from the Highlands. An Egyptian scarabeus 
and a Burmese book made of palm leaves were shown by the 
President; and Tamil school-books made of palm-leaves, 
by Major Graham e. The Secretary exhibited several Indian 
insects, as the Atlas moth, the leaf insect, the leaf butterfly, 
the stick insect, the praying insect, and others ; also ova of 
trout and salmon in different stages of development, sent 
by Mr J. Thomson, Millholm. An albino mole, caught in 
Dalmeny Park, was exhibited by Mr Chas. Campbell ; a 
specimen of root-malformation caused by a cockle-shell, by 
Miss Sprague ; and the following by Mr Pinkerton : Bipalium 
Kewense, a carnivorous worm ; Peziza (Helotium) aeruginosa, 
in fruit; and a locust (Acrydium iEgyptium) sent by Mr 
Tomlinson, Musselburgh, as having been got alive in a crate 
of vegetables there. 

A number of lantern slides prepared by members were 
shown on the screen during the session. These included the 
Hanging Gardens of Babylon, from an engraving in 1685, 
by the Secretary ; four slides of sand, by Mr Forgan ; and 
a slide of St Catherine's Chapel, at Glencorse Eeservoir, 
photographed by Dr Davies on October 2<±, 1901, when 
the chapel was visible at the bottom of the reservoir, 
owing to the prolonged drought. Mr Bruce Campbell ex- 
hibited a slide of the nest of the great tit in a pheasant 
feeding-box ; also a slide showing the difference between a 
stock-dove and a wood-pigeon. A large number of micro 
slides were also shown at the evening meetings by various 
members of the Society. Mr Terras exhibited slides of red, 
brown, green, and blue algae ; Mr T. Wright, several parasites 
and ticks ; Miss Huie, trans, sect, of common wood-louse, 
Euglena viridis stained and sectioned, trans, sect, of rat 

386 Presidential Address. [Sess. 

intestine with leucocytes, embryo mouse, and a few botanical 
preparations ; while Dr Davies showed an interesting collec- 
tion of living specimens, mostly from the Upper Elf Loch, 
Braids. Mr J. Lindsay also exhibited a number of slides 
illustrative of the structure and life-history of sponges and 

Among the Natural History exhibits of last session, one of 
a very interesting nature was then omitted to be mentioned — 
viz., a piece of luminous wood, covered by the mycelium of a 
fungus. This was shown by Mr James Adams, Dunfermline, 
and gave rise to some discussion amongst the members. 


to the Annual Meeting of the Society on the 
22nd October 1902. 

When, a year ago, you did me the honour of electing me 
President of our Society — after I had served for three years as 
a Member of Council and thereafter for three years as one of 
the Vice-Presidents — I accepted the position with much hesi- 
tation, for I can make no claim to be considered a scientific 
naturalist, however much I may admire and enjoy the marvel- 
lous works of Nature. In this I am like him who is " con- 
tented if he but enjoy the things that others understand." 
Business has been too engrossing for me to have found that 
leisure I should have been so glad to have spent in nature- 
study — -which introduces to the kingdom of the sublime. My 
election, however, having been alike unanimous and harmoni- 
ous, I felt sure that, in endeavouring to discharge the duties of 
the chair, I could rely upon the hearty support and assistance 
not only of the members of council but of the membership of 
the Society as well. In this I have been in no way disap- 
pointed ; and I desire to avail myself of this opportunity of 
thanking you for having overlooked my defects, and for having 

1901-1902.] Presidential A ddress. 387 

made the discharge of my duties so pleasant and so agreeable 
as I have found them to be. You have done this in the best 
and most practical form, for it is with no small satisfaction 
that I find myself able to inform you that, not only has our 
membership during the past session reached the highest number 
of the past fourteen years, but the attendance also at our in- 
door meetings has, I think, seldom been better. Thirty-three 
new members were admitted during the session. The phenom- 
enally bad weather of last spring and early summer is alone ta 
blame for our field-excursions having been, on the whole, not 
quite so pleasant and so successful as in former years. This 
is all the more to be regretted seeing that the places selected 
for our excursions had met with such general approval by 
the members. 

I do not propose to detain you this evening with a review 
of the work of the past session. That you may yourselves do, 
far better, by looking over the billets of the sessional meetings- 
and the lists of excursions, as well as by a careful perusal of 
the ' Transactions,' when ready, at your own firesides. 

I would however remind you of the charming variety of 
the subjects and objects which have been brought before us. 
Such as could be observed and handled alike in the field, the 
laboratory, and the study ; by the unaided vision, as well as 
by that marvellous revealer of vast and otherwise unknown 
realms — the microscope. 

Our programme is limited by the bounds of Nature alone, 
and the mind of finite man can place no bounds upon the Infin- 
ite, who works and reveals Himself through Nature which can* 
be seen and felt, as well as through the Spirit which, like the 
wind that bloweth, is unseen and impalpable. 

We have studied birds and beasts, fishes and insects, plants 
and rocks. We have compared and contrasted them. We have 
considered their uses in the economy of Nature. We have 
seen them in their beauty as a whole, and we have dissected 
and microscopically examined them, discovering something of 
their inner workings, their marvellous construction and adapt- 
ability to the functions they have to perform, and to the en- 
vironment in which they exercise them. We have considered 
things antiquarian too, for these bring us to contemplate man 
himself — the greatest, because the highest, work of Nature. 

388 Presidential Address. [Sess. 

We have wandered afield under the gladdening' sun and the 
moistening rain ■ — the two chief supporters of animal and 
vegetable life. We have seen Nature at home busying herself 
with her manifold everyday duties, never resenting a call from 
the reverent and sympathetic naturalist, to whom she has much 
to say, much to reveal, and of which those who pass by on the 
other side, caring for none of those things, know nothing — to 
their great loss. 

What refreshment of spirit, stimulus of mind, and invig- 
oration of body have we not received through our commun- 
ings with Nature, out under the blue canopy of heaven or in 
under the roof of our own cosy curtained sanctum ? It is 
this, and such as this, that raises us to a higher ideal of true 
manhood, with its infinite possibilities and great responsibil- 
ities, which reveals an ever -widening horizon, taking us 
out of our narrow, hardening shell, and causing us to look 
upon the affairs of everyday life with a real and increasing- 

We can find everything in Nature if we only know how 
and where to look for it. An observer has discovered in the 
animal world a type of the man who lets everything alone 
and takes not the slightest interest in the affairs of life — the 
oyster ! He says that, so far as he knows, " it really lives a 
blameless life, is always sober, never fights, does not interfere 
with its neighbours' affairs. It pursues the quiet peaceful life 
which is the outcome of a good digestion and a hard head. It 
interferes with nothing, it cares for nothing." That is mere 
selfish animal existence, and of a low type. The naturalist 
cannot descend to a life like that — and remain a naturalist. 
Therefore, let as many as can become naturalists, rise above 
the mere oyster-existence and aspire to be intelligent, active, 
useful citizens, no matter what their daily occupation may 
happen to be. Nature-study knows no social rank ; it ele- 
vates all who engage in it, and begets and prolongs true 

The naturalist who studies the ever-open book of Nature 
discovers much by which to arouse himself and his fellows. If 
he finds himself becoming lazy, with a tendency to business, or 
intellectual, " loafing," he can " go to the ant and consider her 
ways." If he is becoming careless and improvident, let him 

1901-1902.] P reside n Hal A ddrcss. 389 

go to the bees and observe their skilful, plodding, well-planned 
labour ; and to these again — the ant and the bee — let him go 
when he linds too great individualism, or the tendencies of 
the anarchist, developing within him ; for there he will find 
law and order — inferiors, superiors, and equals all working 
together in perfect harmony for the good of the community as 
a whole. By such observation he will find much to encourage 
and stimulate him to become a good citizen ; and there he will 
find successful co-operation and the good fruits of wise and 
prudent " combines." 

From these and " the squirrel, flippant, pert, and full of 
play," with, if not because of, its accumulating store, he gets 
the idea of the savings bank, and learns to " make hay while 
the sun shines " and so provide for the proverbial, if all but 
inevitable, " rainy day." When he thinks of his duty towards 
those who may be dependent upon him, he gets his lesson 
from the pelican, which, in poetic fancy, gives its life for its 
young, and he straightway goes and assures himself, so that 
when his life ebbs away the proceeds of the life assurance 
policy may be equally beneficial to the nestlings he may leave 
behind. And, when he thinks of his habitation, with its goods 
and chattels, he remembers the fabled phcenix, out of whose 
ashes arises another nestful, and off he goes to seek the 
benefits of fire insurance. The operations of the stock ex- 
change, too, do not escape the observations of the naturalist, 
for in them he sees what is not unlike the upward tossing of 
the bull with its horns, and the downward pulling of the bear 
with its paws — the innocent lamb looking on the while, not 
knowing how much its fleece is an object of keen desire to 
some of those who keep the bulls tossing up and the bears 
pulling down ! 

As membership in our Society is not limited to the lords of 
creation, I am glad to find our proceedings this evening graced, 
as usual, by the presence of so many ladies. To them may I 
venture to say — Do not be over-anxious as you wrestle for 
a solution of that vast and highly important, though most 
distracting problem, " Wherewithal shall I be clothed ? " Take 
your vasculum, come with us on one of our excursions, and 
" consider the lilies of the field." They will proclaim to you, 
in eloquent silence, that without toiling or spinning on their 

390 Presidential Address. [Sess. 

part they excel in grace and beauty even Solomon, who in all 
his glory was not arrayed like one of them. 

To ambitious men, and especially to those whose dreams 
have not yet been realised, let me say, the best specific for 
their disappointment, and its consequent depression, is to 
" behold the birds of the heavens " — " ye gentle birdes ! the 
world's fair ornament and heaven's glorie " — soaring upwards 
on untrammelled wing, sweetly singing with glad unburdened 
hearts, rejoicing in the beauty and freedom of their very 
existence ; life to them, in such circumstances, being really 
worth living. 

A spider may be a small and insignificant item in this vast 
universe, but even it finds its home in kings' palaces ; as one 
did in what could be called a palace simply because, for the 
time being, the place gave shelter to a distressed and baffled 
king. Was it not to that historic spider, and to the observa- 
tions thereon of an unconscious naturalist, that we Scots owe 
our freedom and independence as a nation ? Because King 
Eobert the Bruce read from the book of nature — observing the 
perseverance of that difficulty-overcoming spider — and was 
thereby encouraged to strike his final but successful blow for 
freedom, we in Scotland were able to join with heart and soul 
in those loud and loyal acclamations of joy which burst from 
a great patriotic nation and empire — -greater than the world 
had ever seen — when, less than three months ago, in that 
brilliant assembly in Westminster — Scotsmen occupying 
uppermost seats — and on the Scottish Stone of Destiny, was 
crowned King Edward I. of Scotland and VII. of England, 
who wears his crown to-day by right of his descent from that 
royal Scottish naturalist of six centuries ago ! 

A careful observer has recently had to go to natural 
history to find an adequate description of what, in his opinion, 
are the qualifications necessary to fit one to become a Member 
of Parliament. These, he says, are " the constitution of an 
elephant or an ox, the digestion of an ostrich, and the jawbone 
of an ass " — and he must know, for he is not only himself 
a member, but he has several relatives in the House of 

Where would be our trade and commerce, our supremacy 
on the seas, but for the observations of naturalists ? Britannia 

1901-1902.] Presidential Address. 391 

might never have ruled the waves as she now does had not a 
Scottish observer — James Watt — improved, if he did not 
actually invent, the steam-engine ; and had the object- 
lesson of the duck's foot not suggested the paddle, as did the 
tail of the fish the screw-propeller of the ocean-going grey- 
hounds. That marvellously-constructed and skilled navvy — 
the mole l — has taught our engineers how to tunnel through 
great mountains and under broad rivers. Careful observation 
of its cylindrical form, of the shape and working of its ex- 
cavating forepaws and propelling hind-legs, show how admirably 
the mole has been adapted to tunnel-boring. It also, I would 
remind you, affords us a warning to use and exercise all our 
faculties, lest by disuse any of them becomes atrophied. It 
has the organs of vision, but, as burrowing underground does 
not call them into exercise, they have all but died out. Let 
each of us then, as naturalists, use our eyes, and not become 
" blind as a mole " as we walk through this beautiful world. 

I fear I may have been presenting too low, too sordid a 
view of nature-study in thus linking it with trade, commerce, 
politics, and suchlike worrying, care - begetting items of the 
daily struggle of modern life. We who are immersed in them 
would rather seek relief from them and find refreshment by 
going out into the wilderness, where, in the hallowed calm, we 
would be alone with Nature, to hear and to see what can be 
neither heard nor seen in the roar and rush of city business 
life. Fortunately, we are so constituted that, when otherwise 
confined, we have only to close our eyes and abstract our mind 
from the " business " in hand to find ourselves, in memory 
and in imagination, living over again pleasant and profitable 
rambles of past and sunnier days. We can thus, almost by a 
mere effort of the will, bring in to our pent-up business life a 
glint of the blue sky, a breath of the heath-clad hill, a whisper 
of the murmuring stream, and an echo of the music of some 
feathered songster, which will revive and send us on our way 
rejoicing — the pleasant past uniting with the hopeful future 
in carrying us cheerily through present, if arduous, toil. 

Robert Burns, as did many another, got his poetry out of 
his daily toil. While others saw nothing but the brown earth 
yielding to the relentless plough, he held sweet converse with 

1 See 'Transactions,' vol. iv. pp. 150 et seq. 
VOL. IV. 2 E 

392 Presidential Address. [Sess. 

such a " wee, sleekit, cow'rin', tim'rous beastie " as the common 
field-mouse, with whom he claimed to be its " earth-born com- 
panion an' fellow-mortal." As he looked upon its " wee bit 
housie," cosy for the coming winter but ruined when the cruel 
coulter passed through it, he enunciated a humbling truth 
when, moralising, he said, " the best laid schemes o' mice 
and men gang aft a-gley." He saw deeper than most men 
into the " wee, modest, crimson-tipped flow'r " which we all 
know as the common daisy, or gowan, for he saw in its un- 
timely end that often, even before " the grass withereth " or 
" the flower fadeth," in ordinary course, man — as in his own 
case — is soon cut off, even in his prime ; for, again moralising, 
he says : — 

" Ev'n thou, who mourn'st the Daisy's fate, 

That fate is thine — no distant date ; 

Stern Ellin's ploughshare drives elate, 
Full on thy bloom ; 

Till crush'd beneath the furrow's weight, 
Shall be thy doom ! " 

It is here that a Society such as ours comes in to offer the 
kindly, sympathetic help and direction so much needed in 
guiding and interesting busy folk in the observations of Nature 
and in their attempts to read the lessons she longs to teach. 

Our winter sessional meetings, our summer field-excursions, 
and our indoor microscopical work, afford large and pleasant 
opportunity for that refreshing, invigorating, and elevating 
relaxation which we all need. The apparatus may be as 
complicated or as simple as we choose. One thing, however, 
that is absolutely necessary — assuming the sympathetic spirit 
of the true lover of nature — is an observant eye, aided, if need 
be, by a good field-glass. 

It is the living, growing animal and plant that should be 
studied, rather than the dead " specimen " — the mere " mass 
of tissues and vessels, a stuffed skin or a skeleton " — killed it 
may be from sheer wantonness or by one unworthy of the 
name of naturalist, only to fill " his private collection, and 
destroying for himself and others the possibility of observing 
and studying their life." The true and reverent naturalist 
respects life, and would grant even " The Mouse's Petition " : — 

1 901-1902.] Presidential Address. 393 

" Oh, hear a pensive prisoner's prayer, 
For liberty that sighs ; 
And never let thine heart be shut 
Against the wretch's cries ! 

If e'er thy breast with freedom glow'd, 

And spurned a tyrant's chain ; 
Let not thy strong oppressive force 

A free-born Mouse detain ! 

The well-taught philosophic mind 

To all compassion gives ; 
Casts round the world an equal eye, 

And feels for all that lives." 

How much does the observant, tutored eye add to the 
pleasure of a ramble in the country ! It transforms what 
might otherwise seem to be but the bare walls of an 
unsightly warehouse into a gallery of the most beautiful of 
pictures — baffling to the most skilled of artists — which neither 
wealth can purchase nor power deprive us from seeing and 

Nature, too, comes in at last with her kindly hand, tucks in 
snugly under the daisies, covering with her lovely mantle the 
decay that comes at last to all here below, concealing that 
death which, had we but eyes to see, is really but the 
beginning of a new and better life. 

In our rambles we have wandered around and within the 
roofless, ruined abbey, with its grass-grown floor, its unglazed 
and broken windows, its desolated aisles and its crumbling 
walls, painted, as no human artist ever could, with the silver- 
grey and golden-yellow of the close-clinging lichen ; adorned 
with the loallflower, " grey Euin's golden crown that lendest 
melancholy grace to haunts of old renown " ; the moss, 
" nature's livery round the globe " ; the graceful fern ; the 
repellent nettle ; and " old Scotia's sweet blue-bell " ; the yew- 
tree, which " lends its greenness to the grave " ; the thistle, also, 
* pledge to the memory of departed worth " ; and verdantly 
covered over by the ivy, whose " home is where each sound of 
revelry hath long been o'er ; where songs' full notes once 
pealed around, but now are heard no more," and which " lov'st 
the silent scene, around the victor's grave." We hear, too, the 

394 Presidential Address. [Sess. 

coo of the dove, the screech of the owl, the chatter and the 
song of many a feathered occupant of these forsaken haunts 
of men. As we think of their ministries of teaching and of 
healing, of preaching and of alms-giving, of hospitality and of 
learning, we try to recall the priest at the altar, the cloistered 
monks, the chanting choristers, and the worshipping assemblies 
of the now ruined, but erstwhile magnificent, fane. The belted 
knight, too, of lordly mien, with his squires, their ladies fair 
and their feudal dependants, who owned and ruled from the 
strong castle which is now a mere empty shell and crumbling 
ruin — fit emblem of man's feeble and fleeting power. But 
now, alas ! — 

" The breezes of the vernal day 
Come whispering through the empty halls, 
And stir, instead of tapestry, 
The weeds upon the walls." 

While we are glad to reassemble and enter upon the work 
of a new Session, our Annual Meeting, at which we mark 
time, reminds us of comrades who have fallen by the way. 
We mourn the loss of Colonel W. Ivison Macadam, who, a 
few months ago, was struck down at the post of duty, wearing 
the King's uniform, as he was about to leave for London 
to take his place and part in the Coronation celebrations. 
Colonel Macadam joined our Society in 1875, when it was 
merely a Field Club, and had served on the Council. It was 
on his motion that our winter evening meetings were com- 
menced in 1879. Mr Heggie, too, has gone, and we are the 
poorer by his removal. He entered the Society in 1881, 
and had served on the Council. 

Let us who remain endeavour to extend the usefulness and 
the membership of the Society, attend its meetings with 
regularity, contribute to its ' Transactions,' take part in the 
discussions, and, when spring-time comes again, go out on 
the field-excursions. Thus shall we do good to others while 
setting benefit to ourselves. 

1901-1902.] Annual Business Meeting. 395 


The Society held its Annual Business Meeting on October 
22, at 20 George Street, when the President, Mr Archibald 
Hewat, occupied the chair. After the adoption of the minutes, 
a specimen of the motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) grown as a 
garden plant at Portobello, sent by Mr Calder, and a stem of 
bramble galled by Diastrophus rubi, shown by Miss Sprague, 
were submitted for the inspection of the members. Mr A. 
Murray intimated that he had seen a nest, with young, of 
the window- swallow or house -martin (Hirundo or Chelidon 
urbica) at West Savile Eoad on September 29, 1902, and had 
kept it under observation until midday on October 8, when 
soon after the birds left the nest. Messrs Bruce Camp- 
bell and Tom Speedy both referred to instances of second 
broods of the house-martin lingering until late in the season. 
The reports of the adjudicators in the Prize Competitions 
were next taken up. The following report by Mr Alexander 
Somerville, B.Sc, F.L.S., was read : — 

The collection of Grasses bearing the motto " Sesleria," consisting of 134 
sheets of specimens gathered in the counties of Edinburgh, Haddington, 
and Linlithgow during the summer of this year (1902), reflects the highest 
credit on the competitor for the Society's prize, and I may say at once 
that I consider that it well deserves the prize. 

Whether we consider the care exercised in selecting illustrative speci- 
mens, the success that has attended the drying of them, the neatness and 
taste in mounting them, or the accuracy observed in naming so large a 
series, we cannot but feel admiration for the industry and skill of which 
there is so clear evidence, and which have admitted of the formation, in a 
single season, of a collection of such outstanding excellence. 

An examination of the sheets enables us to group the plants under five 
heads, as follows : — 

(1) Species indigenous, or probably so, in Scotland . . 61 

(2) Varieties of species indigenous, or probably so, in Scotland . 24 

(3) Species indigenous in England, but appearing as "casuals" 

only in Scotland ...... 14 

(4) Alien species which are "casuals" only within the British 



(5) Unnamed sheets (13), and duplicates (3) 16 


396 Annual Business Meeting. [Sess. 

Of indigenous species, 61 is a large number to hare been met with in 
one summer season, especially when we group with them the 24 sheets of 
varieties of various of these species. The Grasses, however, which fall to 
be included under the next two heads — viz., the "casuals "and "aliens," 
are, as a group, almost more remarkable. No less than a quarter of the 
whole collection were found at the Leith Docks, indicating how the 
exchanging of merchandise between countries tends to make additions 
to their respective floras. 

The arrangement of the collection is after Hayward's 'Botanist's Pocket - 
Book.' It might have been well, in the case of a collection of such magni- 
tude, to have adopted the arrangement and nomenclature of ' The Student's 
Flora,' or of the ' London Catalogue of British Plants,' 9th edition ; but in 
this matter the collector was left free to exercise his choice. 

In regard to one or two sheets I have to remark as follows : — 

19. Agrostis canina, L. This seems to be rather A. alba, L. There are 
no awns, and the leaf sheaths are not smooth. 

50. Schlerochloa maritima, Lindl. The specimens here — which are a 

little misleading — I think must be considered to be Feduca 
rubra, L. 

51. Schlerochloa loliacea, Huds. This, I fear, is only S. maritima, 

65. Fesluca Myurus, L. I fear this is but a luxuriant form of F. sciur- 

oides, Roth., or an alien species. 
68. Festuca ovina, L. Rather F. rubra, though specimens of the two 

species are sometimes very much alike. 

It may be of interest, in conclusion, to mention that the following 
species in the collection — some of them abundant in the east of Scotland 
— are absent from, or are but rare "casuals" in, the west — viz., Phleum 
arenarium, L., Alopecurus agrestis, L., Arena flavescens, L., Poa compressa, L., 
Ghjceria distans, Wahlenb., Lolium temulentum, L., and Hordeum irour- 
invm, L. Alex. Somerville, B.Sc, F.L.S. 

18th October 1902. 

On the envelope bearing the motto " Sesleria " being 
opened, it was found that the collection had been made by 
Mr Allister Murray, Eoyal Blind Asylum, Craigmillar, and 
the prize was accordingly awarded to him. The following is 
the list of Grasses : — 


1901-1902.] Annual Business Meeting. 


LIST of a COLLECTION of GRASSES gathered in the Counties of 
Edinburgh, Haddington, and Linlithgow, from June to Septem- 
ber 1902. 

{The arrangement is after Hayward's 'Botanist's Pocket- Boot') 

















. Setaria Italica ; Leith Docks, 30. 
Phalaris arundinacea ; Pond, In- 31, 
veresk, Aug. 32. 

canadensis ; North Berwick, 

Aug. 33. 

(?) ; Leith Docks, Aug. 34. 
paradoxa ; Leith Docks, Aug. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum ; Esk, 35. 
elegans ; Granton, Sept. 36. 

Phleum pratense ; railway bank, 37. 
In veresk, Aug. 
arenarium ; Leith Docks, Aug. 38. 
Boehmeri ; railway bank, In- 

veresk, July. 39. 

pratense, var. bulbosum ; Canal 

bank, Sept. 40. 

pratense, var. stolonifera ; 

Canal bank, Sept. 41. 

Alopecurus pratensis (common 42. 
geniculatus; Duddingston 43. 

Loch, July, 
agrestis ; Colinton, Aug. 44. 

Gastridium lendigerum ; Leith 

Docks, Sept. 45. 

Milium effusum ; Avon, July. 46. 

Apera Spica-venti ; Leith Docks, 47. 

Agrostis canina, Pentlands, Aug. 48. 
Eragrostis elegans ; Leith Docks, 

Aug. 49. 

Agrostis vulgaris, var. pumila, 

Pentlands, Aug. 50. 

alba ; railway bank, Inveresk, 

July. 51. 

alba, var. stolonifera, Craig- 

millar Quarry, Aug. 52. 

Ammophila arundinacea ; shore, 53. 

Longniddry, July. 
Arundo Phragmites ; Dudding- 54. 
ston Loch, Aug. 55. 

Aira C£espitosa ; railway bank, 56. 
Inveresk, Aug. 
flexuosa, Pentlands, Aug. 57. 

caryophyllea ; railway bank, 

Inveresk, Aug. 58. 

praecox ; railway, Gorebridge, 

July- 59. 

Aira casspitosa, var. lutescens (?) ; 

Caribber Glen, July. 
Avena fatua; Leith Docks, June, 
strigosa ; field, Davidson's 

Mains, July, 
pratensis ; Arthur's Seat, Aug. 
pubescens; Borthwick Castle, 

flavescens ; shore near Gosford, 

sativa ; Leith Docks, Aug. 
Arrhenatherum avenaceum ; rail- 
way bank, Inveresk, July, 
avenaceum, var. ; shore, Dal- 

meny, Aug. 
avenaceum, var. ; clay - hole, 
Portobello, Aug. 
Holcus lanatus ; railway bank, 
Inveresk, Aug. 
mollis ; Roslin Glen, Sept. 
Triodia decumbens ; Pentlands, 

Koeleria cristata ; shore near 

Gosford, Aug. 
Melica uniflora ; Roslin Glen, 
nutans ; Avon, July. 
Molinia caerulea ; Pentlands, Aug. 
Catabrosa aquatica ; Dudding- 
ston Loch, July. 
Glyceria aquatica ; Canal, Craig- 
lockhart, Aug. 
fluitans ; Duddingston Loch, 
Schlerochloa maritima ; shore, 
Aberlady, July, 
loliacea : shore near Gosford, 

distans ; Leith Docks, Aug. 
distans, var. Borreri ; Leith 

Docks, Aug. 
rigida ; Peffermill, July. 
Poa annua (common everywhere), 
pratensis ; Craigmillar Park, 

compressa : railway bank, In- 
veresk, Aug. 
trivialis ; Craigmillar Park, 

nemoralis ; Leith Docks, Aug. 


Annual Business Meeting;. 


60. Poa nemoralis, var. ; Leith Docks, 92. 

Aug. 93. 

61. (?) ; Almond near Cra- 94. 

mond, Aug. 

62. Briza media ; Pentlands, Aug. 95. 

63. Cynosurus cristatus ; Blackford 

Hill, Aug. 96. 

64. Dactylis glomerata ; Blackford 

Hill, June. 97. 

65. Festuca Myurus ; Leith Docks, 

July. 98. 

66. sciuroides ; railway bank, In- 

veresk, Aug. 99. 

67. sciuroides, var. nana ; railway 

bank, Inveresk, July. 100. 

68. ovina ; shore near Gosford, 

July. 101. 

69. ovina, var. tenuifolia ; Pent- 102. 

lands, Aug. 103. 

70. rubra ; railway bank, Inver- 

esk, July. 104. 

71. elatior ; Almond near Cra- 

mond, Aug. 105. 

72. (Blank.) 

73. pratensis ; Almond near Cra- 106. 

mond, July. 107. 

74. pratensis, var. loliacea; East 

Meadows, Edinburgh, 108. 


75. gigantea, var. triflora ; Esk, 109. 

near Inveresk, Aug. 

76. gigantea ; Caribber Glen, July. 110. 

77. Bromus erectus; Leith Docks, 

Aug. 111. 

78. asper ; Almond near Cramond, 

July. 112. 

79. sterilis ; Craigmillar, July. 

SO. madritensis ; Hailes Quarry, 113. 

81. maximus; Hailes Quarry, Aug. 114. 

82. secalinus ; Leith Docks, Aug. 

83. secalinus, var. vulgaris; pit 115. 

refuse, Niddry, July. 

84. racemosus, var. ; Bonally Road, 116. 


85. racemosus, var. ; Craigmillar 117. 

Quarry, Aug. 

86. mollis ; Craigmillar Quarry, 118. 


87. arvensis ; shore near Granton, 119. 


88. arvensis, var. ; Leith Docks, 120. 


89. arvensis, var. ; July. 121. 

90. (?) ; Leith Docks, July. 122. 

91. (?) ; Granton Quarry, 123. 


Bromus (?) ; Granton, Aug. 
unioloides ; Leith Docks, Aug. 
tectorum ; railway bank, In- 
veresk, June. 
Brachypodium sylvaticum ; Car- 
ibber Glen, July. 
Triticum caninum ; Canal, Slate- 
caninum, var. nemorale ; Al- 
mond near Cramond, July, 
repens ; Canal, Slateford, 

repens, var. aristata ; Craig- 

leith, July, 
repens, var. littoreum; shore, 

Cramond, Aug. 
repens, var. ; shore, Cramond. 
repens, var. ; Cramond, July, 
junceum ; shore, Longniddry, 

junceum, var. ; North Ber- 
wick, Aug. 
hybernum ; Leith Docks, 

festivum ; Leith Docks, Aug. 
aestivum, var. ; Leith Docks, 
Lolium perenne ; Craigmillar 
Park, Aug. 
perenne, var. ramosum, 

North Berwick, Aug. 
Italicum ; Craigmillar Quarry, 

Italicum, var. ; Craigmillar 

Quarry, Aug. 
Italicum, var. ramosum ; 

Leith Docks, Aug. 
Italicum, var. ; Leith Docks, 

temulentum, Leith Docks, 

temulentum, var. arvense ; 

Leith Docks, July, 
linicola ; Craigmillar Quarry, 
Various forms of Lolium Itali- 
Elymus arenarius ; North Ber- 
wick, Aug. 
Hordeum murinum (common 
bulbosum ; railway bank, In- 
veresk, July, 
jubatum ; Leith Docks, Aug. 
distichon ; Leith Docks, Aug. 
hexastichon ; Leith Docks, 

1 901-190 2.] Annual Business Meeting. 399 


Hordeum vulgare ; Leith Docks, 


Panicum (?) ; Roslin Glen, Aug. 



(?) ; Leith Docks, Aug. 


Secale cereale ; Leith Docks, 


(?) ; shore between 


Granton and Cramond. 


Nardus stricta ; Pentlands, Aug. 


(?) ; Leith Docks, Aug. 


Panicum (?) ; Leith Docks, Sept. 


(?) ; near Granton. 


(?) ; Almond near Cra- 
mond, July. 


(?) ; Leith Docks. 

The following report by Mr James M' Andrew was then 
read : — 

For the President's three prizes for the best collections of Natural History- 
objects collected during the summer by juveniles, two competitors have sent 
in packets — one of grasses and the other of lichens. These packets have 
been handed to me for my opinion as to their merits. The collection of 
grasses contains a goodly mimber of the common species, a few foreign 
grasses from the garden, and a few plants which are popularly named 
grasses, as Rib-grass, Grass of Parnassus, &c. All these are correctly named 
with the popular names, and are very neatly mounted. In criticising the 
collection I would point out that the Latin botanical names should also 
have been given, and that complete specimens of each grass, including 
roots and leaves, should have been mounted. This is a very common and 
natural mistake on the part of amateur botanists. 

The collection of lichens is confined to the species which have been more 
or less used for dyeing purposes, called crottle lichens. A few of the speci- 
mens mounted are incorrectly named, which, considering the difficulty of 
Lichenology, is not to be wondered at. The collection, however, is very 
praiseworthy, and its value is enhanced by a very good introductory essay. 

It is almost impossible to judge fairly between two such dissimilar col- 
lections. The collection of grasses is the more correct, but this is balanced 
in the case of the lichens by the essay. As there are only the two com- 
petitors, and as both deserve a prize, I would recommend, if the President 
and members are agreeable, that each competitor get a prize of equal value. 
Such endeavours as they have shown merit the fullest encouragement. 

James M'Andrew. 

Following on the adjudicator's recommendation, the Presi- 
dent intimated that the first two prizes would be divided 
equally between the two competitors. On opening the sealed 
envelopes containing the competitors' names, it was found that 
the collection of Grasses had been made by Miss Catherine 
Fraser, 1 8 Park Eoad, Trinity ; and the collection of Lichens 
by Master Carl Steele, 41 Eegent Street, Portobello. The 
President intimated that these prizes will be presented at a 
future meeting of the Society. The adjudicators were cordially 
thanked for their services. 

400 Annual Business Meeting. [Sess. 

The revised Rules, a copy of which had been sent out with 
the billet for April 1902 for the consideration of members, 
were formally submitted and unanimously adopted. The Secre- 
tary then read his report, as follows : — 

During the winter session 1901-1902 six indoor meetings of the Society- 
have been held. It is gratifying to state that the attendances have been 
very satisfactory, and that there was no difficulty in obtaining communi- 
cations and exhibits for these meetings. 

For the summer session twenty meetings were arranged. The season 
was not, however, favourable for field meetings, two having to be aban- 
doned and four having a specially small attendance, owing to the in- 
clemency of the weather. The average attendance for the other meetings 
was about 15. 

Compared with last year, the membership is increased by 13, the total 
number of ordinary members being 220, — the highest number for the last 
fourteen years. 33 new names were added to the list, while 20 were with- 
drawn. Of these, 14 resigned ; 3 died (Mrs Clapperton, Colonel Ivison 
Macadam, and Mr Heggie) ; and 3 were removed from the register of 

Twelve meetings of the Microscopical Section were held at the house of 
the convener, Mr James Russell, and of these the members were duly 
notified in the billets. The syllabus for the ensuing session has been 
issued to the members, and it is hoped that this year there will be 
a larger attendance than last. 

The hope expressed in last report that this session would show an ad- 
vance over the last has in some respects been realised. It rests with 
the members now to make this a starting-point for a still further advance. 

Mr Crawford moved the adoption of the above report, 
which was carried unanimously. The Treasurer then formally 
submitted his balance-sheet for year to 14th October 1902, 
which had been printed and circulated amongst the members, 
showing a balance of £42, 3s t 9d. in favour of the Society. 
On the motion of Dr Watson the accounts were approved, 
and the Secretary and the Treasurer were accorded a hearty 
vote of thanks for their services during the session. Mr James 
Russell, Convener of the Microscopical Section, referred to his 
report, which would be found in the forthcoming part of the 
'Transactions' (see ante, pp. 376-382), and at the same time 
spoke of the work to be undertaken by the Microscopical 
Section during the coming winter. The President conveyed 
the thanks of the Society to Mr Russell. 

The President thereafter delivered his address (see ante, 

1901-1902.] Anmial Business Meeting. 401 

pp. 386-394), and on the motion of Mr Gloag was cordially 
thanked. The election of office-bearers then took place, the 
recommendation of the Council being approved of. (The 
complete list is as follows, the names in italics being those 
now added: President — Arch. Hewat, F.F.A. ; Vice-Presi- 
dents — Jas. Eussell, David Gloag, John Lindsay ; Secre- 
tary — W. Williamson; Treasurer — G. Cleland ; Editor of 
' Transactions ' — Dr Davies, F.L.S. ; Auditors — E. C. Millar, 
C.A., and J. T. Mack ; and the following Councillors : Jas. 
Fraser, Major Grahame, Miss I. Elliot, Mrs Maxwell, Eobert 
Watson, Miss Sprague, Miss E. A. Townsend, Allan A. 
Pinkerton, W. C. Crawford, F.R.S.E., Bruce Campbell, A. D. 
Richardson, and David E. Young.) 

Dr Watson referred to the retirement of Mr John Lindsay 
from the office of Editor, and it was unanimously resolved that 
the Society place on record its high appreciation of the valued 
services of Mr John Lindsay as Editor of the Society's ' Trans- 
actions ' for the long period of twenty-one years. Mr Lindsay 
returned thanks, and the meeting adjourned. 


Aberdour and Kirkcaldy, an Outline 

of the Geological History of the 

Coast of Fife between, 367. 
Address, Presidential, Sess. 1901-2, 

Annual Business Meeting, 65, 130, 

261, 395. 
Archibald S. : Natural Forests and 

the Growth of Cones, 157. 
Notes on the Topography 

and Flora of Strathdearn, 161. 

Fern Varieties, 206. 

Fortrose and Rosemarkie : 

Notes on the Geology, Botany, 

and Antiquities of the District, 

Arran, the Birds of Bute and, 78. 
Aultnacallagach and Inchnadamff, 

a Geological Trip to, 165. 

Badgers, 141. 

Ballinluig, the Birds of, Blair Atholl, 
and Fossoway, 277. 

Ben Lawers, a Bryological Excur- 
sion to, 28 — A Second Bryological 
Excursion to, 72. 

Birds of Ballinluig, Blair Atholl, 
and Fossoway, the, 277. 

Birds of Bute and Arran, the, 78. 

Birds, popular superstitions regard- 
ing certain, 328 et seq. 

Birds, the Migration of, 67. 

Books on Nature Study, list of, 252 
et seq. 

Botany of a Railway Station, the, 

Bournemouth Cliffs, Notes on the, 

British Birds and their Allies, Geo- 
graphical Distribution of certain, 

Broch of Torwoodlee, the, 117. 

Brotherston, G. M. : Notes on some 
Foreign Birds I have kept, 344. 

Bryological Excursion to Ben Lawers, 
a, 28— A Second, 72. 

Bryological Section of the Micro- 
scopical Section, Report of the, 61. 

Business Meeting, Annual, 65, 130, 
261, 395. 

Bute and Arran, the Birds of, 78. 

Campbell, A. : On some Geological 
Agents, 21. 

The Botany of a Railway 

Station, 87. 

Campbell, B. : The Birds of Ballin- 
luig, Blair Atholl, and Fossoway, 

Campbell, C. : Our Common Mig- 
rants, 18. 

The Folk-lore of Natural 

History, 328. 

Camping in the Haunts of the Venus' 

Fly-trap, 219. 
Celtic or runic cross of Rosemarkie, 

the, 326. 
Clarke, W. Eagle : The Migration of 

Birds, 67. 
Cole, R. S. : Splashes, studied by 

the Aid of Instantaneous Photog- 
raphy, 91. 
Colour Code, a Correct, 41. 
Compound Microscope, a Simple 

Method of obtaining a large Field 

of View with the, 55. 
Cones, Natural Forests and the 

Growth of, 157. 
Cornwall, a Winter in, 349. 
Correct Colour Code, a, 41. 
Craig, A. : The Birds of Bute and 

Arran, 78. 



Craig, A. : A Winter in Cornwall, 349. 

Crawford, W. C. : A Field Natur- 
alist's Holiday at the Paris Ex- 
hibition, 133. 

Nature Study from the Point 

of View of the Field Naturalist, 

and Dr A. E. Da vies : Notes 

of Experiments on the Growth of 
Yeast, 214. 

Crustacea, Prize Collection of Fresh- 
water, 254— Presentation of Prize 
for, 382. 

Daisy and the Dandelion, the, 300. 
Davies, Dr A. E. : Natural History 

Notes on Tenby, 94. 
and W. C. Crawford : Notes 

of Experiments on the Growth of 

Yeast, 214. 
Day, T. C. : A Geological Trip to 

Aultnacallagach and Inchnadamff 


Orthochromatic Photography 

190. 6 f j> 

Disease, a Mushroom, 182. 

Entomostraca of Mid-Lothian, Notes 

on the, 305. 
Excursions of 1900, Notes on the 

Exhibits in Natural History, 64 130 

233, 385. 

Fern Varieties, 206. 

Field Naturalist, Nature Study from 
the Point of View of the, 234. 

Field Naturalist's Holiday at the 
Paris Exhibition, a, 133. 

Firth of Forth, Notes on the Flora 
of the Shores of the, 202. 

Fish-hatching at Howietoun, 114. 

Fishes, the Teeth of, contrasted with 
those of other Orders, 272. 

Folk-lore of Natural History, the 
328. " 

Foreign Birds I have kept, Notes on 
some, 344. 

Forgan, W. : A Simple Method of 
obtaining a large Field of View 
with the Compound Microscope, 55. 

Fortrose and Rosemarkie : Notes on 
the Geology, Botany, and Antiq- 
uities of the District, 322. 

Fossoway, the Birds of Ballinluig 
Blair Atholl, and, 277. 

Fox, a wide-awake, 210. 

Fresh-water Crustacea, Prize Collec- 
tion of, 254— Presentation of Prize 
for, 382. 

Frog, Notes on the, 98. 

Further Notes on Queensland Ter- 
mites, 68. 

Geographical Distribution of certain 
British Birds and their Allies, 17. 

Geological Agents, on some, 21. 

Geological History of the Coast of 
Fife between Aberdour and Kirk- 
caldy, an Outline of the, 367. 

Geological Trip to Aultnacallagach 
and Inchnadamff, 16.5. 

Goodchild, J. G. : An Outline of the 
Geological History of the Coast of 
Fife between Aberdour and Kirk- 
caldy, 367. 

Grasses, Prize Collection of, 395. 

Grieve, R. : Queensland Termites, 1. 

Further Notes on Queensland 

Termites, 68. 

Harvie - Brown, J. A. : A Correct 

Colour Code, 41. 
Hewat, A. : Presidential Address 

Honey-Bees in Warm Climates, 129. 
Howietoun, Fish- hatching at, 114. 

In Memoriam : Mark King, 231. 
Inchnadamff, a Geological Trip to 
Aultnacallagach and, 165. 

King, M. : Notes on the Flora of the 
Shores of the Firth of Forth, 202. 

Kirkcaldy, an Outline of the Geo- 
logical History of the Coast of 
Fife between Aberdour and, 367. 

Lindsay, J. : In Memoriam, Mark 
King, 231. 

A North American Rasp- 
berry at West Linton, 383. 

List of Members, 1898-1899, ix • 
1S99-1900, xiii; 1900-1901, xvii • 
1901-1902, xxi. 

Lochfynehead, Notes on the Natural 
History of, 12. 

Macadam, Dr S. : The Broch of Tor- 
woodlee, 117. 

Macfarlane, Prof. J. M. : Camping 
in the Haunts of the Venus' Fly- 
trap, 219. 

Magpie, a peculiarity of the, 213. 



Malthouse, J. T. : A Mushroom 
Disease, 182. 

Mark King : In Memoriam, 231. 

Members, List of, 1898-1899, ix ; 
1899-1900, xiii; 1900-1901, xvii ; 
1901-1902, xxi. 

Menmuir, W. H. : The Teeth of 
Fishes contrasted with those of 
other Orders, 272. 

Microscope, a Simple Method of ob- 
taining a large Field of View with 
the Compound, 55. 

Microscopical Section, Report of the, 
58, 122, 222, 376. 

Mid-Lothian, Notes on the Entomos- 
traca of, 305. 

Migrants, our Common, 18. 

Migration of Birds, the, 67. 

Mole, the, 150. 

Mosses, list of, collected on Ben 
Lawers, 75. 

Murray, A. : A Bryological Excur- 
sion to Ben Lawers, 28. 

A Second Bryological Excur- 
sion to Ben Lawers, 72. 

Notes on the Frog, 98. 

Mushroom-Culture, 177. 

Mushroom Disease, a, 182. 

Natural Forests and the Growth of 

Cones, 157. 
Natural History, Exhibits in, 64, 

130, 233, 385. 
Natural History Notes on Tenby, 

Natural History, Recent Observa- 
tions in, 208. 
Natural History, the Folk-lore of, 

Nature Study from the Point of View 

of the Field Naturalist, 234. 
North American Raspberry, a, at 

West Linton, 383. 
Notes of Experiments on the Growth 

of Yeast, 214. 
Notes on some Foreign Birds I have 

kept, 344. 
Notes on the Bournemouth Cliffs, 53. 
Notes on the Entomostraca of Mid- 
Lothian, 305. 
Notes on the Excursions of 1900, 

Notes on the Flora of the Shores of 

the Firth of Forth, 202. 
Notes on the Frog, 98. 
Notes on the Natural History of 

Lochfynehead, 12. 

Notes on the Topography and Flora 
of Strathdearn, 161. 

On some Geological Agents, 21. 
Orthochromatic Photography, 190. 
Oar Common Migrants, 18. 
Outline of the Geological History of 

the Coast of Fife between Aberdour 

and Kirkcaldy, an, 367. 

Paris Exhibition, a Field Naturalist's 
Holiday at the, 133. 

Paton, J. : Mushroom Culture, 177. 

Pet, the Squirrel as a, 294. 

Photography, Orthochromatic, 190. 

Photography, Splashes studied by 
the Aid of Instantaneous, 91. 

Pinkerton, Allan A, : The Mole, 150. 

Presidential Address, Sess. 1901-2, 

President's Prizes, award of, 399. 

Prize Collection of Fresh-water Crus- 
tacea, 254 — Presentation of Prize 
for, 382. 

Prize Collection of Grasses, 395. 

Queensland Termites, 1 — Further 
Notes on, 68. 

Railway Station, the Botany of a, 87. 

Ramsay, Col. R. G. Wardlaw : Geo- 
graphical Distribution of certain 
British Birds and their Allies, 17. 

Recent Observations in Natural 
History, 208. 

Report of the Bryological Section of 
the Microscopical Section, 61. 

Report of the Microscopical Section, 
58, 122, 222, 376. 

Robertson, Dr W. A. : The Squirrel 
as a Pet, 294. 

Rosemarkie, Fortrose and : Notes on 
the Geology, Botany, and Antiq- 
uities of the District, 322. 

Russell, J. : Report of the Micro- 
scopical Section, 58, 122, 222, 

Seal, stalking a, 208 et seq. 

Speedy, T. : Badgers, 141. 

Recent Observations in Nat- 
ural History, 208. 

The Squirrel, 283. 

Splashes studied by the Aid of In- 
stantaneous Photography, 91. 

Sprague, Dr T. B. : Notes on the 
Bournemouth Cliffs, 53. 



Sprague, Dr T. B. , and Miss Sprague : 
Notes on the Entomostraea of Mid- 
Lothian, 305. 

Squirrel, the, 283. 

Squirrel, the, as a Pet, 294. 

St Catherine's Rock, Tenby, marine 
life in the caves of, 94 et seq. 

Steele, A. B. : Notes on the Natural 
History of Lochfynehead, 12. 

Strathdearn, Notes on the Topog- 
raphy and Flora of, 161. 

Tea : Its Cultivation, and Prepara- 
tion for the Market, 263. 

Teeth of Fishes, the, contrasted with 
those of other Orders, 272. 

Tenby, Natural History Notes on, 

Termites, Queensland, 1 — Further 
Notes on, 68. 

Torwoodlee, the Broch of, 117. 

Varieties, Fern, 206. 

Venus' Fly-trap, Camping in the 
Haunts of the, 219. 

Warm Climates, Honey-Bees in, 129. 
Water, importance of, as a geological 

agent, 21. 
Watson, Dr : The Daisy and the 

Dandelion, 300. 
West Linton, a North American 

Raspberry at, 383. 
Williamson, W. : Report of the Bryo- 

logical Section of the Microscopical 

Section, 61. 
Notes on the Excursions of 

1900, 105. 
Fish-hatching at Howietoun, 


Tea : Its Cultivation, and 

Preparation for the Market, 263. 
Winter in Cornwall, a, 349. 

Yeast, Notes of Experiments on the 
Growth of, 214. 

22 NOV. 1902 



Dr Robt. Brown 

MrR. Scot Skirving\ _ 

(deceased), J 1869-1874 

Mr Wm. Gorrie \ 

(deceased), \ 

Rev. R. F. Colvin 




Mr John Walcot, 1879-1882. 

Mr A. B. Herbert, 1882-1885. 

Mr Symington Grieve, 1885-1888. 

Dr William Watson, 1888-1891. 

Dr Spragde, 1891-1895. 

Dr Davies, 1895-1898. 

Mr W. C. Crawford, 1898-1901. 

A. B. Steele. 

OFFICE-BEARERS, 1901-1902. 

Arch. Hewat, F.F.A., F.I. A. 


J. Russell. D. Gloag. 


Dr Davies. 
W. Forgan. 
A. Murray. 
A. R. Calder. 
James Fraser. 
Major Grahame. 

Miss I. Elliot. 
Mrs Maxwell. 
Robt. Watson. 
Miss Sprague. 
Miss E. A. Townsend. 
Allan A. Pinkerton. 

Olbitor of ' ftransactioHs.' 
John Lindsay. 

W. Williamson. 


George Cleland. 

R. C. Millar, C.A. ; J. T. Mack. 

LIST OF MEMBERS. 1901-1902. 

fponorarg Members. 

Fraser, Hugh, 17 Cambridge Gardens, Leith. 

Henderson, Prof. John R., M.B., CM., The College, Madras. 

Herbert, A. B., Sunnyside, Mitcham, London. 

Macfarlane, Prof. J. M., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

Scott, Thos., F.L.S., 3 Menzies Road, Torry, Aberdeen. 

Walcot, John, Craiglockhart Hydropathic, Slateford. 

(Korresponbing Members. 
Archibald, Stew^art, Dalarossie Schoolhouse, Tomatin, Inverness. 
Cruickshank, T. M., South Ronaldshay. 
Hobkirk, Charles P., 9 Parish Ghyll Road, Ilkley, Yorks. 

List of Members, 1901-1902. 

©rbinarji ££Umbers. 
(At at October 15, 1902.) 

Adams, James, Comely Park, Dun- 

Aitken, H. J., 116 Marchmont Rd. 

Anderson, Miss M. G., 18 Mont- 
gomery Street. 

Anderson, R., 67 Princes Street. 

Banks, William, 2 Kilmaurs Road. 

Belfrage, Miss Jane, Durham House, 
Durham Road, Portobello. 

Belfrage, Wm. Christie, Durham 
House, Durham Rd., Portobello. 

Bell, A., 9 Henry Street. 

Bird, George, 38 Inverleith Place. 
10 Blacklock, William, 19 Bruntsfield 

Bogie, D., M.A., 8 Blackwood Cres. 

Bonnar, William, 8 Spence Street. 

Braid, Mrs, 12 Wilton Road, Craig- 

Brotherston, George M., 16 Comis- 
ton Drive. 

Brotherston, Mrs G. M., 16 Comis- 
ton Drive. 

Brown, Miss Cecilia, 65 Warrender 
Park Road. 

Bryden, Miss, Linksfield, Aberlady. 

Bryden, Mrs, Linksfield, Aberlady. 

Buncle, James, 93 Shandwick Place. 
20 Burnett, Robert, 10 Brighton Ter., 

Butchard, J. W., 10 Inverleith Gar- 

Calder, A. R., 2 James St., Porto- 

Campbell, Alex. , 62 Marchmont Road. 

Campbell, Bruce, British Linen Com- 
pany Bank, St Andrew Square. 

Campbell, Charles, North British 
and Mercantile Insurance Com- 
pany, 64 Princes Street. 

Campbell, Col., 30 Waterloo Place. 

Campbell, John Rattray, 11 West 
Glebe, Dalkeith. 

Carey, W. T., 12 Comely Bank PI. 

Carter, Albert, 82 W. Holmes 
Gardens, Musselburgh. 
30 Chapman, M., Torbrex Nursery, St 
Ninians, Stirling. 

Clapperton, Miss Mary E., 10 Green- 
hill Terrace. 

Cleland, George, Bank of Scotland, 
61 Leith Walk — Treasurer. 

Coats, William, 10 Duddingston 
Crescent, Portobello. 

Cowan, Alex. , Valleyfield, Penicuik. 

Cowan, Charles Wm., Dalhousie 
Castle, Bonnyrigg. 

Craig, Arch., 38 Fountainhall Road. 

Craig, Miss Margaret G., 18 Queen's 

Crawford, Francis Chalmers, 19 
Royal Terrace. 

Crawford, Miss Jane C. , 1 Lockharton 
Gardens, Colinton Road. 
40 Crawford, Mrs, 1 Lockharton Gar- 
dens, Colinton Road. 

Crawford, W. C, 1 Lockharton Gar- 
dens, Colinton Road. 

Crocket, Wm., 10 Gillespie Crescent. 

Davidson, Miss M. E., Dairy House, 
Orwell Place. 

Davies, Dr, Tweedbank, West Savile 

Day, T. C, 36 Hillside Crescent. 

Denson, E., 83 Comiston Road. 

Deuchar, Mrs, Harlaw, Hope Ter. 

Dewar, John F. , Cedar Villa, Spring 
Gardens, Abbey hill. 

Dickie, James, 40 Princes Street. 
50 Dowell, Miss, 13 Palmerston Place. 

Dowell, Mrs, 13 Palmerston Place. 

Duncan, Jas. Patrick, 3 Cobden Rd. 

Durham, Frederick W., 2 Argyle 
Crescent, Portobello. 

Eaton, F. A., 207 Dalkeith Road. 

Edward, John, 99 Newbigging, 

Elliot, Andrew, 3 Palmerston Road. 

Elliot, Miss E., 39 Colinton Road. 

Elliot, Miss I., 39 Colinton Road. 

Ewart, James, 1 Dundas Street. 
60 Fairley, Capt. J. H., 58 Colinton Rd. 

Farquharson, John K., 100 Thirle- 
stane Road. 

Fawcett, E. , Royal Botanic Garden. 

Field, John M'Dougal, 1 Hart St. 

Fish, D. S., Royal Botanic Garden. 

Forgan, John, S.S.C., 20 George St. 

Forgan, Wm., 3 Warriston Crescent. 

Forrest, John L. , 8 Glengyle Ter. 

List of Members, 1 90 1 - 1 902 . 


Fraser, James, IS Park Road, Leith. 

Praser, J. Elrick, 57 Hanover Street. 
70 Gibson, J., M.A., 19 Bernard Ter. 

Gibson, Mrs, 4 Colinton Road. 

Gloag, David, 9 Barnton Terrace. 

Goodchild, J. G. , 2 Dalhousie Ter. 

Grahame, Major G., 2 St Bernard's 

Gray, Miss Edith M. H., 59 George 

Grierson, G. A., F.L.S., 23 Brunts- 
field Gardens. 

Grieve, Sommerville, 21 Queen's 

Grieve, Symington, 1 1 Lauder Road. 

Grieve, Mrs Symington, 11 Lauder 
80 Hall, H., Royal Botanic Garden. 

Hamilton, G. R., 14 Caledonian Rd. 

Harris, J., Royal Botanic Garden. 

Harrison, H. J., 10 Cluny Place. 

Harvie - Brown, J. A. , Dunipace, 

Hawkins, Win., 33 Comely Bank PI. 

Henney, Mrs, 3 Abercromby Place. 

Henney, W., 3 Abercromby Place. 

Hewat, Andrew Fergus, 13 Eton 

Hewat, Arch., 13 Eton Terrace— 
90 Huie, Miss Lily, Hollywood, Colin- 
ton Road. 

Hunter, John, 1 Straiton Place, 

Hutton, Mrs, 10 Gardner's Cres. 

Jamieson, J. H., 54 Bruntsfield 

Johnson, W. H., Tweed Villa, 
Relugas Road. 

Johnston, J. A., 7 Annandale St. 

Kerr, Thomas, 15 Gilmour Road. 

Kilgour, Thos. W., 22 Nile Grove. 

Kinross, Miss J., 6 James Street, 

Laidlaw, Thomas G., Bank of Scot- 
land, Perth. 
100 Laing, Rev. G., 17 Buckingham Ter. 

Law, Mrs, 41 Heriot Row. 

Lewis, David, Roselea Villa, Grange. 

Lindsay, John, 24 Montgomery St. 
— Editor of ' Transactions. ' 

Lindsay, William, 18 South St 
Andrew Street. 

Logan, We, M.A., 20 Royal Park 

M'Andrew, James, 21 Gillespie 

Macdonald, J. J., Commercial Bank, 

M 'Donald, J., 9 Brunstane Gardens, 

MacDougall, R. Stewart, M.A. , 
D.Sc. , Royal Botanic Garden. 
110 M'Gillivray, Win., 4 Rothesay PI. 

M'Intosh, James, 42 Queen Street. 

Macintyre, J., 175 Morningside Rd. 

Mack, J. T., 101 George Street. 

M'Gregor, Donald, The Royal Gar- 
dens, Kew. 

Mackenzie, Mrs, 13 Mentone Ter- 

Mackenzie, N. , Royal Botanic Gar- 

MacLauchlan, J. J., 19 Coates 

M'Lean, Miss, 5 Cambridge Street. 

Macpherson, Alex., 1 Roseneath PI. 
120 Macvicar, Miss K., 34 Morningside 

Malcolm, C. A., 8 Keir Street. 

Malloch, Jas. Jamieson, Schoolhouse, 
Juniper Green. 

Malthouse, G. T., Harper Adams 
Agric. Coll., Newport, Salop. 

Mason, J. Gordon, S.S.C., 51 Han- 
over Street. 

Maxwell, John, 125 George Street. 

Maxwell, Mrs, 61 Braid Road. 

Menmuir, W. Henry, L.D.S., 
R.C.S.E., 47 Comely Bank Road. 

Millar, R. C. , 6 Regent Terrace. 

Millar, T. J. , 27 Albany Street. 
130 Miller, J. A. Graham, 13 Lennox St. 

Mitchell, Miss M., 153 Warrender 
Park Road. 

Morison, Peter, 24 Great King St. 

Morris, Joseph, Fern Bank, Cler- 
miston Road, Corstorphine. 

Morrison, Hew, Librarian, Public 
Library, George IV. Bridge. 

Muir, John, 24 Barnton Terrace. 

Munro, John Gordon, 7 Howe Street. 

Murray, Allister, Royal Blind 
Asylum, Craigmillar Park. 

Nesbit, John, 162 High Street, 

Nisbet, Wm., 36 Elm Row. 
140 Normand, J. Hill, of Whitehill, 

Oliver, John S., 12 Greenhill Park. 

Osier, Alex., Anatomical Museum, 
New University. 

Oxley, Miss M. E. , Dairy House, 
Orwell Place. 

List of Members, 1901-1902. 

Parkes, C. W., Inland Revenue, 

Paton, John, 33 Roselea Drive, 
Dennistoun, Glasgow. 

Paul, Rev. D., LL.D., Carrielee, 
Fountainhall Road. 

Paulin, George Alex., 6 Forres St. 

Pentland, Miss, 73 Inverleith Row. 

Pierce, W. J., 16 Forrest Road. 
150 Pillans, Hugh H., 12 Dryden Place. 

Pinkerton, Allan A., 47 Viewforth. 

Pittendrigh, T. M., 45 Comely Bank 

Pyatt, W., M.A., Fettes College., 

Rae, M. J., 94 Thirlestane Road. 

Raeburn, Harold, 32 Castle Terrace. 

Ranken, William, 1 1 Spence Street. 

Ranken, William Ford, 63 Coten 
End, Warwick. 

Reid, Andrew, 1 Laverockbank Ter- 
race, Trinity Road. 

Richardson, A. D., 7 West Cath- 
erine Place. 
160 Richardson, Mrs Ralph, 10 Magdala 

Ritchie, William, 75 Morningside Rd. 

Robertson, Dr W. G. Aitchison, 26 
Minto Street. 

Robertson, W. , 35 Polwarth Gardens. 

Roriston, James G., 8 Dalziel Place. 

Rose, Miss, 3 Hillside Crescent. 

Rowe, Miss C, 19 Great Stuart St. 

Russell, James, 16 Blacket Place. 

Sanderson, Mrs H., 95 Shandwick 

Sarah, H. A. P., 19 Braidburn Cres. 
170 Sconce, Colonel, 18 Belgrave Cres. 

Semple, Dr Andrew, Caledonian 
United Service Club, 14 Queen St. 

Sharp, Henry J., 7 Rosebank Ter- 
race, Bonnington, Leith. 

Sime, David, 27 Dundas Street. 

Slight, G. A., 1 Royston Terrace. 

Smith, Harry W., 23 Nelson Street. 

Smith, Dr James, 4 Brunton Place. 

Smith, Rupert, 51 Minto Street. 

Smith, Thomas J., care of Messrs 
Watson & Sons, 313 High Hol- 
born, London, W.C. 

Speedie, M. H, 2 Alford PL, May- 
field Terrace. 
180 Speedy, Tom, The Inch, Liberton. 

Speedy, William Hogg, Braeside, 

Spence, A. J. L., 1 Mansionhouse 

Spence, Mrs, 1 Mansionhouse Road. 

Sprague, Dr T. B., 29 Buckingham 

Sprague, Thomas Archibald, 36 
Bushwood Road, Kew Gardens. 

Sprague, Mis3, 29 Buckingham Ter. 

Steele, A. B., 41 Regent Street, 

Steele, Mrs, 41 Regent Street, Porto- 

Stevens, Dr John, 2 Shandon Street. 
190 Stevenson, Miss, 21 Montgomery St. 

Stewart, Robert, S.S.C., 7 East 
C'laremont Street. 

Tait, John Scott, C.A., 3 Albyn PI. 

Taylor, John, 84 Great King Street. 

Terras, James, B.Sc, 21 Teviot PI. 

Thacker, T. Lindsay, care of Messrs 
T. Nelson & Sons, Parkside. 

Thomson, John, 20 York Place. 

Thomson, Lockhart, Derreen, Mur- 

Townsend, F. J., 20 St Catherine's 
Place, Grange. 

Townsend, Miss E. A., 20 St Cath- 
erine's Place, Grange. 
200 Traquair, Dr, 8 Dean Park Crescent. 
. Urquhart, Arthur E., Royal Botanic 

Waddell, James Alexander, of Lead- 
loch, 12 Kew Terrace, Glasgow. 

Walker, Alex. D., 1 St Vincent St. 

Wallace, Forbes T., 2a Hill Street. 

Wanless, Miss, 12 Wilton Road, 

Wardlaw, George, 14 St John's Hill. 

Watson, Robert, M.A., 12 Chal- 
mers Street. 

Watson, Dr Wm., The Lea, Corstor- 

Watson, Mrs, The Lea, Corstorphine. 
210 Wear, Sylvanus, 17 Dudley Gardens, 

Weir, James Mullo, S.S.C., 5 W. 
Brighton Crescent, Portobello. 

West, G. T. , Royal Botanic Garden. 

Williamson, Wm., 4 Meadowbank 
Terrace — Secretary. 

Wilson, Rev. D. W., Stobhill Manse, 

Wilson, Wm., 8 Claremont Terrace. 

Wood, Miss Daisy, Viewforth, Brun- 
stane Road, Joppa. 

Wood, T. A. D., Viewforth, Brun- 
stane Road, Joppa. 

Wright, J. P. , 6 Grosvenor Cres. 

Wright, Thos., 12 Brunton Terrace. 
220 Young, David E., 60-62 High Street. 



BJbiiibttrgh Wdzib Naturalists' %nb 



(ADOPTED, October 1902.) 

I. This Society, instituted for the Study of Natural History 
in all its Branches, shall be called The Edinburgh Field 
Naturalists' and Microscopical Society. 

II. Ladies and gentlemen, shall be eligible for admission to 
the Society, which shall consist of Honorary, Corresponding, 
and Ordinary Members. 

III. Every candidate for admission as an Ordinary Member 
of the Society shall present an application to that effect, with 
a recommendation signed by two Members of the Society. 
Such application and recommendation shall be submitted at 
one Meeting of the Society and shall be considered at the 
next Meeting, a majority of the votes of those present being 
sufficient to elect the applicant to membership, voting being by 

IV. Ordinary Members shall, on election, pay the sum of 
5s. to the Funds of the Society, and contribute thereafter 5s. 
annually at the November Meeting. Ordinary Members 
elected after April 30th in any year shall, on election, pay 
the subscription for the then current year, but shall not be 
called upon for any subscription for the year next ensuing. 
Any one wishing to compound for the yearly subscriptions 
may do so on payment of the sum of £3, 3s. No one shall 
be considered an Ordinary Member of the Society until the 
subscription has been paid. 

V. Any Member, after having paid all annual subscriptions 
due, including that for the then current year, may withdraw 
from the Society on giving intimation in writing to the 
Honorary Secretary of the intention to do so. 

VI. The Council shall deal with Members whose annual 
subscription is in arrear in such manner as they shall deem 

VII. A majority of the Members present at any Meeting, 
consisting of not less than fifteen Members, shall have the 
power of expelling any Member whose conduct they may 
deem objectionable, provided notice of a Motion to that 
effect shall have been given at a previous Meeting. 

VIII. The Office-bearers of the Society shall be a President, 
three Vice-Presidents, an Honorary Treasurer, an Honorary 
Secretary, and, if necessary, an Assistant Secretary, and an Editor 
of the ' Transactions,' and these shall be elected annually at the 
Annual General Meeting. These Office-bearers, with twelve 
Ordinary Members of the Society, elected to be Councillors, 
shall constitute the Council, and five shall be a quorum. 

IX. The four Senior Councillors shall retire annually, and 
they, with the Senior Vice-President, shall not be eligible for 
re-election to these offices until after the expiry of a year. 

The Council shall prepare a list of those Members whom they 
propose to nominate as Office-bearers for the ensuing year 
and to fill the vacancies arising from the retiral of Councillors. 
This list shall be printed and issued to Members with the billet 
calling the Annual General Meeting. Members may erase 
the names proposed and write others in place thereof, and 
shall vote by putting these lists into the ballot box. The 
lists shall not be signed. 

X. The Honorary Secretary may at his discretion call Meet- 
ings of Council for the transaction of business ; but he shall call 
a Meeting of Council at the desire of the President, or of two 
Vice-Presidents, or of any three Members of Council. 

XL Indoor Meetings of the Society for submitting and 
discussing communications, and Field Meetings for practical 
work, shall be held at such times as the Council shall determine. 
A list of the places suggested for Field Meetings shall be 
submitted to the Members at an indoor Meeting for approval ; 
and the Council shall make necessary arrangements for holding 
all such Meetings. 

XII. Ordinary business may be transacted at any Meeting 
of the Society, and Minutes of the proceedings at all Meetings 
shall be taken by the Honorary Secretary. These shall be read 
at the next indoor Meeting of the Society ; and, if passed by a 
vote of the majority present, shall be duly signed by the Chair- 
man, and all such Minutes shall be entered in a book to be 
kept by the Honorary Secretary for the purpose. 

XIII. Any Member may introduce friends at any Meeting 
of the Society. 

XIV. The Annual General Meeting shall be held in the 
fourth week of October, and the Honorary Treasurer and 
the Honorary Secretary shall then submit statements regarding 
the position of the Society, and the business transacted in 

the year. An Abstract of the Honorary Treasurer's Accounts, 
duly audited, shall be circulated with the billet calling the 
Annual General Meeting. 

XV. Two Auditors shall be appointed at the Annual General 
Meeting to audit the Accounts of the Society for the ensuing 

XVI. At all Meetings the Chairman shall have a casting 

XVII. The Society shall publish ' Transactions,' which shall 
put on record work done at its Meetings. These ' Transactions ' 
shall, subject to the approval of the Council, be arranged for 
publication by the Editor. 

XVIII. The Council shall hav^ power during any Session to 
enact such Bye-Laws as may be deemed necessary, and these 
shall have full force until the ensuing Annual General Meeting. 

XIX. Notice of any Motion proposing an alteration of the 
Eules must be given in writing before the first day of October 
to the Honorary Secretary for consideration of the Council, 
and such Motion shall be printed in the billet calling the 
Annual General Meeting. Such Motion shall be considered at 
the Annual General Meeting, and, if approved by the vote of 
the majority of Members present, shall forthwith be given 
effect to. 

XX. Corresponding Members may be elected, and Honorary 
Members nominated, at any Meeting of Council. Intimation 
of such election, or nomination, shall be made in the billet call- 
ing the first indoor Meeting, of the Society thereafter, at which 
Meeting the election of Honorary Members shall take place, 
a majority of the votes of those present being sufficient. 

22 NOV. 1902